Exploiting The Social Aspects Of Web 2.0 In HE Institutions
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See http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/web-focus/events/seminars/nottingham-2008-04/

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Exploiting The Social Aspects Of Web 2.0 In HE Institutions Exploiting The Social Aspects Of Web 2.0 In HE Institutions Presentation Transcript

  • Exploiting The Social Aspects Of Web 2.0 In HE Institutions Brian Kelly, UKOLN, University of Bath, Bath, UK IWR Information Professional of the Year Resources bookmarked using the ‘ nottingham-2008-04 ' tag UKOLN is supported by: http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/web-focus/events/seminars/nottingham-2008-04/ This work is licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 licence (but note caveat) About This Talk How should the institution respond to the opportunities and challenges posed by Web 2.0? Web 2.0 has been described as a ‘disruptive technology’ which challenges previous assumptions. The notion of the ‘network as a platform’ and the excitement over social networks requires institutions to think deeply about how to respond. by-nc-sa
  • Contents
    • Introduction
      • About the speaker
    • Amplified Events
      • Personal case study
    • Web 2.0
      • The network as platform
      • Openness and trust
      • Social aspects
    • What’s To Be Done?
      • Reconceptualising the purposes
      • Understanding risks and benefits
      • Risk assessment & management
      • Sharing and learning
    • Conclusions
    To be covered Additional topics
  • About The Speaker
    • Brian Kelly:
      • UK Web Focus: a national Web advisory post
      • Works at UKOLN – a national centre of expertise in digital information management, located at the University of Bath, UK
      • Funded by JISC and MLA to support UK’s higher and further education & cultural heritage sectors
      • Involved in the Web since January 1993
      • Active in promoting best practices for Web 2.0
    Introduction
  • Another View of Me
    • My life in recent times
    Introduction Jan-Apr 2008 35 talks from Jan-Dec 2007 http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/web-focus/presentations This remote app comes for free
  • And My Blog OpenDOAR mentioned
  • Introduction RSS feed available: for syndication or adding on your device (PC, PDA, phone, ..)
  • Amplified Events
    • WiFi networks + increasing ownership of laptops + consumer products (MP3 recorders, digital cameras, video cameras, iPhones & Nokia N95s, …) + easy-to-use applications =
      • productivity gains
      • richer & deeper leaning
      • new opportunities
    • Or:
      • confusion
      • information overload
      • unsustainable fads
      • Wasted time and effort
    • Which?
    Amplified Events
  • Photography Is An Issue
    • We’re taking photos at events & sharing them on Flickr, Facebook, …:
      • Builds community
      • Shared experiences
      • Shared memories
      • It’s fun
    • But what about:
      • Data protection
      • Privacy
      • Embarrassment
    • How should we respond?
    http://efoundations.typepad.com/ efoundations/2007/11/jisc-cetis-conf.html Amplified Events
  • Possibly A Big Issue
    • A recent item published on BBC News Web site (17 April 2008)
    http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/7351252.stm Amplified Events
  • Possibly A Big Issue
    • A recent item published on BBC News Web site (17 April 2008)
    • Is photography not only an issue for our sector in our context, but have legal implications?
    • Do we need:
      • Formal agreements
      • Model T&Cs
    Amplified Events
  • What I Do
    • My approach (note IANAL):
      • Be open
      • Clarify what I mean by this:
        • CC licence on materials (title slides, handouts, on Slideshare, …)
        • CC licence on talk
        • Permission to video / record / video
        • Warning that licence may be rescinded if disasters happen!
      • Invitation to others to take a similar approach
    Approach described at Stargazing conf, Edinburgh Univ, Nov 2006. “Legal issues are important” said Charlotte Waelde “and Brian’s demonstrated lightweight ways of addressing such issues”  Amplified Events
  • When I’m An Organiser
    • Approaches taken at recent “amplified events”:
      • IWMW 3-day events since 2006
      • Exploiting Potential of Wikis and Exploiting Potential of Blogs & SNs 1-day workshops
    • We:
      • Notified speakers that event would be videoed & broadcast & sought permission
      • Provided guidelines for session chairs: informing audience of remote audience, repeating permissions from speakers
    • Being open about issues has proved fine (so far)
    Amplified Events
  • When I’m In The Audience
    • Participant at Oxford Beyond Digital Natives conf, April:
      • Asked speaker for permission to record:
        • OKish, but reconfirm after talk. Subsequent request not to publish – no problem
      • Asked fellow debates for permission – fine
      • Student panel. No opportunity to seek prior permission so videoed 10 mins & then told them:
        • Students were happy
        • Two students were 6 th formers
        • Sought them (all) out & gave card and asked for agreement (they need to opt in)
        • Organiser & participant asked me not to publish / told me it was illegal; head’s permission needed; …
        • No email received, so video not published
    What should be done? Are there lightweight approaches? Amplified Events
  • What If Things Go Wrong?
    • Speaker doesn’t want to be recorded?
    • Things go wrong in live presentation?
    • Speaker changes mind afterwards?
    • Father Jack is in the audience?
    • Gun-toting member of audience goes beserk?
    Amplified Events
  • What If Things Go Wrong?
    • Speaker doesn’t want to be recorded?
      • That’s fine (and avoid pressuring speaker)
    • Things go wrong in live presentation?
      • Accept it: that’s life & audience normally supportive
    • Speaker changes mind afterwards?
      • That’s fine – use of lightweight approaches help
    • Father Jack is in the audience?
      • Don’t worry, it probably won’t happen. And accept it if it does.
    • Gun-toting member of audience goes beserk?
      • Don’t worry, it probably won’t happen.
    Amplified Events
  • What More Can Be Done
    • More can be done to enhance Amplified Events:
      • Photos will be uploaded to closed area of Flickr for a week, before photos made public
      • Learning from experiences on live chat, back channels, etc. at events
      • Managing the physical space – noisy typists and geeks to left of lecture theatres (where power sockets are located)
      • Understanding our own personal preferences to avoid information overload:
      • Taking responsibilities: mastering applications; knowing how to disable sound on laptops; how to configure WiFi; …
    Amplified Events
  • Jumping The Shark
    • Some questions:
      • Which Web applications are depicted?
      • What are the implications of blue’s decline
      • Will red be tomorrow’s winner?
      • What should we make of purple?
      • How should we respond to such consideration?
    ‘ Jumping the shark’ – the moment a popular TV series is passed its peak
  • Jumping The Shark?
    • Some responses:
      • Web server software (data from Netcraft)
      • Have you predicted Apache’s demise?
      • Does the future lie with Microsoft?
      • What should we make of Google’s emergence?
    We need to be able to spot and prepare responses to trends. But let’s not use trends to reinforce prejudices?
  • The Web 2.0 Picture
    • Gartner hyper curve
    Rising expectations Trough of despair Enterprise software Large budgets … Early adopters Service plateau
    • Chasm
    • Failure to go beyond developers & early adopters (cf Gopher)
    • Need for:
      • Advocacy
      • Listening to users
      • Learning from experiences
      • Addressing concerns
      • Deployment strategies
    We need to look at ways of jumping the chasm, minimising inflated expectations & avoiding despair VLE CMS PLE Web 2 Web 2.0
  • Challenges of Web 2.0
    • What Is Web 2.0?
    • Marketing term (derived from observing 'patterns') rather than technical standards - “an attitude not a technology”
    Web2MemeMap, Tim O’Reilly, 2005
    • Characteristics Of Web 2.0
      • Network as platform
      • Always beta
      • Clean URIs
      • Remix and mash-ups
        • Syndication (RSS)
      • Architecture of participation
        • Blogs & Wikis
        • Social networking
        • Social tagging (folksonomies)
      • Trust and openness
    Web 2.0
  • Sustainability Problems
    • Web 2.0
      • It’s another bubble
      • The companies aren’t sustainable
    • Initial Response
    • What’s the odd one out:
      • UMIST • Lotus
      • WebCT • Yahoo!
    Network as Platform
  • Sustainability Problems
    • Web 2.0
      • It’s another bubble
      • The companies aren’t sustainable
    • Initial Response
    • What’s the odd one out:
      • UMIST • Lotus
      • WebCT • Yahoo!
    • Answer:
      • UMIST was taken over by Manchester University
      • Lotus was taken over by IBM
      • WebCT as taken over by Blackboard
      • Yahoo! hasn’t been taken over (yet)
    Lesson: IT companies and public sector institutions may also not be sustainable. This is not a new issues Network as Platform
  • Slideshare Example
    • I use Slideshare to (a) maximise exposure to my ideas (b) solicit feedback (c) allow content to be easily embedded elsewhere and (d) measure impact
    Network as Platform Note evidence which shows impact of presentation. This wouldn’t have happened otherwise
  • Slideshare Example (2)
    • What happens if Slideshare goes down – and it has happened!
    • Does this demonstrate that you can’t trust externally-hosted services?
  • Slideshare Example (2)
    • What happens if Slideshare goes down – and it has happened!
    • Does this demonstrate that you can’t trust externally-hosted services?
    But local services also go down – as this example from the Open University shows
  • Slideshare Example (2)
    • What happens if Slideshare goes down – and it has happened!
    • Does this demonstrate that you can’t trust externally-hosted services?
    But local services also go down – as this example from the Open University shows And note prompt response from Slideshare
  • Performance Problems
    • It’s not just Slideshare & the OU: downtime, DOS attacks, … can happen to all services
    • We need to understand reasons why:
      • Skype unavailable (Microsoft OS upgrades)
      • BUCS air conditioning failure
    • And explore ways of (a) identifying problems and (b) minimising risks
    Can we really think that problems will only happen ‘out there’ and that our servers will be available 24x7x365?
  • Spotting Possible Problems
    • Are there ways of spotting potentially flaky services?
      • Netcraft server uptime statistics
  • Spotting Possible Problems
    • Are there ways of spotting potentially flaky services?
      • Netcraft server uptime statistics
      • whois++ service (partly available via Google – see Phil Bradley’s post)
    Network as Platform
  • Spotting Possible Problems
    • Are there ways of spotting potentially flaky services?
      • Netcraft server uptime statistics
      • whois++ service (partly available via Google – see Phil Bradley’s post)
      • Company profiles, statistics, etc. from Techcrunch, Wikipedia, etc
  • Spotting Possible Problems
    • Are there ways of spotting potentially flaky services?
      • Netcraft server uptime statistics
      • whois++ service (partly available via Google – see Phil Bradley’s post)
      • Company profiles, statistics, etc. from Techcrunch, Wikipedia, etc
  • It’s The Way We Use Services
    • What do the following have in common?
      • Paper • PDF
      • An iPhone (partly) • Facebook (partly)
    • but not Twitter
    Network as Platform
  • It’s The Way We Use Services
    • What do the following have in common?
      • Paper • PDF
      • An iPhone (partly) • Facebook (partly)
    • but not Twitter
    • Answers
    • They are all popular
    • We can regard them all as destinations rather than a part of a workflow
    • The data can:
      • Be created there & not be usable elsewhere
      • Be created elsewhere and views there
    Network as Platform
  • Accessibility and Web 2.0
    • Common response “It’s AJAX; it’s inaccessible”
    • But:
      • Is this using accessibility as a way of stifling change?
      • Is assertion backed up by evidence?
      • Is it using WCAG 1.0 as ‘evidence’ of inaccessibility?
    • Note:
      • Acceptance of failures of WCAG 1.0 to response to innovation by WAI staff
      • WGAG 2.0 and ARIA
    • W4A 2008 paper on “One Word, One Web .. But Great Diversity”
      • Facebook as tool which users may choose (PLE)
      • Not providing podcasts may be the inaccessible option
    Network as Platform
  • Avoiding Walled Gardens
    • The dichotomy:
      • Don’t use Facebook, it’s a walled-garden
      • Don’t use Slideshare, you might lose your data
      • Do use Facebook and Slideshare, it’s where the users are & they seem to like it
    • A resolution:
      • Have master copy in managed and reusable environment
      • Use remote service as an interface (possibly part of a user’s PLE or PRE)
      • Provide user education
    Network as Platform
  • Slideshare Example
    • I use Slideshare to (a) maximise exposure to my ideas (b) solicit feedback (c) allow content to be easily embedded elsewhere and (d) measure impact
    Network as Platform Note URI for master provided on slide & in the metadata And note accessibility benefits
  • Inappropriate User Content
    • Potential problems:
      • Spam: comment spam, link spam, twitter follower spam, tag spam, …
      • Flame wars
      • Illegal comments
      • Rude words
      • Uploading of pornography, etc
    Openness and Trust Spam Akismet has protected your site from 195,127 spam comments. My blog: initially lots of spam comment - but most stopped by Akismet spam filter. And now only handful posted overnight
  • Uploading Dodgy Content
    • Twitterers noticed:
      • Porn videos posted to Educause blog on Sun 20 April 
      • Deleted a few hours later 
    • Thoughts:
      • Would email be allowed if released today? (most email is spam).
      • Need for rapid response to problems
    Openness and Trust http://connect.educause.edu/blog
  • Why Social Networks?
    • In the old days (eLib):
      • Focus on standards & technical architectures
      • We new users would use our services (TINA)
      • Trust focussed on JISC, libraries & institutions
    • We missed:
      • Multiple providers of services, new business models, …
      • People as social beings
      • Trusting our users
    Openness and Trust
  • What Can SNs Provide?
    • Potential benefits of social software:
      • Maximising impact
      • Engaging outside the institution/country
      • Maximising dialogue & feedback
      • Monitoring impact
      • No new software to learn: I use Flickr for family photos; why shouldn’t I use it for work/study?
      • Facebook is where I ‘hang out’. Can’t I get my reading lists there too?
      • When my colleagues bookmark a resource; tag a new resource; … I’ll be able to see it too
    Social networks
  • Yes, Even Twitter!
    • What can micro-blogging applications like Twitter provide? (surely waste of time?):
      • The shared water-cooler moment
      • Team working
      • Instant help
      • Break from mundane work
      • Moan about trains
      • Share excitement about stuff that works
    Social Networks But note it doesn’t have to be for everyone!
  • Information Overload
    • What if we’re too open, sharing everything?
    • What if we’re too trusting, thinking every tweet is valuable?
    • Need for:
      • Better understanding of role of tools, managing them, etc.
      • Confidence to ‘throw things away’
    • Surely this is nothing new?
    Openness and Trust
  • Key Questions (1)
    • Big question for future isn’t whether we provide blogs, wikis, etc but how they are provided.
    • Do we:
      • Build alternatives to Slideshare, YouTube, etc, in-house. We can be more responsive, we care about our users and we’re more reliable!
      • Just use the remote services – they’re better, more functional; and Web 2.0 sceptics are typically just looking after their own jobs!
    • What do you think?
    • Which view are you more closely aligned with?
    Network as Platform
  • Key Questions (2)
    • On social software:
      • Does it have to be for everyone?
      • Who makes the decisions?
      • Who is responsible if things go wrong?
      • What’s the role of the institution in this:
        • Provider of stable, reliable services to its members?
        • Temporary home for most, who will arrive with services (email address, photos, etc.) and will want to continue to use them at Uni and afterwards?
  • Questions
    • Any questions
    Note further slides available addressing some of these issues
  • A Blended Approach
    • We need:
      • Mixed approach of in-house & external services
      • Information literacy (new media literacy, transliteracy)
      • Clearer understanding of our purposes
      • Sharing of experiences – successes & failures
      • Risk assessment and risk management strategies
      • Application of risk approaches to in-house services
    Network as Platform
  • The Challenges
    • Areas of concern:
      • Institutional inertia, vested interests, power struggles, …
        • Applicable for any significant change
      • Sustainability, reliability, interoperability
        • The technical challenges
      • Privacy, copyright, …
        • The ethical challenges
      • Finding time, finding resources, expertise, …
        • The deployment challenges
    See “ Web 2.0: Addressing the Barriers to Implementation in a Library Context ” for example of barriers in a Library context Deployment Challenges
  • Addressing The Concerns
    • Some approaches to addressing these concerns:
      • Risk assessment
      • Data migration
      • Being user-focussed
      • Institutional transformation
      • Working collaboratively
      • Guidelines for use of social networking services (e.g. Facebook)
    Deployment Challenges
  • Risk Assessment (1) See “ Risk Assessment For Use Of Third Party Web 2.0 Services ” QA Focus briefing document User education User education Lack of interoperability … Automated monitoring Performance problems or unreliable service Non-critical use; testing of export, .... Likelihood of data loss. lack of export capabilities Data loss Use for non-critical services; have alternatives available ... Implications of sudden or gradual loss of service Loss of service (e.g. company bankrupt, closed down, ...) Management Assessment Risk
  • Risk Assessment (2)
  • University of Oxford
  • Risks Revisited
    • Are these risks scary?
    • Remember to include:
      • Risks of doing nothing
      • Risks associated with using existing services
    Case Study Open Source Software can also fail to be sustainable. The ROADS software was developed in UK to support academic subject gateways – but is now no longer supported.
  • Transforming IT Services
    • IT Services:
      • They won’t let us innovate
      • They get in the way
      • They don’t understand learning
    • Does this ring bells?
    • Tradition role of IT Services:
      • Focus on managing in-house services
      • Prioritising scarce resources
      • Minimising variability in order to maximise benefits of support (“support software”)
    Deployment Challenges
  • IT Services 2.0
    • IT Services 2.0:
      • Term coined by Mark Sammons, Edinburgh Univ
      • Idea revisited in plenary talk at UCISA 2008 Management Conference (myself & Andy Powell)
      • Feedback from blogging IT Service managers
    • IT Services 2.0 – ongoing definitions
      • Happy with use of in-house & 3 rd party services
      • Encourages peer-support
      • Provides new media literacy
      • Has a risk management approach
      • Provides support in a era of richness of service
    Overwhelming vote at UCISA 2008 not to ban social networking services. IT Services are transforming themselves – but what about academics? Deployment Challenges
  • Embracing 3 rd Party Services
    • What will happen when student leave (as they do)?
    • Casey Leaver has documented experiences in migrating her blog from Warwick:
      • The blog has been delete
      • Not all data could be migrated (pictures & comments are also lost)
    Thoughts: institutional blogs aimed at staff; support provided for students using 3 rd party blogs
  • When Things Go Wrong
    • What would happen if a 3 rd party service was taken over by a porn company?
    • It has happened to me!
    This embedded code (which converted RSS feed to HTML) changed to a porn Web cam! Deployment Challenges
  • The Incident (1)
    • The Incident
      • Email message received saying news page for workshop contained embedded Web cam
    • What We Did
      • Removed embedded code
      • Contacted company
    • What We Found
      • Company had failed to renew domain name (credit card had expired & administrator was on holiday)
      • Domain name grabbed by porn company – but retrieved within 24 hours
    Deployment Challenges
  • The Incident (2)
    • What We Had Already Done
      • A Risk Assessment page had already been created, documenting use of 3 rd party services
    • What We Learnt
      • This was a records management issue
      • It’s not new – Microsoft failed to renew HotMail domain some time ago (also Australian Univ)
      • It could happen with our hosted domains (e.g. EU-funded projects)
    • What We Concluded
      • We need to share such experiences
      • We need to be able to switch off services quickly if problems occur
      • We need to manage our domain name subscriptions
    Deployment Challenges
  • Risk Assessment
    • Risk assessment summaries provided for events which embed 3 rd party services
    • Audit kept of incidents (1 to date)
  • Data Migration
    • When useful information is stored on a 3 rd party wiki the data is copied to a managed environment
  • Transforming Ourselves
    • It’s not just about institutional inertia & IT Services
    • What about:
      • The academics who don’t care for change
      • The academics who jump on every new bandwagon
      • Those in between these extremes
    • There’s a need:
      • To ensure enthusiasts reflect on mistakes & lessons learnt
      • To recognise that e-learning (2.0) may not be for everyone
    Deployment Challenges
  • Personal Audit
    • Personal audit:
      • There’s a need for responsible Web 2.0 enthusiasts to carry out their own risk audit
    • Departmental audit:
      • There’s a need for own risk audits for services used by others (cf. my events)
    • Institutional audit:
      • Should institutions (& funders) require self-assessment audits to protect their investment?
    Deployment Challenges
  • Vision For The Future
    • Where are we now?
      • People are using externally-hosted Web 2.0 services
      • But some are unhappy with this
    • Should we:
      • Welcome the potential of Web 2.0
      • Grudgingly accept that they will be used – but expect this to last for a short term
      • Attempt to ban or dissuade such usage
    Deployment Challenges
  • Revisiting The IE (nee DNER)
    • We had early visions for the JISC DNER
    • I subsequently developed my view for how the DNER might develop:
      • Applications on the Web e.g. bookmarking (del.icio.us!) and word processing tools (Writely!)
  • Web 2.0 As A DNER Development
    • The DNER got a lot right:
      • Networked services
      • Lightweight standards
      • Importance of RSS
      • Trust (in the funded institutions)
    • What we missed, which Web 2.0 is providing:
      • Commercial providers of services
      • New business models (we were Old Labour)
      • Lightweight development
      • User-generated content (we thought it would be the professionals)
      • Trust – in the individuals
      • The power of the network – services which get better as more people use them
    Deployment Challenges
  • Why HE? Why Now?
    • World is changing:
      • Web 2.0, ubiquitous networks, mobile devices, declining prices, increasing functionality
    • How should society respond to maximise potential?
      • At school : starting point, but this will be protected a environment
      • At work : too late & employers will expect new media literate graduates
      • At university : ideal place for students to develop skills & ethical values for the digital citizen
    Staff & students will use 3 rd party services in their social lives. They need their own risk assessment / management skills. Providing a 100% safe institutional environment will hinder this Deployment Challenges
  • Conclusions
    • To conclude:
      • E-Learning 2.0 and Web 2.0 are here and won’t go away
      • Institutions need to engage with Web 2.0
      • There are many issues which need to be addressed
      • Solutions are available
      • Probably the most important is collaborative working with one’s peers