Accessibility 2.0: People, Policies and Processes Brian Kelly UKOLN University of Bath Bath, UK UKOLN is supported by: Co-...
About This Paper <ul><li>This paper: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reviews limitations of WAI approach to Web applicability (descr...
W4A 2005: Reprise <ul><li>At W4A 2005 we presented “ Forcing Standardization or Accommodating Diversity… ”: </li></ul><ul>...
Limitations of the WAI Model <ul><ul><li>WAI model relies on conformant Web sites, conformant authoring tools, conformant ...
The Importance of Context <ul><ul><li>We argue Web accessibility is about supporting users achieve real world goals </li><...
Holistic Approach <ul><li>Kelly, Phipps & Swift developed  a blended approach to  e-learning accessibility </li></ul><ul><...
Application To Culture <ul><li>Accessibility for information / factual resources is easy </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility f...
Universal Accessibility? Normal Cancer Man against snow, Austrian Tirol 1974, reproduced with permission of the photograph...
Articulating the Approach <ul><li>The &quot;Tangram Metaphor&quot; developed to avoid checklist / automated approach: </li...
Tangram Model & Testability <ul><li>&quot;WCAG 2.0 success criteria are written as testable statements …&quot; (nb. automa...
Tangram Model <ul><li>Model allows us to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on end solution rather than individual components ...
Stakeholder Model <ul><li>Common approach: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on Web author  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes...
Repositories – Case Study <ul><li>Discussion on repositories list: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Why PDFs of research papers? Wh...
The Cathedral & The Bazaar  2.0 Blended learning E-learning Focus on the journey Clear destination (AAA) Accessibility as ...
Accessibility 2.0 <ul><li>Need to build on WAI’s successes, whilst articulating a more sophisticated approach.  Accessibil...
The Legal Framework <ul><li>This approach is well-suited for the UK legal framework: </li></ul><ul><li>SENDA/DDA legislati...
Our Next Steps <ul><li>Accessibility Summit II: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Held at JISC TechDis in Nov 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Issues For W3C & WAI <ul><li>Our approaches: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by various accessibility researchers & practi...
Conclusions <ul><li>To conclude: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WAI has provided a valuable starting point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Questions <ul><li>Questions are welcome </li></ul>
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Accessibility 2.0: People, Policies and Processes

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Slides for a paper by Brian Kelly, UKOLN presented at the W4A 2007 conference in Banff, Canada in May 2007.

See http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/web-focus/events/conferences/w4a-2007/

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Accessibility 2.0: People, Policies and Processes

  1. 1. Accessibility 2.0: People, Policies and Processes Brian Kelly UKOLN University of Bath Bath, UK UKOLN is supported by: Co-Authors: David Sloan, Stephen Brown, Jane Seale, Helen Petrie, Patrick Lauke and Simon Ball http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/web-focus/events/conferences/w4a-2007/ This work is licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 licence (but note caveat) Acceptable Use Policy Recording/broadcasting of this talk, taking photographs, discussing the content using email, instant messaging, blogs, SMS, etc. is permitted providing distractions to others is minimised. Resources bookmarked using ‘ w4a-2007 ' tag
  2. 2. About This Paper <ul><li>This paper: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reviews limitations of WAI approach to Web applicability (described at W4A 2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes holistic approach for e-learning accessibility (described at W4A 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applies previous work to new ‘edge case’ of culture on the Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduces a Stakeholder Model to help ensure sustainability of approaches to accessibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compares old and new approaches to Web accessibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposes ‘Accessibility 2.0’ as term to describe approach which builds on WAI’s successes </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. W4A 2005: Reprise <ul><li>At W4A 2005 we presented “ Forcing Standardization or Accommodating Diversity… ”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The practical difficulties of using a “standard” to encapsulate design requirements to accommodate a diverse set of needs under a diverse set of circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The achievements and limitations of WCAG in supporting this </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The resultant difficulties (and absurdities) from legislation and policy – that makes inappropriate reference to WCAG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using the example of the e-learning sector we pointed the way to a more holistic view of Web accessibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We received many positive comments on the ideas we presented </li></ul>WAI’s Limitations
  4. 4. Limitations of the WAI Model <ul><ul><li>WAI model relies on conformant Web sites, conformant authoring tools, conformant user agents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… and conformant users! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A common complaint of “standardistas” – “ the user needs to take responsibility… ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is value in this argument – but there are practical shortcomings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And user technophobia/laziness/lethargy is only one obstacle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How many users know they are “disabled”? </li></ul></ul></ul>WAI’s Limitations Also note increasing importance of evidence-based research. Various UK accessibility studies seem to find that lack of evidence of accessibility of Web sites for PWDs and conformance with WCAG guidelines!
  5. 5. The Importance of Context <ul><ul><li>We argue Web accessibility is about supporting users achieve real world goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From Beyer & Holzblatt (1998) – the more you know about your target audience the more you can design to support them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So the goal of “universal accessibility” has changed to supporting a defined set of users in the best possible way… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can we use WCAG to achieve this? </li></ul></ul>WAI’s Limitations
  6. 6. Holistic Approach <ul><li>Kelly, Phipps & Swift developed a blended approach to e-learning accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>This approach: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focusses on the needs of the learner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires accessible learning outcomes , not necessarily e-learning resources </li></ul></ul>Follow-up work awarded prize for Best Research Paper at ALT-C 2005 E-learning conference Holistic Approach This approach reflects emphasis in UK on blended learning (rather than e-learning)
  7. 7. Application To Culture <ul><li>Accessibility for information / factual resources is easy </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility for edge cases (learning, culture): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More challenging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needed to allow providers of Web-based cultural services to enhance accessibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generic model will provide broader framework for variety of Web uses </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Universal Accessibility? Normal Cancer Man against snow, Austrian Tirol 1974, reproduced with permission of the photographer: Professor Paul Hill The Great Masturbator by Salvador Dali (1929) The Duck-Rabbit CRAFT BREWERY
  9. 9. Articulating the Approach <ul><li>The &quot;Tangram Metaphor&quot; developed to avoid checklist / automated approach: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>W3C model has limitations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jigsaw model implies single solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tangram model seeks to avoid such problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This approach: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages developers to think about a diversity of solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on 'pleasure' it provides to user </li></ul></ul>Our Work
  10. 10. Tangram Model & Testability <ul><li>&quot;WCAG 2.0 success criteria are written as testable statements …&quot; (nb. automated & human testing  ) </li></ul><ul><li>Issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What about WCAG principles that don't have defined success criteria (e.g. &quot;content must be understandable&quot;)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about 'baselines' – context only known locally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about differing models or / definitions of 'accessibility'? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note vendors of accessibility testing services will market WCAG tools e.g. see posting on BSI PAS 78 </li></ul><ul><li>Tangram model can be used within WCAG </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinguish between testable (ALT tags) and subjective (content understandable) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports baselines </li></ul></ul>Baseline 1 Testable Our Work
  11. 11. Tangram Model <ul><li>Model allows us to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on end solution rather than individual components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided solutions tailored for end user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn't limit scope (can you do better than WAI AAA?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make use of automated checking – but ensures emphasis is on user satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Guidelines/standards for/from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WAI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dyslexic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning difficulties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management (resources, …) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessibility metadata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Stakeholder Model <ul><li>Common approach: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on Web author </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes user involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes led by policy-makers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This approach: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often results in lack of sustainability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web accessibility regarded as ‘techie’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not integrated with wider accessibility issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not integrated with training, development, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There’s a real need to integrate approaches to accessibility more closely with (diversity of) service providers </li></ul>
  13. 13. Repositories – Case Study <ul><li>Discussion on repositories list: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Why PDFs of research papers? What about accessibility?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Important battle is open access. Let’s not add extra complexities.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>My response: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open access is important (and PDF is easy) but let’s also: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Engage with various stakeholders (incl. publishers) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop (holistic) policies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explore other options to enhance accessibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And I found Scribd – a Web 2.0 services which creates MP3 from MS Word/PDF </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Cathedral & The Bazaar 2.0 Blended learning E-learning Focus on the journey Clear destination (AAA) Accessibility as a process Accessibility as a thing Social model Medical model Accessibility as a bazaar Accessibility as a cathedral Context to testing Objective testing Blended solutions IT solution Testing in context Remote testing Rapid response Slow-moving Variety of solutions Single solution Devolved Centralised Proposed Approach WAI Approach
  15. 15. Accessibility 2.0 <ul><li>Need to build on WAI’s successes, whilst articulating a more sophisticated approach. Accessibility 2.0: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User-focussed : It’s about satisfying user’s needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich set of stakeholders : More than the author and the user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always beta : Accessibility is hard, so we’re continually learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility : There’s not a single solution for all use cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversity : There’s also diversity in society’s views on accessibility (e.g. widening participation, not universal accessibility) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blended solutions : Focus on ‘accessibility’ and not just ‘web accessibility’ </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Legal Framework <ul><li>This approach is well-suited for the UK legal framework: </li></ul><ul><li>SENDA/DDA legislation requires &quot; organisations to take reasonable measures to ensure people with disabilities are not discriminated against unfairly &quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Note that the legislation is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technologically neutral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backwards and forwards compatible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoids version control complexities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The legislation also covers usability, as well as accessibility </li></ul></ul>Other country’s legislation also talks about ‘reasonable measures’
  17. 17. Our Next Steps <ul><li>Accessibility Summit II: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Held at JISC TechDis in Nov 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>19 invited accessibility researchers, practitioners & policy makers in HE, public sector & disability support organisations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreement on various concerns of WAI’s approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendation to develop roadmap for next steps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Museums and Web 2007 Professional Forum: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50+ participants at international conference in April </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Further agreement on need to build richer approaches to accessibility for cultural heritage orgs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessibility 2.0 term added to Museums Wiki </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Issues For W3C & WAI <ul><li>Our approaches: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by various accessibility researchers & practitioners and described in peer-reviewed papers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can coexist with W3C approaches e.g. PICS & P3P (W3C doesn’t mandate social directions but provides technical framework which can be used in diversity of political & social cultures) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>W3C is (used to) facing criticisms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic Web vs semantic Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Services vs REST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XHTML 2.0 vs HTML 5.0 </li></ul></ul>Isn’t it time WAI engages with concerns and moves on from its initial model? Has WAI developed a risk strategy in case of failure of WCAG to be adopted?
  19. 19. Conclusions <ul><li>To conclude: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WAI has provided a valuable starting point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to develop a richer underlying model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for Web accessibility to be placed in wider content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There's a need to an evidence-based approach and less ideology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contextual approach & tangram metaphor aim to help inform such developments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessibility 2.0 term can articulate a renewed approach </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Questions <ul><li>Questions are welcome </li></ul>

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