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Delivering Information: Document vs. Content

Delivering Information: Document vs. Content



Slides from a talk by Kate Forbes-Pitt on "Delivering Information: Document vs. Content" given at the Institutional Web Management Workshop 2006 on 16 June 2006. ...

Slides from a talk by Kate Forbes-Pitt on "Delivering Information: Document vs. Content" given at the Institutional Web Management Workshop 2006 on 16 June 2006.
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    Delivering Information: Document vs. Content Delivering Information: Document vs. Content Presentation Transcript

    • Document versus content: getting quality information across the web Kate Forbes-Pitt 15 th June 2006
    • Documents vs content
      • Why bother?
        • Users like documents
          • Why?
      • What has this got to do with quality?
        • Quality of understanding
        • Quality of dissemination
        • Information is in-forming, it is a change in a person from an encounter with data
        • Getting ideas across can be a tricky process. Human inventiveness draws on all resources – down to the look, the feel, and even the smell coming off a document.
    • Users and their documents
      • Users ask for documents – why?
        • This is how they get the information and share it
        • They think they are efficient
        • They know them and trust them
        • They think documents communicate information effectively
        • They have them already – it is less work
    • What is a document?
      • A piece of paper with writing on it
        • We can scan this and ‘pdf’ it
      • A way of capturing / imparting information
    • The letter
      • How do we know it’s a letter?
        • It is not a piece of paper with writing on it
        • It contains no ‘information’ at all
        • But:
      • It contains the information that it is a letter
      • What can be said about this information?
        • It is not held as words
        • Our recognition of it is almost instant
        • We all agree on it
      social implicit learned knowledge about our world
    • What can be said about documents?
      • They contain information separate from their content
      • They ‘wrap’ the content and give information about it
      • They are layered:
      Properties Class Text This is what a makes a document a document 1 3 2
    • Documents on the web
      • Is the document information successfully captured and reproduced?
      • No (arguably)
      • Why?
      • Two principal reasons
        • Document’s ‘old’ social rules are masked by ‘new’ rules
        • Social context is not ‘automatable’
    • 1. Rules of interaction
      • Normative and pragmatic access
        • Normative access – rights and obligations surrounding a document
        • Letter
          • is it addressed to you?
          • Are you obliged to reply to it?
        • Pragmatic access – governed by relevance and opportunity
        • A notice pinned to a notice board
          • Relevance is determined by those walking past
          • Opportunity – walking past and being literate or tall enough to see it
    • Computer access
      • Pragmatic access
        • Opportunity is not immediate
        • Level of literacy required is different
      • Normative access
        • Rights and obligations are different on the web
        • Communication of it is unnecessary
      • Social knowledge of the same kind is unnecessary
      • The implicit information that makes a document a document is superfluous
      • It retains it as a printed document
    • 2. What can be automated
      • A document requires social knowledge in order to interpret it
      • The social knowledge required is not available within the document
      • i.e. to interpret the document one must have access to implicit rule not contained within the system
      • This is arguably impossible to ‘automate’
        • Dreyfuss
        • Collins and Kusch
    • Dreyfus
      • Four levels of intelligence
      • Highest level – natural language translation
      • First I was afraid, I was petrified Kept thinking I could never live without you by my side But I spent so many nights thinking how you did me wrong I grew strong I learned how to carry on and so you’re back from outer space
      • First had I keep thinking fear I petrified I could without to apart from my side never live but I had spent thought so much nights how you made yourselves me wrongly I developed much I learned how and to continue in such a way you are from return of the special atmospheric area
      • Natural language translation requires social knowledge
      • Documents are the same
    • Collins and Kusch
      • Two types of action
        • Mimeomorphic
          • Reptitive – robotic
            • Spot welding a car
        • Polimorphic
          • Rule bound BUT
          • Impossible to write a recipe for
            • HSBC adverts
      • Concur with Dreyfus:
      • Where social rules are involved you cannot automate
    • 2. What can be automated?
      • We know we cannot automate a social process
      • We know the document to be a social artefact
      • Therefore we know that the document will be impoverished by automating it
    • Where does that leave us?
      • The web as a new postal system?
      • Or way of getting content to users?
    • Web
      • Computer has its own ‘rules of engagement’
        • It destroys pragmatic access
        • It has its own set of expectations
        • It masks the documents own rules
      • Text is never ‘naked’
        • It is always in context
      • Understand the context
        • At best document rules are confused
          • Resulting in confused users
        • At worst rules are lost
          • Resulting in lost information
    • Content
      • Content wins out
        • Content uses the rules of the web
        • Content is enriched by this environment
        • Documents are impoverished by it
    • Quality information
      • Users clear about purpose of text
      • Users able to interpret without confusion