Preparing for the InevitableHurricane Review and ApprovalDocuments WorkshopSession 1Hurricane History, Storm Forces, Purposes of Shutters, Basic Shutter Design,Requirements and Product Engineering.Session 2Overview of Shutter Types : Features, Advantages and Limitations.Session 3Proper Installation and ReviewSession 4Facts and Misunderstanding of Impact Glass.Session 5QMI Security Solutions – Beyond the Hurricanes.
Shutter Design and Engineering Function & Purpose of Shutters Storm Forces – What Shutters ProtectAgainst! Building Codes – Basics of Wind Design Testing, Criteria How to Read & Interpret Product ApprovalDrawings Structural Attachment Issues Overview of Shutter Types
How Do Shutters Protect Openings?Shutters act to do the following to greater orlesser extents depending on shutter type: Repel debris impacts Dissipate or “average out” direct wind force. Buffer against effects of wind-driven rain
After Hurricane Andrew In 1992Shutters And The New Codes Were DevelopedTo Protect Homes And Opening FromHurricane Force Winds
Do Shutters Always Work?Shutters that are designed and tested towithstand a given level of wind force andmissile impact that are properly installedaccording to engineering documents WILLwithstand these conditions. Failures resultfrom: Improper design Improper installation Actual conditions that exceed design limits
Examples of Shutter Failure duringHurricane Ivan (none are Roll-a-way!)Improper Shutter Design Improper Shutter Installation
Design of Shutters MINIMUM standard is what is required undercurrent building code in your area! In Florida, the relevant code is the FloridaBuilding Code, 2010 edition. Exception:Miami, Broward and Monroe Counties –Miami-Dade Standards In Texas, the standards developed by TDI(Texas Department of Insurance) are used. Elsewhere, the International Building Code(IBC) is most prevalent – very similar to FBC
Questions You Hear in the FieldHow many mph are your shutters goodfor?Are these hurricaneratedshutters?Are all of your shutters Dade rated?All of these and others reflect a PART of the picture,but not the complete picture!
Shutter Design – Step One:Determine the Wind Zone
Step Two: Convert Wind Speed toWind Pressure (Design Pressure)What you need to know to do this: Use code-specified ASCE 7 Wind Chart - forFBC 2007 and IBC 2006, relevant version isASCE 7-05 Determine building location – will allowdetermination of Exposure Category Determine building height (mean roof height). Determine approx. roof pitch. Determine approx. dimensions of building.
Exposure Category – B vs. CExposure Category B: Typically urban andsuburban areas. Numerous closelyspaced obstructionshaving the size ofsingle-family homesExposure Category C: Typically locations onopen terrain Obstructions scatteredand less than 30 ft inheight. APPLIES TO ALLCOASTAL AREAS inhurricane prone regionsIF IN DOUBT, USE CATEGORY C OR CHECK WITH LOCALBUILDING DEPARTMENT!
Building ZonesEnd Zone“a” = 10% ofsmaller buildingdimensionInterior (or Internal)ZoneNote: On pitched roof, h is the distancefrom the ground to half the total rise
So Why Do Design Pressures Matter?Design Pressure affects:1. Allowable shutter span.2. Fastener type and spacing that must beused.3. Shutter components that can be used.4. Intermediate supports (i.e. purlins for roll-upshutters).
Example (cont.)End Zones1 5432Openings 1 & 5 are in the end zone; 2,3 and 4 are in the interior zone
Example (cont.)Duval County (120 mph) Shutters for Openings1& 5 must meet +30.5/-44.7 psf Shutters for Openings2, 3, and 4 must meet+30.5/-33.1 psfPuerto Rico (145 mph) Shutters for Openings 1 &5 must meet +45.2/-60.2psf Shutters for Openings 2,3 and 4 must meet+45.2/-48.9 psfSo, Let’s assume the building is in Exposure CSo, let’s design a roll-up shutter installation for Opening #5
Step 3: Assess the Installation Take basic height and width measurements Select the candidate shutter type(s) Determine the wall system (i.e. pouredconcrete, CMU, wood frame)
Step 4: Verifying the Installation For the shutter type(s) in question, locate theappropriate engineering drawing: For FBC Product Approvals, these can beobtained by download fromwww.floridabuilding.org For Miami-Dade Approvals, these can beobtained by download fromhttp://www.miamidade.gov/buildingcode/pc-search_
Verifying the Installation: Span Determine the span as the dimensionbetween structural attachments. Height of shutter is the span dimension foraccordion and Bahama shutters. It may bethe span dimension for storm panels (verticalpanel orientation) and wind screen Width of shutter is span dimension for roll-upshutters, Colonial shutters, and may be thespan dimension for storm panels (horizontalpanel orientation) and wind screen.
Verifying the Installation: Substrate IMPORTANT: In order to use ProductApproval Drawings for shutter design, thetype of material to which the shutter will beattached must appear in the drawing. Typically, poured concrete, CMU and woodframe are given in the drawings.
Verifying the Installation: SpecificMounting Condition Identify the particular drawing that shows thecomponents that you wish to use – note anypotential discrepancies between what youpropose to do and what is drawn. Drawings will detail fastener type, point tocharts that give fastener spacing, show othercomponents that may be used, etc.
Verifying the Installation - Summary If the span is acceptable based on yourdesign pressure, and; If the substrate to which you will attach isgiven in the Product Approval Drawing, and; If the way you intend to install the shutter isshown, SUCCESS!
Example: Assumptions for Opening #5 Walls are made from CMU, filled aroundopening, Opening dimension is 180” x 96” Mounting track directly to the wall
Example: Wind Design (Steps 1&2) In Coastal Duval County, Basic Wind Speedis 120 mph, Exposure C – End Zone; DesignPressures = +30.5/-44.7 psf In Puerto Rico, Basic Wind Speed is 145mph, Exposure C – End Zone; DesignPressures = +45.2/-60.2 psf
Example – Assess the Installation(Step 3) Product Choice – Roll-a-way AL6E Substrate – CMU Dimensions of Opening are 180” x 96”
Example – Verify the Installation:SPAN For Duval County, max.pressure is -44.7 psf –max slat span is 197”;the proposed span of180” is ALLOWED For Puerto Rico, max.pressure is -60.2 psf –max slat span is 160”;the proposed span of180” is NOT ALLOWEDExcerpt from Roll-a-way/QMI AL6EProduct Approval Drawing FL5825
Example – Verify the Installation:SUBSTRATE & MOUNTING CONDITIONS Concrete/CMU WallMount of Roll-UpShutter is specificallylisted as a condition onthe product approvaldrawing. Substrate is acceptable. Proposed mounting isacceptable.Excerpt from Roll-a-way/QMI AL6EProduct Approval Drawing FL5825
Review The Approval DocumentsFlorida-Building-Code-Approval-FL-5825-R2.pdf
But What Do We Do in Puerto Rico? Choose a different product that hasacceptable span; Choose a different product that utilizes theheight as span (i.e. an accordion shutter); Choose a different product that utilizes purlins(intermediate storm bars) If critical for particular product, inquire aboutsite-specific engineering.
Impact Standards Tested under specific conditions outlined bytest protocols – ASTM E1886/1996 is mostcommon. TAS 201/202/203 is used by MiamiDade County and recognized by FBC. Eitheris recognized by IBC. For FBC & IBC, penetration of test object isallowed, as long as a tear is not greater than5” x 1/16”, or if a hole, that it is not larger than3” at the widest point.
What Does Large Missile ImpactRating Mean? Under ASTM E1886/1996, thiscould have various meaningsat different wind speeds! Usually, this is understood tobe “Missile D” – a 9 lb 2x4 firedat 50 fps (approx.30 mph) TAS201/202/203 all refer to the9 lb 2x4 at 50 fps. After impacting, the shutter issubjected to cyclic wind loadtesting and must pass.
What Does Small Missile ImpactRating Mean? Under ASTM E1886/1996, the test involvesfiring 10 2g steel balls at the shutter at 130fps (approx. 88 mph) Shutter is subjected to the same cyclic windload testing as for Large Missile Impact test.
Why Is Impact Resistance Important? Gives a measure of how well the shutterperforms against windborne debris. Code (FBC2007 & IBC2006) requires LargeMissile Impact level of protection at 0-30 ft ofbuilding height, and Small Missile Impactabove 30 ft.
What is Miami-Dade Compliance? Often misunderstood by the general public –refers not only to the product but many detailsconcerning installation. Methodology is the same as other codes, withimportant exceptions! Deflection Requirement – at maximumdeflection, shutter cannot be closer than 1” tothe glass. Much stricter pass/fail for impact tests – nopenetration of shutter permissible.
How Does Miami-Dade Code AffectYou? Do you live in Miami-Dade County? If not, is Miami-Dade Code specified by an architector contractor as part of a bid proposal? Or, is it just a customer’s whim based on a buzzwordhe/she has heard??The Bottom Line: We have products that fulfill Miami-Dade criteria, but with greater limitations in style andfeatures, and with greater expense. Does thecustomer really need it?
Water Infiltration through GlazedOpenings Occurs when rain is driveninto openings by storm forcewinds. Any operable opening issusceptible, but sliding glassdoors are the worst. While doors must be rated towithstand the same windpressures as shutters, codeonly requires modestperformance against waterinfiltration – often as little as15 psf!
Effect of Shutters on Water Infiltration Most shutters will greatly improve waterinfiltration, but will not stop it. Well-designed and installed roll-up shuttershave potential to virtually stop waterinfiltration – bottom slat can form a seal withdeck, or window sill.
Each Shutter Type Has Unique Profileof: Aesthetics Ease of Deployment Performance Characteristics Daily Use Features (Secondary Benefits) Cost
Roll-Up Shutters Best form of protection againstALL storm forces; unparalleledperformance against wind-drivenrain Numerous motorized or manualmeans of deployment Can be installed directly overwindows/doors or as balconyenclosure. Available in several colors,aluminum or vinyl slats, retainedor non-retained systems
Roll-Up Shutters – Secondary UseBenefits!Use Every Day for: Security Privacy Insulation against unwanted heat, noise, and light Fingertip control of room lighting
Accordion Shutters Simple to deploy. Cost-effective stormprotection Excellent economicalchoice for balconyenclosures. Used often for upper-floor operable windowprotection. Excellent all-aroundshutter with exceptionalvalue
Bahama Shutters Made from durable extrudedaluminum Powder coated finish Adds “Islands flair” to home Reduces light, adds privacy Easy to deploy Available as impact ratedversion, or decorative bladespacing. Tubular slat or decorative, low-cost bent metal slat
Colonial Shutters Tough extruded aluminumconstruction, powder coatedfinish. Adds “traditional” flare tohome Easy to deploy Available in impact ordecorative blade spacing(tubular slat), or in bentmetal decorative slat. Available as bi-fold (or tri-fold) for protection of largeropenings.
Storm Panels Economical protection,requires manualdeployment Panels made fromaluminum, galvanizedsteel or impact-resistantpolycarbonate plastic. Wide variety of header/silloptions; panels can bevertically or horizontallyoriented.
In-Place Stainless Steel ImpactScreens Heavy-duty extrudedaluminum frame, durablepowder coated stainless steelmesh Always in place, no need todeploy. Reduces light, solar heat gain. Protects against debrisimpacts. Provides security protection Available for arched and non-rectangular openings.
In-Place Stainless Steel ImpactScreensENVIRONMENT DESCRIPTION CLEANINGINTERVALMild More than 6 milesfromBeachfront orsheltered bayEvery 6MonthsModerate ½ mile to 6 milesfrom beach -front orsheltered bay2 to 3MonthsMarine Up to ½ mile frombeachfrontOr sheltered bay2 to 4Weeks
Fabric Wind Screen Can be mounteddirectly over openingsor as balconyenclosure. Manual, mechanized ormotorized deployment. While impact resistant,fabric’s deflection ishigh, which can allowglass breakage. Modest cost.
Hurricane FilmIt Doesn’t Exist*“There were several IMMEDIATE AND VERYSERIOUS ISSUES which were discussed that couldcause immediate enforcement action againstindividuals or individual companies. The first of these isthe use of statements such as safety/security filmsbeing “shutterless” hurricane protection; that is,implying that if these films are installed, there is noneed to consider shutters or other Florida-approvedmethods of hurricane protection. This statement, usedalone, could clearly be considered misleading or false.”International Window Film Association*Residential Use
The “Typical” Installation –A Little Bit of Everything!