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Lyl symposium vfinal

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This is what I presented at ISCAR Rome 2011

This is what I presented at ISCAR Rome 2011

Published in: Education, Technology

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  • 1. Methodological Issues to Consider when Conducting CHAT Educational Research with Activity Systems Analysis
    Lisa C. Yamagata-Lynch
    Associate Professor
    University of Tennessee Knoxville
    LisaYL@utk.edu
    ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues
    1
  • 2. Presentation Goals
    Start discussion among CHAT scholars on how to conduct research while understanding and communicating transformative relationships between the organism and the environment
    Or maybe there are conversations taking place, but we are not all conversing together so lets get together
    ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues
    2
  • 3. North American CHATEducational Research
    Since the late 1980s there has been a growing interest in theoretical paradigms that capture complex learning environments for understanding the relationship between the organism and the environment
    CHAT is one of several theoretical frameworks that has become popular
    The number of consumers of CHAT in educational research has grown
    ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues
    3
  • 4. North American Introduction to CHAT
    Cole (1985, 1996) and Wertsch (1981, 1985) introduced Vygotsky’s work
    Engeström (1987, 1993) introduced activity systems analysis as part of the expansive learning model
    The number of consumers of activity systems analysis as a data analysis tool grew, whether the work was interventionist or not
    ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues
    4
  • 5. Applications of CHAT in North American Educational Research
    Many treat activity systems analysis as an independent descriptive methodology
    Activity systems analysis is applied as a borrowed method in a manner that quantitative researchers choose one statistical method over another
    ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues
    5
  • 6. North American Discussions on CHAT
    Serves as a theoretical perspective for interpreting human interactions from a relational ontology
    Lack of discussion on:
    Methodological guidance on how to engage in research from this perspective (Yamagata-Lynch, 2010)
    How to capture and communicate human interaction as a transformative process (Stetsenko, 2009)
    ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues
    6
  • 7. Is this a problem?
    Not much public discussion among the CHAT community whether this is problematic or not
    It can be difficult for:
    Newcomers to engage in CHAT research
    CHAT community to develop a set of agreed-upon, trustworthy methodologies
    Engaging in meaningful transformative research
    ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues
    7
  • 8. North American Applications of ASA
    Used primarily in qualitative educational research as a descriptive tool to:
    Capture organizational change processes
    Identify how to design constructivist learning environments
    Identify systemic contradictions and tensions that shape developments in educational settings
    Demonstrate historical developments in organizational learning
    ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues
    8
  • 9. ASA Advantages in Educational Research
    Provides new methods for researchers to extract the essence of complex data sets in a graphic model that they can communicate with others (Yamagata-Lynch, 2010)
    Can capture educational change as it occurs rather than as it is hypothesized to occur (Rasmussen & Ludvigsen, 2009)
    ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues
    9
  • 10. Advantages During Analysis (Yamagata-Lynch, 2010)
    Work with a manageable units of analysis
    Find systemic implications
    Understand systemic contradictions and tensions
    Communicate findings from the analyses
    There are probably more
    ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues
    10
  • 11. Methodological Issues that need Further Discussion in North America
    Unit of Analysis
    Theory and Methodology Coherence
    Generalizability Issues
    Simplification Issues in Analysis
    ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues
    11
  • 12. Unit of Analysis
    Researchers and practitioners need to understand Vygotsky’s work on mediated action and subsequent works by Russian scholars to conceptualize the transformative unit of analysis in CHAT as object-oriented activity
    Activity includes both observable experiences and mental activities (El’konin, 1993, Galperin, 1989, Stetsenko & Arievitch, 1997)
    ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues
    12
  • 13. Unit of Analysis (continued)
    Need to effectively communicate meanings associated with subject, tool, object, rules, community, division of labor, outcomes, tensions, and systemic contradictions within the mediated action framework
    ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues
    13
  • 14. Theory and Methodology Coherence
    Make object-oriented activity as the unit of analysis consistently
    Don’t walk away from CHAT once it is introduced in the literature review
    Showcase a series of mediated actions with accompanying narratives in data analysis and presentation
    ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues
    14
  • 15. Theory and Methodology Coherence (continued)
    Discuss, in the findings, how CHAT as a theoretical framework and ASA as a methodological framework contributed to the investigation
    ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues
    15
  • 16. Generalizability Issues
    Need to be aware and honest that investigative goals are not to make generalizable claims
    CHAT research is interested in what Stake (1995) refers to as “petite generalization” that focuses on particularization
    ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues
    16
  • 17. Generalizability Issues (continued)
    Through research and practice CHAT scholars gain and share understandings of complex human activities by particularization
    ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues
    17
  • 18. Simplification Issues in Analysis
    Be aware that while ASA is designed to understand real-world complex situations, it cannot represent the complexities in its entirety (Yamagata-Lynch, 2003)
    Be systematic and purposeful about how participant experiences are introduced in narrative data
    ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues
    18
  • 19. Simplification Issues in Analysis (continued)
    Focus on identifying, summarizing, and reporting activities that are essential and relevant to the research questions in order to provide a trustworthy interpretation of the data set
    ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues
    19
  • 20. Conclusion about North American CHAT in Educational Research
    CHAT scholars need to engage in discussions related to methodological issues to understand, capture, and communicate human learning as a transformative experience
    ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues
    20
  • 21. ISCAR Congress Rome 2011 Symposium-Cultural-Historical Activity Theory as a Powerful Tool Kit for Educational Research and Practice: Methodological Issues
    21
    Questions & Discussions