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  • 1. Synthesis Project Maggie Kingsbury, Lisa Moe, and Stephanie Zellmer Hamline University LANG 7903 – Summer 2013
  • 2. Beach, Richard, Amanda Haertling. Thein, and Allen Webb. Teaching to Exceed the English Language Arts Common Core State Standards: A Literacy Practices Approach for 6-12 Classrooms. New York: Routledge, 2012. Print. Strop, Janice Marcuccilli., and Jennifer Carlson. Multimedia Text Sets: Changing the Shape of Engagement and Learning. Winnipeg: Portage & Main, 2010. Print. Focus Texts:
  • 3. The Common Core State Standards •  The CCSS are the latest development in the standards-based approach and attempts to hold high expectations for every student. •  “The Common Core State Standards set general goals for student learning but they do not specify what or how to teach” (Beach, 4).
  • 4. The Common Core State Standards •  The CCSS should be implemented based on each students’ individual needs and interests. •  The CCSS is an instructional approach geared towards raising expectations of students rather than teaching to the standards. •  The CCSS is focused on a Literacy Practices approach.
  • 5. Literacy Practices Approach to the Common Core State Standards The Literacy Practices Approach is an approach that “will make implementing the Common Core State Standards effective and meaningful” (Beach, 4).
  • 6. Literacy Practices Approach to the Common Core State Standards •  Allows students to exceed the standards.
  • 7. Literacy Practices Approach to the Common Core State Standards •  Allows students to exceed the standards. •  Builds upon students’ prior knowledge and experiences.
  • 8. Literacy Practices Approach to the Common Core State Standards •  Allows students to exceed the standards. •  Builds upon students’ prior knowledge and experiences. •  Connects the world students live in to the texts they are reading.
  • 9. Literacy Practices Approach to the Common Core State Standards Types of Literary Practices 1. Framing events 2. Constructing and enacting identities 3. Collaborating with others 4. Synthesizing and connecting texts 5. Constructing multimodal texts 6. Adopting a critical engagement perspective
  • 10. The CCSS & Multimodal/Critical Literacy Multimodal literacy is the ability to create multimodal texts that “combine images, video, voice, print, and/or music” (Beach, 57). •  Includes the use of multimodal forms of literacy that are popular with teens: o  social media, YouTube, internet websites, video games, etc. •  Requires knowledge about how digital literacies engage the audience in social and cultural ways.
  • 11. The CCSS & Multimodal/Critical Literacy Multimodal literacy is the ability to create multimodal texts that “combine images, video, voice, print, and/or music” (Beach, 57). •  Multimodal/Critical Literacy must use a variety of texts in order to engage the reader in learning that is meaningful to each student’s specific social and cultural background.
  • 12. Pitfalls of the CCSS
  • 13. From Duke's Webinar: Teachers misinterpret what is expected in their classroom. Seventy percent of the text being taught should be informational, but that is throughout the school day, not within the ELA classroom!
  • 14. "... adoption of a standards-based approach has sometimes resulted in rigid, top-down approaches to instruction and assessment" (Beach, 10). "...there is also no strong evidence indicating that adopting standards will necessarily improve student achievement" (Beach, 10). "...research suggests that standards may have negative effects on non- white students' performance and drop- out rates" (Beach, 11).
  • 15. Other Pitfalls According to Beach 1. Homogenization of Instruction
  • 16. Other Pitfalls According to Beach 1. Homogenization of Instruction 2. Fragmented Curricula
  • 17. Other Pitfalls According to Beach 1. Homogenization of Instruction 2. Fragmented Curricula 3. Overly Specific Content Standards
  • 18. Other Pitfalls According to Beach 1. Homogenization of Instruction 2. Fragmented Curricula 3. Overly Specific Content Standards 4. Teaching to the Test
  • 19. Other Pitfalls According to Beach 1. Homogenization of Instruction 2. Fragmented Curricula 3. Overly Specific Content Standards 4. Teaching to the Test 5. Failure to Acknowledge Cultural Diversity
  • 20. Other Pitfalls According to Beach 1.  Homogenization of Instruction 2. Fragmented Curricula 3. Overly Specific Content Standards 4. Teaching to the Test 5. Failure to Acknowledge Cultural Diversity 6. The Influence of Economic Inequities on Student Performance
  • 21. Advantages of the CCSS
  • 22. By implementing the CCSS, teachers will be able to engage a greater range of students in a larger range of situations (Duke's Webinar).
  • 23. The CCSS increases continuity for students. Allows for greater content knowledge. Gets students college, career, and citizenship ready. Teachers have the ability to use the CCSS in their classroom to engage students in their own unique ways.
  • 24. USING MULTIMODAL TEXTS TO ACCOMPLISH THE GOALS OF THE COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS
  • 25. What Curriculum Should Teachers Use?
  • 26. “The hope of the Common Core State Standards is that, this time, a more consistent set of goals across states will make standards-based reform more effective” (Beach 4).
  • 27. What does this mean for educators?
  • 28. ² For various reasons, some states do not have sufficient standards that are necessary for learners to become effective adult participants in society. These states would need to make the biggest changes. Other states may not need to change much, if anything.
  • 29. ² School districts should not drop effective and relevant standards they already have and replace them with the CCSS.
  • 30. ² The CCSS offers a consistent foundation for standards that should be expanded upon by states and school districts.
  • 31. “We believe that English language arts teachers can view the adoption of the Common Core State Standards as an opportunity to generate an innovative, engaging curriculum that will enhance instruction in our discipline, raise intellectual aspirations for all students, and, to the extent possible, improve the public’s regard for schools” (Beach 5).
  • 32. What were too many teachers expected to be before the CCSS?
  • 33. Merely deliverers of knowledge (Beach 7)
  • 34. Under the CCSS, teachers continue to be or become …
  • 35. Under the CCSS, teachers continue to be or become … •  ²social planners
  • 36. Under the CCSS, teachers continue to be or become … •  ²social planners •  ²facilitators
  • 37. Under the CCSS, teachers continue to be or become … •  ²social planners •  ²facilitators •  ²co-learners
  • 38. This affects curriculum because …
  • 39. This affects curriculum because … teachers actually have more flexibility in their curriculum choices:
  • 40. This affects curriculum because … teachers actually have more flexibility in their curriculum choices: •  power to increase student engagement by addressing student interests through the use of multimedia resources
  • 41. This affects curriculum because … teachers actually have more flexibility in their curriculum choices: •  power to increase student engagement by addressing student interests through the use of multimedia resources •  ability to be more efficient by addressing student needs vs. a “one size fits all” approach
  • 42. This affects curriculum because …
  • 43. This affects curriculum because … ... assessments may become more authentic and reflect what students must know and be able to do as adults in the “real” world of work and ...
  • 44. This affects curriculum because … ... assessment may be multimodal and involve student choice, increasing engagement and causing students to go deeper and attack more complex material.
  • 45. This affects curriculum because … ... teachers are able to adapt according to society’s current needs without constantly rewriting local standards,
  • 46. ... can focus on achieving a common goal (Beach 6),
  • 47. ...are able to encourage mentorship (Beach 7),
  • 48. ... and become revitalized by asking them to "acquire new forms of expertise” by becoming lifelong learners (Beach 7).
  • 49. The CCSS is … “a roadmap for developing your own curriculum that is relevant to your unique students and classrooms, their prior knowledge and diverse social and cultural settings” (Beach 17).
  • 50. Final Words on Curriculum
  • 51. Final Words on Curriculum You will need to “build on your own state’s or district’s previous curriculum that may consider the unique demographic makeup of your students” (Beach 17).
  • 52. Final Words on Curriculum
  • 53. Vocabulary: The CCSS •  CCSS.ELA-LiteracCCRA.L.4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate. •  CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.L.5 Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. •  CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.L.6 Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when encountering an unknown term important to comprehension or expression.
  • 54. Vocabulary: According to Beach •  Vocabulary instruction should be geared towards student’s lives in the “real world”. §  Vocabulary activities should be authentic and meaningful to student’s lives. •  Vocabulary instruction needs to go beyond learning the meaning of word in context, but HOW to use that word in a social and professional setting. “…allow your students to define their purpose in creating a project— for instance, creating a video about traffic problems surrounding their school— they will be more motivated to complete the project than if you had simply assigned a project with your own purpose in mind” (Beach 47).
  • 55. Vocabulary: According to Strop & Carlson “...for instruction of specific words to make an impact on reading comprehension, the understanding must be beyond a superficial level” [Irvin et al. 2007, 116].
  • 56. Vocabulary: According to Strop & Carlson “...for instruction of specific words to make an impact on reading comprehension, the understanding must be beyond a superficial level” [Irvin et al. 2007, 116]. Students need to: •  read •  write •  hear •  speak •  think •  view vocabulary words and engage in a variety of experiences around those words. Stu
  • 57. What is Vocabulary? Content vocabulary is...
  • 58. What is Vocabulary? Content vocabulary is... •  the understanding of words in a specific content area •  the ability to apply the words in meaningful and accurate ways
  • 59. Vocabulary as Code Breaker The code breaker: •  can decode language accurately within a particular context, situation, or content area •  has the ability to speak, write, read, and define vocabulary •  has knowledge of the conventions regarding prefix, root, and suffix
  • 60. Vocabulary as Code Breaker “What is the definition of this word in this context?” (Strop, 20) “What other words have the same prefix or suffix?” (20)
  • 61. Vocabulary as Meaning Maker The meaning maker: •  can recognize the differences in language when used in various contexts •  has the ability to make appropriate word choices in order to effectively communicate •  can recognize the relationship of vocabulary across content areas
  • 62. Vocabulary as Meaning Maker “How do meanings change in different contexts and text forms?” (21) “How does the language of this text communicate the author’s intent?” (21) “What words in the text foreshadow upcoming events?” (21) “What are the characters feeling? How do I know?” (21)
  • 63. Vocabulary as Text User The text user: •  is able to apply background knowledge (including social, historical, and cultural experiences) to organize and comprehend texts •  is able to use knowledge of vocabulary and the conventions of language to scaffold content knowledge •  understands different purposes of vocabulary in various contexts
  • 64. Vocabulary as Text User “If I write a response to this text, what words will I use?” (21) “In what ways is this text similar in its language to other texts?” (21) “What words will I select and use from this text if I dialogue about the subject matter?” (21)
  • 65. Vocabulary as Text Critic The text critic: •  is able to analyze how vocabulary is used to influence readers •  is able to use appropriate vocabulary in order to respond to, or argue for/against an issue •  understands that the use of language and vocabulary has the power to influence the audience
  • 66. Vocabulary as Text Critic “What language does the author use to position himself or herself?” (21) “What is or is not said in this text, and why?” (21) “What is fact and what is opinion in this text?” (21) “What language leads me to this conclusion?” (21)
  • 67. Teaching Vocabulary Using Multimedia Text Sets to Teach Vocabulary “MTS offer a variety of texts from a variety of sources” (Strop, 21).
  • 68. Teaching Vocabulary Using Multimedia Text Sets to Teach Vocabulary §  Students need to encounter vocabulary from: •  print •  video •  Internet •  music •  cartoons •  photographs •  etc. §  Vocabulary activities need to engage students in reading, writing, listening, viewing, and speaking in order to develop a collection of in-depth vocabulary.
  • 69. Teaching Vocabulary Using Multimedia Text Sets to Teach Vocabulary §  Students need opportunities to use the Four Resources Model. §  Teachers should implement rich language into daily instruction. §  New words need to be explicitly explained. §  A Variety of text types should be read aloud frequently. §  Graphic organizers and think-alouds allow students to visualize language.
  • 70. Writing & The CCSS
  • 71. The CCSS call for a literacy practices approach: “the actions students perform to understand and produce texts for classroom events” (Beach 33).
  • 72. “literacy practices are what people do with literacy” (Beach 33). Students can also use their writings as springboards for discussion.
  • 73. Actions are "always social because they involve relations between the self and others” (Beach 33).
  • 74. There is a link “between the activities of reading and writing and the social structures in which they are embedded and which they help shape…” (Beach 33)
  • 75. It’s like learning how to speak, understanding what the purpose of being able to speak is, and using speaking to achieve a purpose.
  • 76. The types of writing suggested by the CCSS becomes increasingly social in nature as we ask students to spend more time taking a side and informing or explaining. In the real world, adults argue their points with other adults either in person or in forums such as blogs and letters to the editor. This makes writing a social activity.
  • 77. Teaching reading and writing as two separate skills (Beach 22) Focusing on formalist writing like the 5-paragraph essay structure (Beach 26) Teaching writing "to the test" Assuming that what worked for you when you were in school works for today's learners Viewing writing as a literacy skill Teaching students to "write in the real world, or communicate with others beyond the teacher" (Beach 26) Providing engaging and meaningful reading and writing experiences (Beach 23) Offering writing experiences "in a variety of formats for a variety of different purposes" (Strop 14) Focusing in meaning instead of form (Beach 28)
  • 78. Warning Signs That You May Need to Rethink How You Are Teaching Writing… Students are... 1.  skipping prewriting/planning 2.  providing minimal peer editing or feedback 3.  submitting inaccurate self-assessments
  • 79. The CCSS emphasizes “the need for students to ‘develop personal, cultural, textual, and thematic connections within and across genres as they respond to texts through written, digital, and oral presentations, employing a variety of media and genres’” (Beach 26).
  • 80. To be engaging and meaningful, writing needs to have a purpose beyond an essay to submit for grading (Beach 28). Students need a rhetorical purpose to fully engage in the composing process. This includes a sense of audience and purpose (Beach 30).
  • 81. “persuasive writing is enhanced when students are thoughtful about using writing to convince audiences to support their positions on a particular issue” (Beach 31).
  • 82. How Should We Teach Writing? •  Continue to provide direct instruction •  Model the writing process •  Provide exemplars AND...
  • 83. 1. Frame Events Create “engaging classroom events that result in students developing and using literacy practices to produce language or texts” (Beach 35).
  • 84. Frame Events cont. Engagement happens when students can connect the event to their lives through, for example, … · inquiry projects · online role play · “critiquing the status-quo policies (35) · formulating arguments (debate)
  • 85. Frame Events cont. Examples specific to ELA… (p. 36) · book club/lit. circle discussions · role plays · hot-seating · spoken-word performances · writing conferences · digital video productions
  • 86. 2. Attend to Affinity Spaces Definition: “Issues and topics that emerge from and/ or connect to students’ lives can be shaped to constitute classroom events” (Beach 36).
  • 87. Affinity Spaces cont. You need to know your students’ interests and be “up” on teen pop culture.
  • 88. Affinity Spaces cont. World of Warcraft was used as an example in Strop, but an up-to-date example would be Call of Duty or Minecraft; sports and activities students participate in…
  • 89. 3. Acquiring Dispositions “Through fostering student autonomy as active, contributing members of classroom events, students acquire certain dispositions of perseverance, dependability, responsibility, emotional stability, and openness to novel experience related to success in life and college” (Beach 37).
  • 90. Acquiring Dispositions cont. “co-planning and collaboration with their peers fosters dependability and responsibility” (Beach 37).
  • 91. 4. Valuing Multiple and "New" Literacies Teach students how to participate in the digital literacies of their current culture so they can be effective participants (Beach 39).
  • 92. 4. Valuing Multiple and "New" Literacies Use current tools of technology and incorporate multimodal responses to critique, analyze, evaluate, and create (Beach 39).
  • 93. 5. Incorporating the Use of Multimedia Text Sets A report from Writing Next: Effective Strategies to Improve Writing of Adolescents in Middle and High Schools (2007) reveals: “no single approach to writing will meet the needs of all students.”
  • 94. 5. Incorporating the Use of Multimedia Text Sets Therefore, it is important that writing practices include the interweaving of a variety of writing experiences, such as strategies, instructional methods, and genre” (Strop 14).
  • 95. Writer As Code Breaker “uses grammar, paragraph structure, and word choice that focus on organization...writes and communicates in different genres for different purposes" (Strop 15)
  • 96. Writer As Code Breaker Attempts to understand the meanings of graphics, charts, pictures, non-print media (15)
  • 97. Writer As Code Breaker “How do the conventions within this text help me understand the mood and tone?” "Does the layout of this piece reflect its intent?” (Strop 15)
  • 98. Writer As Meaning Maker * “understands and composes meaningful texts for particular audiences by writing to accomplish a goal, or writing to inform, instruct, persuade, or respond” (Strop 15) * “constructs and designs texts “intended for a variety of audiences and purposes” (Strop15)
  • 99. Writer As Meaning Maker “How will I feel as I read this text?” “What does the audience already know about the subject matter? “ “Is this piece of writing engaging?” (Strop 15)
  • 100. Writer As Text User •  “understands and composes writing for different purposes” (Strop 15) •  considers options and alternatives in text structure for different audiences in different contexts (15) •  understands how to shape writing by choosing different alternatives to fit different social and academic conditions (15)
  • 101. Writer As Text User •  “What kind of text is this?” •  “What is my goal with this piece of writing?” •  “Who is the audience?” •  “How does this text connect or relate to other texts?” (Strop 15)
  • 102. Writer As Text Critic “is aware of and able to use writing strategies to develop ideas…critically analyzes written drafts and transforms them while considering the knowledge and point of view represented and not represented in the content… demonstrates an awareness of intertextuality and text design that influences different audiences and interests” (15)
  • 103. Writer As Text Critic Graphically, where do I focus? How does word selection develop argument? Whose perspective or POV is evident?
  • 104. “By making purposes visible to students and offering them an array of roles to take on as a writer, they become better at figuring out writing” (Strop 17).
  • 105. Comprehension: The CCSS Students: •  Demonstrate Independence
  • 106. Comprehension: The CCSS Students: •  Demonstrate Independence •  Build Strong Content Knowledge
  • 107. Comprehension: The CCSS Students: •  Demonstrate Independence •  Build Strong Content Knowledge •  Comprehend and Critique
  • 108. Comprehension: The CCSS Students: •  Demonstrate Independence •  Build Strong Content Knowledge •  Comprehend and Critique •  Value Evidence
  • 109. Comprehension: The CCSS Students: •  Demonstrate Independence •  Build Strong Content Knowledge •  Comprehend and Critique •  Value Evidence •  Understand Cultural Diversity
  • 110. Comprehension: The CCSS Students: •  Demonstrate Independence •  Build Strong Content Knowledge •  Comprehend and Critique •  Value Evidence •  Understand Cultural Diversity •  Use 21st Century Literacies
  • 111. Comprehension: Beach & Strop "...a process of extracting and constructing meaning" (Strop & Carlson, p. 3). Three Elements: 1. Reader 2. Text 3. Activity
  • 112. Reader The reader does the comprehending. Students need to become critical readers. They need to be able to read deeper into a text than just the surface level.
  • 113. According to Strop and Carlson (2010), there are four roles that students take on as readers to help build comprehension: 1. Code Breaker 2. Meaning Maker 3. Text User 4. Text Critic
  • 114. Athlete as Code Breaker Code breakers recognize the differences in text structures and know how to effectively utilize these differences to gain the most meaning out of the variety of texts.
  • 115. Archaeologist as Meaning Maker When students take on the role of a meaning maker, they are able to comprehend a text and show their own understanding through various spoken, written, and visual texts.
  • 116. Tour Guide as Text User Students build their comprehension based on their understanding that texts are written for different purposes, in different settings, and for different audiences.
  • 117. Film Reviewer as Text Critic This role requires students to use all of the previously mentioned roles (Code Breaker, Meaning Maker, and Text User) in order to comprehend the information and then look at it through a critical lense.
  • 118. Beach et. al (2012) stresses the importance of comprehension strategies: 1. Building background information 2. Contextualizing words 3. Making Predictions 4. Inferencing 5. Making connections 6. and more!
  • 119. Teaching Comprehension 1. Making Connections •  Text to Self •  Text to World •  Text to Text
  • 120. Teaching Comprehension 1. Making Connections •  Text to Self •  Text to World •  Text to Text 2. Questioning
  • 121. Teaching Comprehension 1. Making Connections •  Text to Self •  Text to World •  Text to Text 2. Questioning 3. Visualizing
  • 122. Teaching Comprehension 1. Making Connections •  Text to Self •  Text to World •  Text to Text 2. Questioning 3. Visualizing 4. Inferring
  • 123. Teaching Comprehension 1. Making Connections •  Text to Self •  Text to World •  Text to Text 2. Questioning 3. Visualizing 4. Inferring 5. Determining Importance
  • 124. Teaching Comprehension 1. Making Connections •  Text to Self •  Text to World •  Text to Text 2. Questioning 3. Visualizing 4. Inferring 5. Determining Importance 6. Synthesizing
  • 125. Resources for Teaching Common Core State Standards Common Core Curriculum Maps in English Language Arts, Grades 6-8. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2012. Print. Common Core Curriculum Maps in English Language Arts, Grades 9-12. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2012. Print. Fisher, Douglas, and Nancy Frey. Common Core English Language Arts in a PLC at Work, Grades 9-12. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree, 2013. Print. McEwan-Adkins, Elaine K., Elaine K. McEwan-Adkins, and Allyson Burnett. 20 Literacy Strategies to Meet the Common Core: Increasing Rigor in Middle & High School Classrooms. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree, 2013. Print. "Mission Statement." Common Core State Standards Initiative. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 July 2013.
  • 126. Resources for Teaching Vocabulary Bear, Donald R., Marcia Invernizzi, Shane Templeton, Francine R. Johnston, and Donald R. Bear. Words Their Way: Word Study for Phonics, Vocabulary, and Spelling Instruction. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon, 2012. Print. Flanigan, Kevin. Words Their Way with Struggling Readers: Word Study for Reading, Vocabulary, and Spelling Instruction, Grades 4-12. Boston, MA: Pearson, 2011. Print.
  • 127. Resources for Teaching Writing Beers, G. Kylene. Notice & Note: Strategies for Close Reading. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2013. Print. Buehl, Doug. "Written Conversations." (n.d.): n. pag. Wisconsin Education Association Council. Reading Room Archives, 02 May 2007. Web. 30 July 2013. <http://www.weac.org/news_and_publications/education_news/2006-2007/readinginroom_written.aspx>. Common Core State Standards: High School. YouTube. TeachingChannel, 06 Sept. 2011. Web. 30 July 2013. <http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ym-VHwbpAQM>. Daniels, Harvey, and Nancy Steineke. Texts and Lessons for Content-area Reading. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2011. Print. Daniels, H., Zemelman, S. & Steineke, N. (2007). Content-Area Writing: Every Teacher’s Guide. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. "English Language Arts Standards » Writing » Introduction for 6-12." Common Core State Standards Initiative. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 July 2013. <http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/W/introduction-for-6-12>. Gallagher, Kelly. Write like This: Teaching Real-world Writing through Modeling & Mentor Texts. Portland, Me.: Stenhouse, 2011. Print.
  • 128. Resources for Teaching Comprehension •  http://www.busyteacherscafe.com/literacy/ comprehension_strategies.html •  http://www.readingrockets.org/article/3479/ •  http://wvde.state.wv.us/strategybank/comprehension.html •  http://www.readingquest.org/strat/ •  Harvey, Stephanie, and Anne Goudvis. Strategies That Work: Teaching Comprehension for Understanding and Engagement. Portland, Me.: Stenhouse, 2007. Print.