Hybrid journals: Ensuring systematic and standard
discoverability of the latest Open Access articles
By Santiago Chumbe, B...
About This Presentation
We propose a solution, using RSS feeds,
for the problem of ensuring systematic
and standard discov...
About The Authors
Santiago Chumbe:
• Creator of JournalTOCs
• Researcher at ICBL, Heriot Watt University
Brian Kelly:
• Ji...
About You
Who works:
• In a library (academic)
• In a library (other)
• For a publisher
• Other
Who works mainly as:
• A l...
Presentation Outline
• Context
• History
• JournalTOCs
• OA articles and Hybrid journals
• Prototyping a solution
• Final ...
Context
Current awareness services (CAS) are
important:
 They alert users to recently published literature in
their field...
Researchers
Timely and personalized awareness of
relevant new research is of the highest
importance to researchers and aca...
Publishers
Early and easy access to new articles
increases Journal Impact, articles’ citation
and subscriptions
$9.5 billi...
Librarians
• With MOOCS, smart phones, tablet computers,
‘always-connected’ researchers, Google, OA,
… librarians are assu...
CAS using RSS feeds?
Using RSS feeds, we
could collect the latest
research directly from
the publishers.
10
"straight from...
CAS using RSS feeds?
RSS is a simple standard M2M data exchange
protocol, easy to use and easy to implement.
11
RSS OPML
N...
Early Developments
Our initial work was funded by three projects and
three joint collaborations with the Industry:
• ticTO...
• ticTOCs instigated a wide adoption of journal
TOC RSS feeds and produced:
Recommendations on RSS Feeds for Scholarly
Pub...
• JournaltocsAPI developed a RESTful web
services (API)
• Added 5,000 more journals
• 16,000 journals from 900 publishers
...
JournalTOCs
15
Help researchers keep up-to-date on
new research that matters to them
Mission:
JournalTOCs www.journaltocs....
JournalTOCs
16
The biggest free searchable collection of scholarly journal
Tables of Contents (TOCs) collected from 2,186 ...
JournalTOCs data as of April 2014
10,100 Hybrid journals
7,650 Open Access journals
6,200 Subscription journals
24,200 jou...
18
JournalTOCs
Hybrid journal
Subscription journal
Open Access journal
Demo
Demonstration
Screenshots
19
Demo
Demonstration
Screenshots
20
On the next screen we will seen that the Diabetes
journal is followed by 300+ researchers, is...
Demonstration
Screenshots
21
Note this journals
has no abstracts
Demo
Demonstration
Screenshots
22
However over 60% of
journals in JournalTOCs
include abstracts
Demo
JournalTOCs
JournalTOCs Web Services - API
Anyone can use the free API to digest, mix and embed
journal TOCs in their own ...
JournalTOCs
JournalTOCs Web Services - API
It is being used by 100+ institutions such as:
• Countway Library of Medicine o...
An institutional subscription based service to
help to make the free service sustainable
25
JournalTOCs
Video
10 min summa...
26
JournalTOCs
JournalTOCs Premium, the institutional version of
JournalTOCs, is used by a range of libraries and
informat...
Hybrid Journals
27
A hybrid journal is a journal that publishes
Open Access articles together with other
articles that req...
Growth of Hybrid Journals
28
Hybrid
Only Subscription
Gold OA
Most of the journals published by the biggest publishers are...
The rise of Open Access
OA articles and Hybrid journals
29
Open Access made up 12% of articles in 2011
But discovery systems know OA terms
only at the journal level !
30
OA articles and Hybrid journals
In hybrid journals the ...
Challenge
31
OA articles and Hybrid journals
As hybrid journals are proliferating, it
has become necessary to enable the
s...
32
OA articles and Hybrid journals
Challenge
33
OA articles and Hybrid journals
Challenge
34
OA articles and Hybrid journals
Challenge
35
OA articles and Hybrid journals
Challenge
Currently no method exists
36
OA articles and Hybrid journals
We Need a Solution!
to systematically identify the free
full...
NISO Initiative
NISO is proposing the creation of two new
metadata elements:
Element Purpose Optional Attributes Namespace...
NISO Initiative
NISO’s new elements: free-to-read and license-ref
are mainly concerned with defining whether an article
is...
NISO Initiative
39
OA articles and Hybrid journals
BUT:
NISO proposal is still a draft under discussion and we need a
solu...
NISO Initiative
40
OA articles and Hybrid journals
BUT:
New elements and namespaces can take time to be implemented,
accep...
NISO Initiative
41
OA articles and Hybrid journals
BUT:
It doesn’t specifically deal with OA articles and hybrid journals....
42
OA articles and Hybrid journals
TO USE DC AND CC METADATA ELEMENTS
High uptake is achieved when publishers are asked to...
Licences
We observed a widespread uptake of Creative
Commons (CC) to license OA articles.
43
OA articles and Hybrid journa...
Copyright
For OA articles published in Hybrid journals
we observed that:
44
OA articles and Hybrid journals
• Most of the ...
Our Proposal
• In Sept 2013, the EPSRC (Engineering and
Physical Sciences Research Council) awarded
JournalTOCs funding to...
The main JEMO’s objective is:
To help publishers implement
standard elements in their RSS
feeds to enable the systematic
i...
47
OA articles and Hybrid journals
Our Proposal
“To help publishers ....”
“… standard elements in their
RSS feeds ….”
48
OA articles and Hybrid journals
Our Proposal
<dc:rights>
<cc:license>
“…. systematic identification ”
49
OA articles and Hybrid journals
Our Proposal
Aggregators
Discovery services
Abstract & ...
Prototyping
50
1. We prepared a Step by Step Guide to enable
OA identification from RSS feeds
<dc:rights> <cc:license>
How...
Prototyping
51
2. We worked with a group of publishers to help
them to implement the guidelines
12+4 participating publish...
Participating Publishers
52
JEMO
JEMO
JEMO
JEMO
JEMO
Prototyping a Solution
53
Participating Publishers
Prototyping a Solution
These publishers have also agreed to implement, or are already using
th...
OA systematic identification
54
Prototyping a Solution
3. On 7th April 2014, JournalTOCs started the
systematic identifica...
55
Prototyping a Solution
1. Copyright Analysis (if dc:rights is present)
<dc:rights>Copyright © 2014 [ENTITY]</dc:rights>...
56
Prototyping a Solution
2. Licence Analysis
(if cc:license has a no-empty value for rdf:resource)
<cc:license rdf:resour...
57
JournalTOCs
Aggregator
OA systematic identification
Prototyping a Solution
58
Showing OA articles
on JournalTOCs
Prototyping a Solution
Automated identification of OA articles
from hybrid journals: Demonstration
59
http://www.journaltocs.ac.uk/index.php?acti...
Demonstration 2
Demo screenshot
60
Demo
Demo
Demonstration 2
Demo screenshot
61
Demo
Select IUCr
Demo
Demonstration 2
Demo screenshot
62
Demo
Notice the open access and
hybrid journals
Demo
Demonstration 2
Demo screenshot
63
Demo
Notice the open access and
hybrid journals
Demo
Demonstration 2
Demo screenshot
64
Demo
Notice the open access and
hybrid journals
IUCr
Demo
65
Showing OA articles
on JournalTOCs
Demo
Conclusions
The context:
• Adding CC to RSS was a “natural” process for the
participating publishers as all of them are al...
Conclusions
The benefits:
• OA articles in hybrid journals are no longer ‘hidden’
 more views and click-throughs
• Better...
Further Work
Clustering
We are developing subject clusters of always-full-
text-available articles by topic, irrespective ...
Subject Clusters of OA Articles
• End result in both instances - guaranteed full-text
available subject-based clusters of ...
Further Work
Clustering
We are developing subject clusters of always-full-
text-available articles by topic, irrespective ...
Further Work
CC Type Identification
We will alert readers the type of CC licence used by
each OA article.
71
Further Work
30
40
Further Work
Increase Uptake
We are forming a second batch of 10 publishers to
which we will help to implement the D...
Further Work
Analytic Information
We will produce metrics and information on the
evolution of the number of OA articles pu...
Review
This presentation has:
• Outlined a challenge which has been observed:
OA articles hidden in hybrid journals
• Prop...
Questions
Any questions?
75
For further information on this talk please contact
Santiago Chumbe (S.Chumbe@hw.ac.uk),
Roddy...
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Hybrid journals: Ensuring systematic and standard discoverability of the latest Open Access articles

  1. 1. Hybrid journals: Ensuring systematic and standard discoverability of the latest Open Access articles By Santiago Chumbe, Brian Kelly and Roddy MacLeod Presented by Brian Kelly at the NASIG 2014 Conference 1
  2. 2. About This Presentation We propose a solution, using RSS feeds, for the problem of ensuring systematic and standard discoverability of the latest Open Access (OA) articles published in Hybridjournals Introduction 2 Presented by Brian Kelly at the NASIG 2014 conference on 2 May 2014 from 13.10-14.10
  3. 3. About The Authors Santiago Chumbe: • Creator of JournalTOCs • Researcher at ICBL, Heriot Watt University Brian Kelly: • Jisc-funded UK Web Focus at UKOLN, 1997-2013 • Now Innovation Advocate at Cetis & consultant Roddy MacLeod: • Instigator of using Journal TOC RSS feeds • Heriot-Watt University Library, 1975-2009 Introduction 3
  4. 4. About You Who works: • In a library (academic) • In a library (other) • For a publisher • Other Who works mainly as: • A librarian (working with users) • A techie (working with software) • A negotiator (dealing with vendors; customers; ...) • A manager or policy maker 4
  5. 5. Presentation Outline • Context • History • JournalTOCs • OA articles and Hybrid journals • Prototyping a solution • Final thoughts • Further work 5
  6. 6. Context Current awareness services (CAS) are important:  They alert users to recently published literature in their fields Everybody benefits from CASs:  Researchers need to be up-to-date  Librarians want to help patrons to access the latest research  Publishers need to reach new audiences in a cost- effective way 6
  7. 7. Researchers Timely and personalized awareness of relevant new research is of the highest importance to researchers and academics Context 7
  8. 8. Publishers Early and easy access to new articles increases Journal Impact, articles’ citation and subscriptions $9.5 billion per annum industry Context 8PDF
  9. 9. Librarians • With MOOCS, smart phones, tablet computers, ‘always-connected’ researchers, Google, OA, … librarians are assuming new roles • With the increasingly overwhelming digital data environment, managing CAS for their patrons can be an important service provided by libraries 9 Context
  10. 10. CAS using RSS feeds? Using RSS feeds, we could collect the latest research directly from the publishers. 10 "straight from the horse's mouth!" Context
  11. 11. CAS using RSS feeds? RSS is a simple standard M2M data exchange protocol, easy to use and easy to implement. 11 RSS OPML New TOCs and articles New journals & journals transfers Context
  12. 12. Early Developments Our initial work was funded by three projects and three joint collaborations with the Industry: • ticTOCs (2007 - 2009) • JournaltocsAPI (2009 - 2010) • WattNames (2010) • JASS ( 2011) • X-PARC (2012) • LM-API (2012) History 12
  13. 13. • ticTOCs instigated a wide adoption of journal TOC RSS feeds and produced: Recommendations on RSS Feeds for Scholarly Publishers http://oxford.crossref.org/best_practice/rss/ • Before ticTOCs (2006): • 4,000 TOC RSS feeds (A few hundred using DC, PRISM) • Immediately after ticTOCs (2009): • 11,000 TOC RSS feeds (6,500 using DC or/and PRISM) From 410 publishers 13 History
  14. 14. • JournaltocsAPI developed a RESTful web services (API) • Added 5,000 more journals • 16,000 journals from 900 publishers (7,500 using DC or/and PRISM) • Started to select Open Access journals and worked with PKP (Public Knowledge Project) to add the RSS plug-in to OJS (Open Journal Systems) • Produced a business plan to create a sustainable JournalTOCs service • Engaged with early adopters 14 History JournaltocsAPI
  15. 15. JournalTOCs 15 Help researchers keep up-to-date on new research that matters to them Mission: JournalTOCs www.journaltocs.ac.uk is a Current Awareness Service (CAS) - discover and be alerted to the newest papers coming directly from publishers as soon as they have been published online. A free service, for individual researchers, students, librarians and anyone looking for the latest papers published in the scholarly literature with international coverage and 15,000 registered users.
  16. 16. JournalTOCs 16 The biggest free searchable collection of scholarly journal Tables of Contents (TOCs) collected from 2,186 publishers. All major publishers are included in JournalTOCs, including Elsevier, Springer, Taylor and Francis, Wiley, Sage, Walter de Gruyter, SciELO, Redalyc, RMIT, Inderscience, Project MUSE, Hindawi, Cambridge University Press, Oxford University Press, Revues.org , Emerald, Wolters Kluwer, Biomed Central, African Journals Online, Medknow, Thieme, Libertas Academica, IGI Global, PeerJ and about 2,000 more.
  17. 17. JournalTOCs data as of April 2014 10,100 Hybrid journals 7,650 Open Access journals 6,200 Subscription journals 24,200 journalsTOTAL JournalTOCs 17 Metadata for 8 million articles published since 2009
  18. 18. 18 JournalTOCs Hybrid journal Subscription journal Open Access journal Demo
  19. 19. Demonstration Screenshots 19 Demo
  20. 20. Demonstration Screenshots 20 On the next screen we will seen that the Diabetes journal is followed by 300+ researchers, is a subscription journal, has a H-index of 231, … Demo
  21. 21. Demonstration Screenshots 21 Note this journals has no abstracts Demo
  22. 22. Demonstration Screenshots 22 However over 60% of journals in JournalTOCs include abstracts Demo
  23. 23. JournalTOCs JournalTOCs Web Services - API Anyone can use the free API to digest, mix and embed journal TOCs in their own library catalogues, portal, discovery service, web page, etc. JournalTOCs Database Your service
  24. 24. JournalTOCs JournalTOCs Web Services - API It is being used by 100+ institutions such as: • Countway Library of Medicine of the Harvard Medical School • Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek (EZB) • Aalborg Universitetsbibliotek • Catálogo de Revistas en Ciencias de la Salud • Open University (UK) • ZB MED (German National Library of Medicine)
  25. 25. An institutional subscription based service to help to make the free service sustainable 25 JournalTOCs Video 10 min summary
  26. 26. 26 JournalTOCs JournalTOCs Premium, the institutional version of JournalTOCs, is used by a range of libraries and information centres across the world - academic libraries, large pharmaceutical companies, hospital libraries, an agency of the United Nations (UN), an aerospace research centre and a consortium of INASP partner libraries. Academic libraries Hospitals Pharmaceutical companies
  27. 27. Hybrid Journals 27 A hybrid journal is a journal that publishes Open Access articles together with other articles that require a subscription or payment to access and read. Thus, a hybrid journal is a subscription-based journal where only some articles are Open Access OA articles and Hybrid journals
  28. 28. Growth of Hybrid Journals 28 Hybrid Only Subscription Gold OA Most of the journals published by the biggest publishers are Hybrid OA articles and Hybrid journals
  29. 29. The rise of Open Access OA articles and Hybrid journals 29 Open Access made up 12% of articles in 2011
  30. 30. But discovery systems know OA terms only at the journal level ! 30 OA articles and Hybrid journals In hybrid journals the possibility of missing OA articles is real and is happening! BY BY-NC-ND BY journal level
  31. 31. Challenge 31 OA articles and Hybrid journals As hybrid journals are proliferating, it has become necessary to enable the systematic identification of OA at the article level.article level
  32. 32. 32 OA articles and Hybrid journals Challenge
  33. 33. 33 OA articles and Hybrid journals Challenge
  34. 34. 34 OA articles and Hybrid journals Challenge
  35. 35. 35 OA articles and Hybrid journals Challenge
  36. 36. Currently no method exists 36 OA articles and Hybrid journals We Need a Solution! to systematically identify the free full-text availability of OA articles regardless of where such articles have been published.
  37. 37. NISO Initiative NISO is proposing the creation of two new metadata elements: Element Purpose Optional Attributes Namespace free-to-read To define whether the article is accessible, without charge or other restriction (such as registration), to read online. start_date end_date To be defined license-ref To provide a reference to a URI that carries the license terms specifying how the article may be used. start_date To be defined 37 OA articles and Hybrid journals
  38. 38. NISO Initiative NISO’s new elements: free-to-read and license-ref are mainly concerned with defining whether an article is accessible, without charge or other restriction (such as Pay-Per-View), to read online. They are also concerned with identifying the embargo periods (start-date and end-date). NISO Initiative aims to be bigger and to cover all type of scenarios, including OA articles, while they prefer not to mention OA in the draft documents. 38 OA articles and Hybrid journals
  39. 39. NISO Initiative 39 OA articles and Hybrid journals BUT: NISO proposal is still a draft under discussion and we need a solution now!
  40. 40. NISO Initiative 40 OA articles and Hybrid journals BUT: New elements and namespaces can take time to be implemented, accepted and adopted <free-to-read> <license-ref> New Namespace?
  41. 41. NISO Initiative 41 OA articles and Hybrid journals BUT: It doesn’t specifically deal with OA articles and hybrid journals. Involves: • Embargo periods (start-date, end-date) • Free issues (marketing) • Licenses different to CC • Subscription as the main publishing model • etc…
  42. 42. 42 OA articles and Hybrid journals TO USE DC AND CC METADATA ELEMENTS High uptake is achieved when publishers are asked to use elements that they are already familiar with. PRISM Module Our Approach
  43. 43. Licences We observed a widespread uptake of Creative Commons (CC) to license OA articles. 43 OA articles and Hybrid journals Practically ALL publishers are using CC for their OA articles
  44. 44. Copyright For OA articles published in Hybrid journals we observed that: 44 OA articles and Hybrid journals • Most of the publishers allow authors to retain the copyright but • some publishers are asking authors to assign the copyright to the publisher.
  45. 45. Our Proposal • In Sept 2013, the EPSRC (Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council) awarded JournalTOCs funding to: Prototype a solution to facilitate the automated discovery of OA articles from hybrid journals • The JEMO Project was setup to implement the prototype. • JEMO blog at http://openjemo.wordpress.com/about 45 OA articles and Hybrid journals
  46. 46. The main JEMO’s objective is: To help publishers implement standard elements in their RSS feeds to enable the systematic identification of Open Access (OA) articles from hybrid journals which will consequently help researchers. 46 OA articles and Hybrid journals Our Proposal
  47. 47. 47 OA articles and Hybrid journals Our Proposal “To help publishers ....”
  48. 48. “… standard elements in their RSS feeds ….” 48 OA articles and Hybrid journals Our Proposal <dc:rights> <cc:license>
  49. 49. “…. systematic identification ” 49 OA articles and Hybrid journals Our Proposal Aggregators Discovery services Abstract & Indexing DB Publishers
  50. 50. Prototyping 50 1. We prepared a Step by Step Guide to enable OA identification from RSS feeds <dc:rights> <cc:license> How to add and to RSS http://openjemo.wordpress.com/2014/03/31/step-by-step-guide-to-enable- oa-identification-from-rss-feeds/ Prototyping a Solution
  51. 51. Prototyping 51 2. We worked with a group of publishers to help them to implement the guidelines 12+4 participating publishers: • 5 as initial JEMO Project Partners • 7 were contacted after the project started + 4 OA self-motivated publishers Prototyping a Solution
  52. 52. Participating Publishers 52 JEMO JEMO JEMO JEMO JEMO Prototyping a Solution
  53. 53. 53 Participating Publishers Prototyping a Solution These publishers have also agreed to implement, or are already using the suggested dc:rights and cc:license metadata elements
  54. 54. OA systematic identification 54 Prototyping a Solution 3. On 7th April 2014, JournalTOCs started the systematic identification of OA from hybrid journals from the participating publishers. …. …. JournalTOCs Aggregator RSS feeds from publishers
  55. 55. 55 Prototyping a Solution 1. Copyright Analysis (if dc:rights is present) <dc:rights>Copyright © 2014 [ENTITY]</dc:rights> JournalTOCs Aggregator OA systematic identification ENTITY=Author YES © Author © Publisher NO
  56. 56. 56 Prototyping a Solution 2. Licence Analysis (if cc:license has a no-empty value for rdf:resource) <cc:license rdf:resource=”[Selected_CC_License]“/> JournalTOCs Aggregator OA systematic identification rdf.resource != ‘’ YES OA article Non OA article NO Axiom: Only OA articles have CC rdf:resource values
  57. 57. 57 JournalTOCs Aggregator OA systematic identification Prototyping a Solution
  58. 58. 58 Showing OA articles on JournalTOCs Prototyping a Solution
  59. 59. Automated identification of OA articles from hybrid journals: Demonstration 59 http://www.journaltocs.ac.uk/index.php?action=search&query=1740-0597 Demo Demo
  60. 60. Demonstration 2 Demo screenshot 60 Demo Demo
  61. 61. Demonstration 2 Demo screenshot 61 Demo Select IUCr Demo
  62. 62. Demonstration 2 Demo screenshot 62 Demo Notice the open access and hybrid journals Demo
  63. 63. Demonstration 2 Demo screenshot 63 Demo Notice the open access and hybrid journals Demo
  64. 64. Demonstration 2 Demo screenshot 64 Demo Notice the open access and hybrid journals IUCr Demo
  65. 65. 65 Showing OA articles on JournalTOCs Demo
  66. 66. Conclusions The context: • Adding CC to RSS was a “natural” process for the participating publishers as all of them are already using CC licenses for OA articles • Because 60% of publishers are already using DC elements, adding dc:rights was easily done • Since the start of the project, 16 publishers have implemented the dc:rights and cc:license elements in their RSS feeds 66 Final Thoughts
  67. 67. Conclusions The benefits: • OA articles in hybrid journals are no longer ‘hidden’  more views and click-throughs • Better return on investment for Article Processing Charge (APC) • Discovery of OA at the article level has been made possible 67 Final Thoughts
  68. 68. Further Work Clustering We are developing subject clusters of always-full- text-available articles by topic, irrespective of source (OA journals, or OA articles within hybrid, plus subscription-only journals) 68 Further Work
  69. 69. Subject Clusters of OA Articles • End result in both instances - guaranteed full-text available subject-based clusters of the latest articles • OA articles in hybrid journals are no longer 'hidden'. More views and click-throughs • Better return on investment for Article Processing Charge (APC) • Better access to articles on topics of interest 69 Further Work
  70. 70. Further Work Clustering We are developing subject clusters of always-full- text-available articles by topic, irrespective of source (OA journals, or OA articles within hybrid, plus subscription-only journals.) JournalTOCS will produce, display and allow alerting of subject clusters of new articles from 24,000+ journals. For JournalTOCS Premium institutional subscribers, subject clusters will also include articles from subscribed titles. 70 Further Work
  71. 71. Further Work CC Type Identification We will alert readers the type of CC licence used by each OA article. 71 Further Work
  72. 72. 30 40 Further Work Increase Uptake We are forming a second batch of 10 publishers to which we will help to implement the DC Rights and CC licence metadata elements. 72 Further Work Dec 2014Apr 2014 10 20
  73. 73. Further Work Analytic Information We will produce metrics and information on the evolution of the number of OA articles published in hybrid journals per period of times and per subjects. 73 Further Work
  74. 74. Review This presentation has: • Outlined a challenge which has been observed: OA articles hidden in hybrid journals • Proposed a light-weight solution based on mature and widely-used standards: RSS & CC • Showed development of services which have used RSS • Proposed a solution based on RSS and CC • Illustrated an example of a service which uses the solution 74
  75. 75. Questions Any questions? 75 For further information on this talk please contact Santiago Chumbe (S.Chumbe@hw.ac.uk), Roddy MacLeod (macleod.roddy@gmail.com) or Brian Kelly (ukwebfocus@gmail.com)
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