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Preparing for Tomorrow’s World: Helping University Information Services
Respond to Technological, Economic and Political...
Preparing for Tomorrow’s World: Helping University
Information Services Respond to Technological,
Economic and Political C...
About The Facilitator
Brian Kelly:
• Innovation Advocate at Cetis,
University of Bolton, UK since Oct 2013
• Worked at UKO...
Workshop Abstract
Which emerging technologies are likely to
enhance working practices and the student
experience and which...
About You
Your opportunity to summarise your
interests and expectations:
• What made you decide to attend this
session?
• ...
Timetable for ELAG 2014
Time Title
Predicting the Future
14.00 A: Introduction
14.15 B: Predicting the Future: the Need, t...
Draft Timetable for Today
Time Title
Predicting the Future
11.30 A: Introduction
11.45 B: Predicting the Future: the Need ...
Your Thoughts
What technical developments might
be important?
8
Tweet your ideas with
event hashtag
I think teleporting co...
Time of Growth 
1990s & early 2000s
saw:
• Increased funding across
education sector
• Significant developments in
IT sec...
Time of Growth is Over 
Late 2000s and beyond:
• Decreased funding across
education & public sector
• Acknowledgements th...
The Future: A Quick Summary
What technological developments might
have an impact in the future?
For the impatient, here’s ...
In the Future
Data will be Big
12 Image from Wikimedia Commons. CC BY-SA
In the Future
Content and services will be open
13
Web is Agreement by Paul Downey.
CC BY
In the Future
We will own our services and content
14
In the Future
We will see a growth in use of online services
15
In the Future
We will see a growth in use of online services
16
FinTech Mentor Huy Nguyen Trieu shares his views on
new op...
In the Future
We will see a growth in use of online services
17
NASA Turns to Online Giant Amazon for Cloud Computing
Serv...
In the Future
We will see the importance of developers, IT service
staff, librarians and information professionals
acknowl...
In the Future
We will see greater investment in libraries
19
£298k investment!
The Library is committed to enhancing
its s...
In the Future
We will travel to work by monorail
20
In the Future
We will use jetpacks at weekends
21
When Did You Stop Believing?
At what point did you become sceptical?
22
Big data Growth in onlineOpen sourceOpen content
V...
Tips for Predicting the Future
Tip no. 1
23
You can’t always trust your own vision for the future!
(you’ll be tempted to b...
What Can We Conclude?
Assumptions of:
• Inevitability of technological developments
• Economic growth (we can afford them)...
We commission
reports from
experts in the field
25 PDF
We commission
reports from
experts in the field
26
… is an information professional who has specialized in the
fields of e...
Tips for Predicting the Future
Tip no. 2
27
You can’t always trust futurists!
(they may bring their sectoral, organisation...
JISC Observatory
JISC Observatory:
• JISC-funded initiative
• Systematises processes for anticipating and
responding to pr...
Tips for Predicting the Future
Tip no. 3
29
Librarians and IT Service staff should carry
out evidence-gathering, sense-mak...
Invention, Innovation, Improvement
1. Invention: The creation of the idea or
method itself.
2. Innovation: The use of a be...
Tips for Predicting the Future
Tip no. 4
31
You will need primarily to monitor
(a) innovations to support long-term planni...
32
Use of the Delphi Process
The group was presented with a number of key trend statements, as identified by the NMC horiz...
NMC Horizon Reports
NMC Horizon Reports:
http://www.nmc.org/
33
NMC Horizon Report:
HE Edition 2013
NMC Horizon report: Higher
Education, 2013
34
PDF
C: A Methodology for Predicting the ...
NMC Horizon Report: Library Edition 2014
NMC Horizon Report: Library
Edition 2014
35
JISC Observatory
JISC Observatory processes
36
Scanning Exercise
Hands up if you have:
Used a mobile device for work-related
purposes in bed (yes, no, rarely)
37
“20% of...
Significant Trends: Social Media
Survey in Aug 2012 of institutional use of Facebook across the
24 Russell Group universit...
Significant Trends: Social Media
Survey in Aug 2012 of institutional use of Facebook across the
24 Russell Group universit...
Behind The Data
Trends in Fb ‘Likes’ for Russell
Group Unis since Jan 2011 show
steady increase
40
Jan 11 Sep 11 May 12 Ju...
Lis, Damned Lies and
Graphs
“#Blekko traffic goes through the roof –
for good reason. Try it out!”
Based on blog post enti...
Tips for Predicting the Future
Tip no. 5
42
Data can provide insights and indicate
trends – but needs to be interpretted
c...
Open Sense-making
Seek feedback on:
• Evidence-gathering
methodology e.g.
flaws in ‘paradata’
• Implications of
findings
•...
Open Sense-making
Importance of open approaches to
interpretation of signals:
• Evidence-gathering methodologies may have
...
Tips for Predicting the Future
Tip no. 6
45
Once you’ve gathered evidence you should
encourage open feedback on:
• Validit...
What Do You Think Will Be
Important?
What four technologies / technology-related
areas do you feel will be important in yo...
What Do You Think Will Be
Important?
Collating The Responses
Important in the short-term (you should roll it out by
this t...
Tips for Predicting the Future
Tip no. 7
48
Explore the potential of using the Delphi
methodology to help identification o...
Scenario Planning
Scenario planning is:
• A strategic planning method that some organisations
use to make flexible long-te...
Scenario Planning
NMC Horizon work makes use of scenarios in
defining “Significant Challenges Impeding Ed Tech
Adoption in...
Scenarios
Possible scenarios
for the Cloud
environment
51
Commercialisation Devolved ownership
Everyone’s a
librarian The ...
Tips for Predicting the Future
Tip no. 8
52
Scenario planning, covering both
technological and societal developments,
can ...
Important to You – But What Are
The Next Steps?
You have identified technologies /
technology-related areas which you feel...
A Planning Template (1)
From the Hyperlinked Library MOOC
Planning template used in assignment 2:
• Goals/Objectives for t...
A Planning Template (2)
The Need to Explicitly Address Risks
From “Risks and Opportunities Framework for
Exploiting the So...
Group Exercise
You have an opportunity make a case to a
senior management need which has funding
to explore innovative tec...
Warning From The Past
Tim Berners-Lee didn’t
let evidence of the
popularity of Gopher
hinder development of
the Web
57
G: ...
Tip no. 9
The Serenity Prayer
58 The Serenity Prayer
G: Conclusions
NMC Horizon Report: HE Edition
2013
NMC Horizon report: Higher
Education, 2013
59
PDF
G: Conclusions
Tips for Predicting the Future
Tip no. 10
60
Read the NMC and related reports (but
discuss their relevance in your own
con...
61
To conclude:
1. Beware of predictions which reflect personal / sectoral beliefs
2. You can’t always trust futurologists...
Questions
Any questions?
62
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Preparing for Tomorrow’s World

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Slides for a workshop session on "Preparing for Tomorrow’s World: Helping University Information Services Respond to Technological, Economic and Political Change" facilitated by Brian Kelly at the Information Services 2014 conference held on 24 June 2014 at the University of Brighton.

For further information see
http://ukwebfocus.wordpress.com/events/preparing-for-tomorrows-world/

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Transcript of "Preparing for Tomorrow’s World"

  1. 1. 1 Preparing for Tomorrow’s World: Helping University Information Services Respond to Technological, Economic and Political Change • A presentation for the SAOIM 2014 conference
  2. 2. Preparing for Tomorrow’s World: Helping University Information Services Respond to Technological, Economic and Political Change A workshop session facilitated by Brian Kelly, Cetis for Library / IT Services staff at the University of Brighton Slides available under a Creative Commons licence (CC-BY) 2 http://ukwebfocus.wordpress.com/events/preparing-for-tomorrows-world/ Session hashtag: #isconf14
  3. 3. About The Facilitator Brian Kelly: • Innovation Advocate at Cetis, University of Bolton, UK since Oct 2013 • Worked at UKOLN, University of Bath as UK Web Focus for 16+ years • Web technology adviser to higher education & cultural heritage sectors 3 A: Introduction
  4. 4. Workshop Abstract Which emerging technologies are likely to enhance working practices and the student experience and which can we afford to ignore? How do we distinguish between invention, innovation and improvement? Brian will lead discussions on key development areas and how we can respond to them. You will have the opportunity to use a methodology, which has been used by Cetis and UKOLN to ensure that institutions can gather evidence on new technologies in a systematic way, identify trends and plan for the future. 4 Rapid change at global level Technologies may not take off Systematic processes Institutional responses to change A: Introduction
  5. 5. About You Your opportunity to summarise your interests and expectations: • What made you decide to attend this session? • What do you hope to gain from it? 5 A: Introduction
  6. 6. Timetable for ELAG 2014 Time Title Predicting the Future 14.00 A: Introduction 14.15 B: Predicting the Future: the Need, the Risks, the Approaches 14.30 C: Let’s Predict the Future (group exercise) 15.25 Review 15.30 Finish We’ve Predicted the Future! So What? 14.00 D: Review and Introduction 14.10 E: Prepare for the Unexpected: Scenario Planning 14.30 F: Making the Case 15.20 G: Conclusions and Reflections 15.30 Finish6 A: Introduction Day 1 Day 2
  7. 7. Draft Timetable for Today Time Title Predicting the Future 11.30 A: Introduction 11.45 B: Predicting the Future: the Need and the Risks 12.00 C: Predicting the Future: a Methodology 12.00 D: Let’s Predict the Future (group exercise) 12.25 Report back We’ve Predicted the Future! So What? 12.30 E: Prepare for the Unexpected: Scenario Planning 12.40 F: Making the Case 12:55 G: Conclusions and Reflections 13.00 Finish 7 Part 1 Part 2 A: Introduction Subject to changes!
  8. 8. Your Thoughts What technical developments might be important? 8 Tweet your ideas with event hashtag I think teleporting could have implications for libraries in the future! #isconf14 58 Feel free to add implications for users … Teleporting could have implications for libraries as people won’t be put off from visiting when it’s raining! #isconf14 22 and implications for libraries We would therefore need larger physical spaces for the teleporting visitors to the library #isconf14 41 Discuss the implications … So maybe the books could be teleported. Would we need a physical library building? #isconf14 48 such as legal issues, business models, … What about the legal implication? Border control? Which VAT rate to use? Importing banned book? … #isconf14 27 A: Introduction
  9. 9. Time of Growth  1990s & early 2000s saw: • Increased funding across education sector • Significant developments in IT sector • Willingness by senior managers & funding bodies to invest in innovative IT developments (e.g. JISC development programmes) 9 “Great proposal – we’ll fund it” Image from Flickr. CC BY-NC-SA licence: http://www.flickr.com/photos/inlinguamanchester/5036313154/ B: Predicting the Future: the Need and the Risks The Need for Futurists
  10. 10. Time of Growth is Over  Late 2000s and beyond: • Decreased funding across education & public sector • Acknowledgements that innovation can provide growth and cost savings • Significant developments continue in IT sector • Investment in innovative IT developments need to be based on evidence of benefits & likelihood of success 10 Image from Flickr. CC BY-NC-ND licence: http://www.flickr.com/photos/drewleavy/339489258// “You want how much? And no evidence it will work! You’re crazy!” B: Predicting the Future: the Need and the Risks The Need for Futurists
  11. 11. The Future: A Quick Summary What technological developments might have an impact in the future? For the impatient, here’s a summary! 11 B: Predicting the Future: the Need and the Risks The Need for Futurists
  12. 12. In the Future Data will be Big 12 Image from Wikimedia Commons. CC BY-SA
  13. 13. In the Future Content and services will be open 13 Web is Agreement by Paul Downey. CC BY
  14. 14. In the Future We will own our services and content 14
  15. 15. In the Future We will see a growth in use of online services 15
  16. 16. In the Future We will see a growth in use of online services 16 FinTech Mentor Huy Nguyen Trieu shares his views on new opportunities in the FinTech space, April 2014 with increased access on mobile devices
  17. 17. In the Future We will see a growth in use of online services 17 NASA Turns to Online Giant Amazon for Cloud Computing Services for Mars Rover Curiosity, August 2012 and content and services hosted in the Cloud
  18. 18. In the Future We will see the importance of developers, IT service staff, librarians and information professionals acknowledged 18 Causes, ALA
  19. 19. In the Future We will see greater investment in libraries 19 £298k investment! The Library is committed to enhancing its services and facilities to deliver the very best library experience for users. During 2013/14 we are directing £298k to boost access to core materials. This sum is in addition to the millions spent on library resources across the Colleges. Enhancing Core Library Collections 2013/14, University of Exeter, UK
  20. 20. In the Future We will travel to work by monorail 20
  21. 21. In the Future We will use jetpacks at weekends 21
  22. 22. When Did You Stop Believing? At what point did you become sceptical? 22 Big data Growth in onlineOpen sourceOpen content Value of librarians Greater investment Monorails Jetpacks B: Predicting the Future: the Need and the Risks The Need for Futurists: the Risks
  23. 23. Tips for Predicting the Future Tip no. 1 23 You can’t always trust your own vision for the future! (you’ll be tempted to bring your personal hopes, expectations or prejudices with you) The Need for Futurists: the Risks B: Predicting the Future: the Need and the Risks
  24. 24. What Can We Conclude? Assumptions of: • Inevitability of technological developments • Economic growth (we can afford them) • Political and social environment (no legal or environmental barriers) There is a need to: • Be wary of predictions which:  Simply justify our organisation’s current approaches (cf. music industry)  Reflect personal beliefs • Base predictions on evidence • Acknowledge that evidence may challenge organisational or personal beliefs / prejudices 24 We need a more systematic way of predicting future developments B: Predicting the Future: the Need and the Risks The Need for Futurists: the Risks
  25. 25. We commission reports from experts in the field 25 PDF
  26. 26. We commission reports from experts in the field 26 … is an information professional who has specialized in the fields of electronic information provision for over 20 years. In recent years, he has specialized in metadata for digital libraries, in which capacity he is a member of the editorial board for the METS (Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard) standard for digital library metadata.
  27. 27. Tips for Predicting the Future Tip no. 2 27 You can’t always trust futurists! (they may bring their sectoral, organisational or personal prejudices with them) Caveat: Their expertise may also be valuable and correct, but they may miss significant developments The Need for Futurists: the Risks B: Predicting the Future: the Need and the Risks
  28. 28. JISC Observatory JISC Observatory: • JISC-funded initiative • Systematises processes for anticipating and responding to projected future trends & scenarios • Provided by JISC Innovation Support Centres at Cetis and UKOLN • Ran from 2011-2013 • See <http://blog.observatory.jisc.ac.uk/> 28 Cessation of core funding for UKOLN and CETIS led to closure of JISC Observatory on 31 July 2013. Therefore need to ensure sustainability of ideas and approaches for use by institutions Methodology for Predicting the Future
  29. 29. Tips for Predicting the Future Tip no. 3 29 Librarians and IT Service staff should carry out evidence-gathering, sense-making and synthesis activities for their own organisation / sector. C: A Methodology for Predicting the Future Methodology for Predicting the Future
  30. 30. Invention, Innovation, Improvement 1. Invention: The creation of the idea or method itself. 2. Innovation: The use of a better and, as a result, novel idea or method. 3. Improvement: Doing current activities better. 30 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Innovation C: A Methodology for Predicting the Future Methodology for Predicting the Future
  31. 31. Tips for Predicting the Future Tip no. 4 31 You will need primarily to monitor (a) innovations to support long-term planning and (b) improvements in order to enhance operational practices C: A Methodology for Predicting the Future Methodology for Predicting the Future
  32. 32. 32 Use of the Delphi Process The group was presented with a number of key trend statements, as identified by the NMC horizon scan activities 2013, an example of which was "Openness; concepts like open content, open date and open resources, along with notions of transparency and easy access to data and information, is becoming a value" and significant challenges such as "Faculty training still does not acknowledge the fact that digital media literacy continues to rise in importance as a key skill in every discipline and profession". Participants were split into smaller groups and posed a series of response questions; Question 1 being "Given the technology trends and challenges just discussed which technologies do you think will have greatest impact on Higher Education (Teaching and Learning from the CETIS 13 expert group) over the next twelve months (near term)? The expert groups were given ten minutes to discuss the question, collectively agree and provide three technologies identified. The technologies identified by the expert groups were listed and presented to the whole group. Each of the smaller working group were given a further five minutes to discuss the other groups suggestions asked to vote for the suggestions, excluding their own. The scores were collated and the three technologies emerging with the highest overall group scores were put forward as the three technologies with potentially greatest impact on teaching and learning in the near term. The process was then repeated for the medium (2-3 years) and long term (3-5 years) questions. In an hour the expert group were able to produce a list of technologies that they considered would have impact on higher Education in the short, medium and long term the results of which were then compared with the NMC Horizon scan findings and other group findings for further discussion and debate. The value of such a process is two- fold; firstly the finding and outputs and secondly as a process by which to instigate discussion and debate around technologies amongst experts. From “Reflecting on Yesterday, Understanding Today, Planning for Tomorrow”, Kelly & Hollins, Umbrella 2013
  33. 33. NMC Horizon Reports NMC Horizon Reports: http://www.nmc.org/ 33
  34. 34. NMC Horizon Report: HE Edition 2013 NMC Horizon report: Higher Education, 2013 34 PDF C: A Methodology for Predicting the Future
  35. 35. NMC Horizon Report: Library Edition 2014 NMC Horizon Report: Library Edition 2014 35
  36. 36. JISC Observatory JISC Observatory processes 36
  37. 37. Scanning Exercise Hands up if you have: Used a mobile device for work-related purposes in bed (yes, no, rarely) 37 “20% of the iPad users spent time with their iPad in bed” 2010 Informal survey, March 2012 “The future is already here - it's just not very evenly distributed” What are the implications of this new ‘platform’? C: A Methodology for Predicting the Future Methodology for Predicting the Future
  38. 38. Significant Trends: Social Media Survey in Aug 2012 of institutional use of Facebook across the 24 Russell Group universities found >1M ‘Likes’ followers 38 C: A Methodology for Predicting the Future
  39. 39. Significant Trends: Social Media Survey in Aug 2012 of institutional use of Facebook across the 24 Russell Group universities found >1M ‘Likes’ followers 39 C: A Methodology for Predicting the Future
  40. 40. Behind The Data Trends in Fb ‘Likes’ for Russell Group Unis since Jan 2011 show steady increase 40 Jan 11 Sep 11 May 12 Jul 12 But note increase in Jul 2012 due to addition of 4 new universities! But might trends hide a more complex story: • Usage & growth dominated by one significant player. • More modest usage generally C: A Methodology for Predicting the Future
  41. 41. Lis, Damned Lies and Graphs “#Blekko traffic goes through the roof – for good reason. Try it out!” Based on blog post entitled “Blekko’s Traffic Is Up Almost 400 Percent; Here Are The CEO’s Five Reasons Why” (includes dissatisfaction with Google) 41 Is Blekko’s Traffic Really Going Through The Roof? Will It Challenge Google?, UK Web Focus blog, 18 April 2012 Lies, Damned Lies and Statistics! C: A Methodology for Predicting the Future
  42. 42. Tips for Predicting the Future Tip no. 5 42 Data can provide insights and indicate trends – but needs to be interpretted carefully
  43. 43. Open Sense-making Seek feedback on: • Evidence-gathering methodology e.g. flaws in ‘paradata’ • Implications of findings • Interventions needed in light of findings 43 “All bugs are visible to many eyes” C: A Methodology for Predicting the Future
  44. 44. Open Sense-making Importance of open approaches to interpretation of signals: • Evidence-gathering methodologies may have flaws • Incorrect or inappropriate implications may be made • This may lead to wrong decisions being made 44 Open sense-making approaches may be difficult: • Your marketing department may wish a consistent, positive message to be made. • The facts may contradict your personal beliefs C: A Methodology for Predicting the Future Methodology for Predicting the Future
  45. 45. Tips for Predicting the Future Tip no. 6 45 Once you’ve gathered evidence you should encourage open feedback on: • Validity of evidence-gathering methodologies • Interpretation of findings • Implications C: A Methodology for Predicting the Future
  46. 46. What Do You Think Will Be Important? What four technologies / technology-related areas do you feel will be important in your area of work? • In the short-term (in the current year)? • In the medium term (two – three years)? • In the longer term (four – five years)? 46 “The future is already here - it's just not very evenly distributed” – you (collectively) can help identify future trends D: Let’s Predict the Future You Should Predict the Future!
  47. 47. What Do You Think Will Be Important? Collating The Responses Important in the short-term (you should roll it out by this time next year): 47 Area 1 Area 2 Area 3 Area 4 Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 D: Let’s Predict the Future No time for the voting and discussion processes to prioritise areas! You Should Predict the Future!
  48. 48. Tips for Predicting the Future Tip no. 7 48 Explore the potential of using the Delphi methodology to help identification of future developments of importance to your organisation
  49. 49. Scenario Planning Scenario planning is: • A strategic planning method that some organisations use to make flexible long-term plans. • An adaptation and generalization of classic methods used by military intelligence. Processes: • Step 1 - decide assumptions/drivers for change • Step 2 - bring drivers together into a viable framework • Step 3 - produce initial mini-scenarios • Step 4 - reduce to two or three scenarios • Step 5 - write the scenarios • Step 6 - identify issues arising49 From http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Scenario_planning E: Scenario Planning Prepare for the unexpected!
  50. 50. Scenario Planning NMC Horizon work makes use of scenarios in defining “Significant Challenges Impeding Ed Tech Adoption in Academic and Research Libraries”: • Solvable Challenges: Those which we both understand and know how to solve (e.g. Rethinking the Roles and Skills of Librarians) • Difficult Challenges: Those we understand but for which solutions are elusive (e.g. Establishing the Value of Libraries) • Wicked Challenges: Those that are complex to even define, much less address (e.g. Embracing the Need for Radical Change) 50 E: Scenario Planning Prepare for the unexpected!
  51. 51. Scenarios Possible scenarios for the Cloud environment 51 Commercialisation Devolved ownership Everyone’s a librarian The niche librarian Everyone’s an IT expert E: Scenario Planning Prepare for the unexpected!
  52. 52. Tips for Predicting the Future Tip no. 8 52 Scenario planning, covering both technological and societal developments, can be useful in planning for future developments E: Scenario Planning
  53. 53. Important to You – But What Are The Next Steps? You have identified technologies / technology-related areas which you feel will be important in your area of work. Next steps: • Identify the implications of the technologies • Assess the associated risks • Make a case to senior management for further related work 53 F: Making the Case You’ve predicted the future – now you need to make a case for further work
  54. 54. A Planning Template (1) From the Hyperlinked Library MOOC Planning template used in assignment 2: • Goals/Objectives for the technology – Action Brief Statement: Convince ______ that by _______ they will ________ which will ________ because _______. • Mission, Guidelines & Policy • Funding considerations • Evaluation • … 54 Acknowledgements to Michael Stephens and Kyle Jones F: Making the Case You’ve predicted the future – now you need to make a case for further work
  55. 55. A Planning Template (2) The Need to Explicitly Address Risks From “Risks and Opportunities Framework for Exploiting the Social Web” by Kelly & Oppenheim: • Summarise risks • Summary risks of not adopting technology • Summarise strategies for minimising (or accepting) risks • Evidence base • Document biases and prejudices 55 Can you innovate without taking risks? F: Making the Case You’ve predicted the future – now you need to make a case for further work
  56. 56. Group Exercise You have an opportunity make a case to a senior management need which has funding to explore innovative technologies. In your groups: • Select one of the technologies identified previously • Prepare a case for funding based on templates • Address a challenging scenario • Give a presentation of < 5 minutes Note only one submission can be funded! 56 Example of use of this methodology available on post on “Assignment 2: Emerging Technology Planning” on Hyperlinked Library MOOC F: Making the Case You’ve predicted the future – now you need to make a case for further work
  57. 57. Warning From The Past Tim Berners-Lee didn’t let evidence of the popularity of Gopher hinder development of the Web 57 G: Conclusions
  58. 58. Tip no. 9 The Serenity Prayer 58 The Serenity Prayer G: Conclusions
  59. 59. NMC Horizon Report: HE Edition 2013 NMC Horizon report: Higher Education, 2013 59 PDF G: Conclusions
  60. 60. Tips for Predicting the Future Tip no. 10 60 Read the NMC and related reports (but discuss their relevance in your own context) G: Conclusions
  61. 61. 61 To conclude: 1. Beware of predictions which reflect personal / sectoral beliefs 2. You can’t always trust futurologists! 3. Carry out your own future planning work 4. Monitor innovations and improvements 5. Data can provide insights & indicate trends 6. Gather open feedback in order to help spot errors in interpretation of your findings 7. Delphi methodology may be useful in annual future-planning 8. Scenario planning may help in preparing for the unexpected 9. Don’t forget the Serenity Report! 10. Read the NMC and related reports Conclusions
  62. 62. Questions Any questions? 62
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