The Web became popular in mid-1990s Initially web sites were typically “ brochure-ware ”; providing access to static information about the library. Then databases and other online services could be accessed using a with web interface: typically this included the library OPAC and other online databases. Search facilities for these databases and searching other local databases were provided. The library web site often contained links to quality web sites. Such links were felt to be important as search engines, such as AltaVista, where in their infancy The characteristics of this first generation of Web sites, which we might now call Web 1.0 were: Static information. Content hosted locally and managed centrally. Links to quality resources were identified and managed by Library staff. The end user was a passive consumer of resources provided by the library.
By 2005 new different ways of using the web were being observed. Such new patterns of usage was coined “ Web 2.0 ” at the O’Reilly conference held in 2005. The characteristics of Web 2.0 included: Technical aspects: The Web as a platform, meaning the Web can host applications (such as email applications, mapping applications and social sharing and social networking services) as well as simply hosting information. Content syndication using technologies such as RSS APIs which enable software developers to access services provided by others (e.g. embed customised Google Map within a local web site) New technological applications areas: including blogs and wikis. Non-technical aspects including: A focus on the openness of resources which allows content to be reused by others. Web 2.0 was sometimes referred to as “an attitude not a technology”. Over time the term Social Web became popular to describe services in which the user as a creator of content and not just a passive consumer and services which benefited from what is known as the ‘network effect’ – they get better as the number of users increases.
We now hear terms such as the ‘social web’, ‘social media’ and ‘social networks’ being widely used to refer to a wide variety of applications Let us now explore one of the key characteristics of the social web.
Social networks benefit from the ‘network effect’: they get better as numbers increase. An example of the network effect can be seen from the history of telephones. The telephone clearly wasn’t much use when there was only a single phone. However when in the 60s most households and offices had landlines we could rely on the phone for social and business purposes. And then when most people had a mobile phone, this provided new opportunities, such as being more flexible when meeting friends. The 1-9-90 law has been used to describe how in many social networks for every 100 participants, 90 will be lurkers, 9 participate occasionally and 1 will be an active participant. Effective social networks can therefore benefits from the global reach of popular services, with the ‘long tail’ meaning that even niche areas of interest may attract sustainable networks.
If you have an interest in bell-ringing, for example, you’ll discover a well-written Wikipedia page, with a large number of contributors.
Innovation and the Social Web: Learning From Commercial Approaches
http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/web-focus/events/workshops/europeana-2012/Innovation and the Social Web:Learning From Others(and how understanding risks can help to manage them)Brian Kelly Acceptable Use PolicyUKOLN Recording of this talk, taking photos,University of Bath discussing the content using Twitter,Bath, UK blogs, etc. is permitted providing distractions to others is minimised.Email:email@example.comTwitter: Blog:http://twitter.com/briankelly/ http://ukwebfocus.wordpress.com/UKOLN is supported by: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 licence (but note caveat)
Idea from Cameron NeylonYou are free to: copy, share, adapt, or re-mix; photograph, film, or broadcast; blog, live-blog, or post video ofthis presentation provided that: You attribute the work to its author and respect the rights and licences associated with its components. Note Shutterstock images used under licence (see final slide). Slide Concept by Cameron Neylon, who has waived all copyright and related or neighbouring rights. This slide only CCZero. Social Media Icons adapted with permission from originals by Christopher Ross. Original images are available under GPL at:2 http://www.thisismyurl.com/free-downloads/15-free-speech-bubble-icons-for-popular-websites
About Me Brian Kelly: • UK Web Focus: national advisory post to UK HEIs • Long-standing Web evangelist • Based at UKOLN at the University of Bath • Prolific blogger (1,000+ posts since Nov 2006) • User of social media to support work activities • Prolific speaker (~380 talks from 1996-2011) • Part of UKOLN’s Innovation Support Centre UKOLN: • Supporting innovation across higher & further education • Funded by JISC3
History of the Web: Web (1.0)Web in the 1990sWeb became popularin mid-1990s • Initially “brochure- ware”: static information about the library • Then databases added with web interface: typically the OPAC and online searching The Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine enables old web sites to be viewed. The oldest entry for the British Library captured in 1997 shows information about the library and provides access to the OPAC and a number of other 44 online services
History of the Web: Web 2.0 By 2005 new different ways of using the web were being observed This was coined “Web 2.0” at the O’Reilly 2005 conferenceTechnological characteristics Attitudinal characteristics Social web characteristics
The Social WebThe term ‘social web’ became popular toidentify the aspects of Web 2.0 which were ofparticular relevance to: • the creation of content by users • The services which ‘became better as the numbers of users grew” 6
Another View Social networks get better as numbers increase (cf telephones). Remember the 1-9-90 ‘law’.7
Wikipedia infographic‘Radical trust’: trusting large numbers to create quality content(the good drives out the bad)
Citizendium If you don’t trust your users they may fail to engage10
National Library Example National Library of Wales “Shaping the future: The Library’s strategy 2008-2009 to 2010-2011”: “We propose taking advantage of new online technology, including … Web 2.0 services … It is expected that the Library itself will provide only some specific services on its website. Instead, the intention is to promote and facilitate the use of the collections by external users, in accordance with Example of use of Web 2.0 services specific guidelines.” embedded within a Welsh Assembly Government funded project11
National Library Example Use of Web The Natiopnal Library of Wales has a 2.0 services at presence on Facebookxxx the National Library of Wales including use of: • Facebook12
National Library Example http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ykCAxSqziFY Use of Web 2.0 services at the National Library of Wales including use of: • Facebook • YouTube Examples from guest blog post by Paul Bevan on UK Web Focus blog / Program 2009 paper,13
National Library Example http://www.flickr.com/groups/cymru-wales/ Use of Web 2.0 services at the National Library of Wales including use of: • Facebook • YouTube • Flickr14
NLW Twitter Feed The National Library of Wales has a Twitter account15
NLW Blog The National Library of Wales web sites hosts a blog16
It’s About The Individual! How do you relate to a world in which the focus of the Social Web is the individual. Challenges posed: • ‘It’s my space’ • ‘Sustainability • Privacy • Editorial control • Branding • …18
Why Use the Social Web?19 http://www.flickr.com/photos/quelsaa/2080736454/sizes/o/
The 1 – 9 – 90 Challenge Participation Inequality: Encouraging More Users to Contribute In most online communities, 90% of users are lurkers who never contribute, 9% of users contribute a little, and 1% of users account for almost all the action. (Jakob Neilson, Oct 2006) Potential Benefits: Potential Dangers: • Globalisation • Globalisation • Cross-fertilisation • Mono-culture • Unexpected benefits • Unexpected dangers • Maximising impact • Loss of impact Remember that Social Web services improve as the numbers of users increase21
Managed External Services We’re seeing greater take-up of email in the cloud Cloud computing - Hope or Hype?, From A Distance blog, Discussions about managed cloud 4 Nov 2009, Chris Sexton22 services now mainstream
Unmanaged External Services My UK Web Focus blog, hosted on Wordpress.com23
Policies Use of Cloud Services Use of services in the cloud: • We are committed professionals • We want to support innovation • We can demonstrate best practices24
Policies Lightweight Policies Experience at Croydon Council illustrates the need for lightweight and flexible policies Mosman Council provides an example of a lightweight policy for Twitter25
Copyright Risks R=AxBxCxD where R is the financial risk; A is the chances that what has been done is infringement; B is the chances that the copyright owner becomes aware of such infringement; C is the chances that having become aware, the owner sues; D is the financial cost (damages, legal fees, opportunity costs in defending the action, plus loss of reputation) for such a legal action. Note this is a device aimed at providing a new way of looking at copyright issues26
Legal Risks Factors to bear in mind: • Commercial use: a rights owner who later becomes aware of the use of their work may be more likely to pursue an action for infringement of copyright than if the work is being purely used for educational purposes. • Particularly sensitive subject areas: music, geographic data, literary works by eminent authors and artistic works including photographs and drawings. • Is there any track record of the contributor ignoring legal niceties in the past? • Is there any track record of a particular third party having complained before?27
Reducing the Legal Risks Approaches: • Have clear and robust notice and take down policies • Have procedures with a clear address given for complaints Example from JORUM Procedures to Deal with Queries, Alerts and Complaints28
Towards a Framework Biases • Application to Intended • Sharing existing Purpose experiences services Benefits • Learning from • Application to successes in-house Risks & failures development • Tackling biases •… Missed Opps. •… Risk MInimisation Evidence “Time To Stop Doing and Start Costs Thinking: A Framework For Exploiting Web 2.0 Services”, Museums & the Web 2009 conference29 Subjective factors
Conclusions The future is exciting - but organisations will need to address the challenges. Acknowledgments to Michael Edson for the Web Tech Guy and Angry Staff30 Person post / comic strip
Acknowledgements Images from Shutterstock used under licence.31