The Culture of Content Sharing and Learning Objects


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Presented by Karen Kaemmerling, Mary Cash and Lisa Marie Johnson for the CCCOnline Faculty Conference, Online June 28, 2006

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The Culture of Content Sharing and Learning Objects

  1. 1. The Culture of Content Sharing and Learning Objects Karen Kaemmerling, Mary Cash, and Lisa Marie Johnson June 28, 2006
  2. 2. What will we cover today? <ul><li>Karen will discuss the benefits and motivation for sharing content </li></ul><ul><li>Mary will cover CLEO and Copyrights </li></ul><ul><li>Lisa Marie will share how and when to create learning objects </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why aren’t we sharing more? <ul><li>Intimidated </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t think others are interested </li></ul><ul><li>Too busy </li></ul><ul><li>Unsure of what forum is appropriate </li></ul>
  4. 4. What are the Benefits? <ul><li>Create more dynamic and functional courses for instructors </li></ul><ul><li>Provide consistent, high-quality education to students with interesting, and relevant learning opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>Create a sense of community among instructors by reusing and sharing content between course sections, other courses, and even among institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>To take advantage of the unprecedented ability to globally store and search for content from courses </li></ul>
  5. 5. What are the drawbacks? <ul><li>Activities that you adopt may have to be modified for your course </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t have control on how learning object you share is used </li></ul><ul><li>May see your activity in many places without getting credit </li></ul>
  6. 6. How can we encourage a culture of sharing? <ul><li>By providing an avenue that everyone has equal access to </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage instructors to work together on activities possibly in the faculty lounge </li></ul><ul><li>Be more accepting of new ideas and methods of conveying information </li></ul>
  7. 7. What is CLEO? <ul><li>CLEO is CCCOnline’s Learning Object Repository. It will allow us to share the learning objects we’ve created with our faculty, faculty from around the system and anyone else who might be interested. </li></ul><ul><li>Just go to URL: </li></ul><ul><li>CLEO is powered by DSpace, open source digital library/repository software created by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) & Hewlett Packard: </li></ul><ul><li>CLEO will store a wide variety of file types, including Flash objects, html pages, word files, pdf files, PowerPoints and images. </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata is collected for each object and placed in the repository database. A metadata record is available for each object. </li></ul><ul><li>Both the object and the metadata record are stored and easily viewed. </li></ul><ul><li>The learning object repository has both Browse and Search functions. </li></ul><ul><li>The entire repository can be browsed by Title, Author, and Date as can each Community and Collection. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Copyrights and Permissions <ul><li>CLEO is an open learning object repository. Like MERLOT, Rice University’s Connexions and the Maricopa Learning Exchange (MLX), our objective is to share our objects with others. </li></ul><ul><li>Rather than a strict copyright, CLEO has a Creative Commons License which offers a “some rights reserved” approach to our learning objects. Others can use our objects as long as they offer attribution, and as long as they don’t reuse the objects for commercial purposes: </li></ul><ul><li>Instructors who wish to add objects to CLEO are asked to sign a permissions statement which gives CCCOnline the rights to place the object within the repository. </li></ul>
  9. 9. How do I get my Learning Object(s) into CLEO? <ul><li>If you already have a learning object created, contact CLEO’s administrator, Mary Cash – </li></ul><ul><li>If you have an idea for a learning object you’d like to have in your course, talk with your chair and course designer. Beth Kitts is our Flash designer and she can help you with flash learning object creation ( </li></ul>
  10. 10. Choosing to Use Learning Objects (LOs) <ul><li>LOs should enhance instructional objectives or course competencies. LOs make good just-in-time review or reference materials. </li></ul><ul><li>The defining characteristics of an LO is its flexibility and reuse. LOs’ power is that educators “…can build small (relative to the size of an entire course) instructional components that can be reused a number of times in different learning contexts ” (Wiley, 2000, p. 3) </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions vary subtly: “ Knowledge objects are discrete items that can be integrated into lessons; for example, a text, graphic, audio, video, or interactive file. Learning objects are more highly developed, consisting of discrete lessons, learning units, or courses” (McGreal & Elliot, 2004. p.. 129) </li></ul><ul><li>References: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>McGreal, R., & Elliot, M. (2004). Technologies of online learning (e-learning) [Electronic Version]. In T. Anderson & F. Elloumi (Eds.), Theory and Practice of Online Learning (pp. 115-136): Athabasca University. Available from . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wiley, D. (2000). Connecting learning objects to instructional design theory: A definition, a metaphor, and a taxonomy. In D. A. Wiley (Ed.), The instructional use of learning objects: Online version . Retrieved June 25, 2006, from </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Example Reusable LOs <ul><li>Example 1 Drag and drop activity where learners drag subfields of a discipline onto descriptions of or examples of subdiscipline focus (or vice versa). Or, a presentation on subfield applications that is fixed (not manipulated). Or, a multiple-choice self-test with popup feedback. In anthropology courses, all these would work as flexible LOs and be reusable in all introductions to the discipline across introductory anthropology courses. They could be used as just-in-time resources for review in higher level courses in the discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>Example 2 An APA, MLA or other citation style activity where matching, drag and drop or other interaction occurs. Or, a fixed item explaining and giving examples of citation style. This flexible and reusable object would be appropriate for any course in need of instruction on or just-in-time resources for citation. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Getting Users to Use LO <ul><li>Context is everything! </li></ul><ul><li>It is not simply enough to put LOs in a course. Tie the LO in with the learning goals and broader instructional activities. Make their use meaningful for the learner. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, aside from including a repository of links to LOs as “Study Tools” or “Video Supplements” for self-study and exploration, include them as part of a discussion activity where learners must access the LO and incorporate experiences and outcomes from it into posts. </li></ul><ul><li>Including an LO for citation style inside the assignment instructions for which it would be most useful is another way to put the LO within context for the learner. This makes it act as a knowledge object… recall there is only a slight variation in the definitions. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Complexity in Design <ul><li>LO design can be extremely complex if you seek to form a large interactive exercise with multiple levels of learner customization. For example, a Flash style tutorial that responds to user input and presents subsequent information depending on prior input. </li></ul><ul><li>Or, LO design can be as simple as a data table, graphic or illustration of some process in graphical format. </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on your skill level with software applications, you may prefer to seek out existing LOs in repositories. Spending time finding these resources is worth your while since many are easily adapted for your use in a course. </li></ul><ul><li>A good example of existing LOs at your fingertips is Companion Website LOs from many textbook publishers. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Companion Website LO Resources <ul><li>In the courses I (Lisa Marie) instruct, I have links on a “Study Tools” page to items from the publishers. Learners are encouraged to use them for self-study of chapter material, but items are also incorporated into assigned activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Most textbooks by major publishers have a companion website with several interactive or reference-style resources for use in chapter study. Integrating these resources is as easy as linking to them! Some even have options for submitting responses by (external) email to instructor! </li></ul>
  15. 15. Types of LOs available at Companion Sites <ul><li>Internet activities (guided exploration of a website) </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive maps </li></ul><ul><li>Crossword puzzles </li></ul><ul><li>Practice (self-test) chapter quizzes </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive timelines </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration games </li></ul><ul><li>Flashcards / Glossary </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics / Illustrations </li></ul>
  16. 16. Publisher Companion Text Sites <ul><li>You may wish to access instructor resources at companion sites and that often requires a password. These include PowerPoint, images and other materials sometimes not available to students However, the student resources at companion sites are publicly accessible and often adequate enough for your purposes. Here are links to two popular publisher sites: Prentice Hall: (allows for search by keyword across texts- very helpful!) Thompson Learning: (then select discipline, then search for companion sites) </li></ul><ul><li>Hint: Search across disciplines and texts (even if it’s not “your book”) for videos, interactive, or reference LOs that are flexible enough in their scope to apply to your instructional goal! </li></ul>
  17. 17. LO Repositories and Other Web Sources <ul><li>Aside from CLEO, there is a wealth of LO repositories on the WWW. Remember to look closely at terms of use and copyright restrictions for revising LOs for your particular situation. Some repositories require a subscription ($) or allow free access with registration. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer to this page for a list of repositories: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some sites, like the History Channel, PBS, NOVA, and the BBC have excellent videos, simulations, or knowledge objects that work well as LOs when linked into a course! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BBC's &quot;Gladiator: Dressed to Kill“ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PBS's &quot;Emperor of Rome“ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hint: You can get lost on the Web in all the available resources. Make a folder on your desktop (or in your browser favorites/bookmarks) with subfolders for instructional topics. When you find objects, save their location and a brief description! Trust me.. Organization will help! </li></ul>
  18. 18. Creating LOs <ul><li>Decide the goal of the object. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it self contained (reference), interactive, part of a larger learning activity sequence? I recommend using Gagné’s 9 Events to organize your object. See this template: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Determine your resources & timeline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are you going to need assistance? Do you need copyright approval? What materials do you already have created that can be combined or revised for an LO or as part of an LO? Allow yourself time to create, test and revise your object. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Testing the LO. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A wise move is to have a colleague, or even a student, test the LO. Make sure it is functional as well as that it meets the goals you initially set out to achieve with it. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Tools for Creating LOs <ul><li>Web Page A free HTML editor is good, but a powerful program such as Dreamweaver is even better since it enables use of CSS (Cascading Style Sheets). </li></ul><ul><li>Word Document Rich Text Format (.rtf) is best bet for cross-platform readability. Resource: The above link goes to a tutorial on “good design” for the web. I (Lisa Marie) created for a class. However, principles discussed apply to designing any “page” of content. </li></ul><ul><li>Adobe Document Adobe is the premier program, but others are available. See: </li></ul>
  20. 20. Tools for Creating LOs continued… <ul><li>Study Mate and Respondus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CCCO has a license. Contact your chair. Test items from Respondus can be integrated with activities in Study Mate and then embedded into pages of your course or as stand alone items. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Powerful and easily embedded into Web pages, but labor-intensive to learn for the average person. CCCOnline has a Flash expert on staff (Beth Kitts). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hot Potatoes </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Create flashcards, crossword puzzles, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Course Builder </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Works with Dreamweaver to create various exercises such as drag &drop, quizzes with auto-feedback (pop-up), etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SnagIt! </li></ul><ul><ul><li> A powerful tool for screen captures allowing for manipulation of the capture. Examples of educational use of SnagIt: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Camtasia </li></ul><ul><ul><li> More powerful than SnagIt. Allows for greater manipulation and interactive tutorials. Has many of the same powers as Flash for interaction. Examples of Educational use of Camtasia: </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. More tools to Explore… <ul><li>These tools do various applications from screen recording and manipulation to full blown learning applications with audio, video and simulations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Screenwatch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matchware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I-movie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video Studio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viewlet Builder </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Review and Important Considerations <ul><li>You do not have to be an expert PC user or programmer to start coordinating and integrating LOs into your courses. Many LOs already exist! Happy hunting! </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure to consider what plug-in, browser and other compatibility issues may affect your LO functioning. Address accessibility (ADA) issues! </li></ul>
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