Thankyou for the invitation. Mynameis… myjobis…Will betrying a different approachto the keynotethismorning. I‘llbetalkingaboutthistopic on the slide; however, I will beseekingyouractiveinvolvementthroughout the nexthour. First, beforewestart, askifanyoneis back-channeling the conference. (Also askifthereisanyonewhodoesn‘tknowwhatthisis.) Encourageuse of Twittertoshare.
Thisiswhatwe will bedoingtoday: connecting and sharing, listening (actively, of course), collaborating, and reflecting.
Takethreeminutes and introduceyourselfto the personnexttoyou. Tell him/her whoyouare and whyyouarehere (at the conference, not here on the planet). Ifyouuse a socialnetwork, connectwithyournewacquaintance. Youcan also tell the world and uswhyyouarehere (e.g., usingTwitter – and don‘tforget the hashtag!). I‘llbetaking a fewpictures, so ifyoudon‘twantyourpicture on the net, pleasesay so.
Next,you‘llneedto listen tometalk for a bit. This is the partthatisn‘tveryactive – exceptifyouaretweeting -- and since I am a strong believer in activelearning, I‘lltrytokeepitshort. (IfyouwanttoreadmoreaboutresearchI‘vedone, you‘ll find it in the cloud.) Activelistening: The keyislisteningwithintention: knowingwhatyouwanttoget out of it, keepingfocused, evaluatingwhatyouhear and howitrelatestowhatyouknow (Murphy Paul, 2013).First, I‘llsaysomethingabout the industry and learnerchallenge, thenaboutheutagogy, orself-determinedlearning. I‘llthengointo the ways in whichsocialmediasupportdevelopment of lifelonglearningskills.
Myfirstcareer, priortoacademia, was working for an international softwarecompany, leading design and development of newknowledgeproducts and helpingtoestablish a vision for the future. The company was experiencing explosive growthat the time, and so when I wasn‘tworking on vision, I was working on hiringpeopletohelprealize the vision. The generalpolicyatthiscompany was thatwehiredoctors, preferably in the area of physics, but ifthoseweren‘tavailable, otherdisciplinescould also beconsidered. Whatintriguedmeas I watched was howsomenewhireswouldhit the groundrunning, whileotherswouldtakemonthstorampup (I‘msurethisis a questionthatbafflesmany an HR manager). But whatintriguedmemost was thatthesewerehighlylearned and intelligent people – experts in theirfield. Whatdid the thrivershaveover the divers whenadjustingto a complex and quicklychangingenvironment? Whyisthat?It‘s a questionthathasfollowedmethroughoutmecareer, and when I returnedtoacademia in 2000, and beganteaching in the Master of Distance Education and E-learning (or MDE) program, the questiontook on a new form of: How do I helpmystudentsbecomethrivers?
I have a generalidea of whattheyneedtothrive: for example, theyneedtobeadaptable, capablepeoplewhocould „think out of the box“, peoplewhocouldtaketheirknowledge, and applyit in newenvironments and in different, creativeways. And theyknewhowtosolveproblems, in otherwords, theyknewhowto find out whoorwhattheyneeded in the organizationtosolvetheirproblems, and theycouldworkwithotherseffectivelytosolvethoseproblems.The researchgenerallysupportsthatview, alongwithidentifyingotherimportantskills, e.g., life and careerskills, learning and innovationsskills (criticalthinking, communication, collaboration, creativity), and information, media, and technologyskillsReferences: P21, http://www.p21.org/overview/skills-frameworkPrensky, M. (2010). Teaching digital natives: Partnering for real learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. http://oetmanhattan.wikispaces.com/file/view/Prensky--Teaching+Digital+Natives-in+press6.pdfThomas, D., & Brown, J.S. (2011). A new culture of learning: Cultivating the imagination for a world of constant change. Trilling, B., & Fadel, C. (2009). 21st century skills: Learning for life in our times. San Franciso, CA: Jossey-Bass.Wordle: http://www.wordle.net/show/wrdl/7222113/21st_Century_Skills_for_the_Workforce
Ourlearners also have different needs. I think Sir Michael Barber sums itwell in saying: [slide]
New technologies are influencing, even driving the change.MOOCs are making learning available to anyone with the technology to access them. Social networks: Giving learners an opportunity connect with each other, their professors, scholars in their discipline, sharing and connecting. Blogs and wikis let learners create and collaborate on content, as well as to reflect. Self-publishing on the net.Digital badges: Learners can collect these as they define their pathway of learned skills and competencies.Mobile computing: Makeslearningavailableanytime and anywhere.As educators, how do weaddress the needs of industry and learnerswhile also navigating the swiftlychangingtechnologicallandscape? This is of specialinterest for me in mypositionat Oldenburg within the Master of Distance Education and E-learningprogram, asthisisexactlywhat I needto do, thatis, ensurethat MDE graduatesthriveoncetheyleave the program – and do so within a distance education environmentthatischaracterizedbycomplexity and rapid change and development.
Aseducators, weneed a pedagogicalframeworkfromwhichtoworkfrom. At the same time asdistanceeducators, weneedpedagogiesthatalignwith the technologiesthatweuse.One of myfavoritedescriptions of thissymbioticrelationshipwithin DE comesfrom Terry Anderson (2009), where he describes DE as a dance, withpedagogydefining the dancesteps and the moves and technologysetting the beat and the timing.For qualitydistance education, these must be in sync.Reference:Anderson, T. (2009). The dance of technology and pedagogy in self-paced distance education.AU Space. Retrievedfrom: http://auspace.athabascau.ca/handle/2149/2210
Thereare a number of them out there. Some of themyoumayrecognizefrom of which Diana Laurillard and Steve Wheeler‘spresentationsat the RIDE conference in 2012, pedagogies such as: learning design theory, interactionequivalency, etc…
The pedagogicalframework I wouldliketotalktoyouabouttodayiscalledheutagogy, also knownasself-determinedlearning. I stumbled upon heutagogywhiledoingresearchintosocialmedia and reflectivelearningjournals. Alongwith Siemens & Downes‘ theory of connectivism, Terry Anderson describedheutagogyas a network-centriclearningtheory.Heutagogy was firstdefinedby Stewart Hase and Chris Kenyon, bothfromAustralia, in 2000. This istheirdefinition.Roots in earlierlearningtheories such ashumanism, constructivism, douple-loop learning, and andragogy, whichhavecontributedto the elements of heutagogy.Theseelementsare…
Learner-centered learning. Instructors and institutions are no longer at the center. Learners are – thus creating a whole new dynamic in education.It‘s all aboutlearnersbeingactive, self-determinedlearners. Learnersreflectinghowtheylearn in ordertobetterunderstandtheirlearningprocessing. It‘saboutlearnercompetency and capability – and learnerself-assessment in achievinglearninggoals.Reference:Siemens, G. (2013). Changing schools, changing knowledge. Retrieved from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JR_ziHA_8LY#t=190
Paths of learning are not linear, but divergent. It’s also about learners learning what they want to learn and making connections with new guides, new gurus, new learning resources, other learners.
In this learner-centered framework, the instructor is no longer the sage on the stage – a concept not unfamiliar to distance education. Heutagogy is about instructors as guides and facilitators. Instructors provide guidance and resources as needed, working together with the learner to define the learning path (road map).
Institutions provideplatforms and support; use their networks to help learners find their individual learning paths and make connections with guides.
Anotheristhatheutagogycanbepracticedatanyage, and itis a learningtheoryapplicableto all levels of education (but involves „unschooling“ learners).(The two-yearoldwhosemotherwouldn‘tbuyhim a Playmobile castle.)
Based on research by Canning (2013), Canning & Callan (2010), Ashton & Elliott (2008), Ashton & Newman (2006), Dick (2013), & Kerry (2013) here are some of the benefits of a heutagogical approach (see slide)I‘llletyoureadthroughthese, but itseemsclearthatinitialresultswouldindicatethat a heutagogicalapproachdevelopsskills in demandby the workforce: criticalthinking, reflection, engagement, motivation, personal empowerment, knowledgeapplication, ideaevaluation, self-confidence, independence, capability, teamwork, and projectmanagement.
And what I havefoundevenmoreinteresting, and whatstruckmeas I readmoreabout the theory, is the way in whichitalignswithmany of the affordances of web 2.0 and socialmedia, ournew digital world. (showaffordances and alignment) In addition, the learner‘sabilitytobeself-determined in learningisinherentto the system. Technology givescontrol of learningbacktolearners.You‘vegotconnecting, reflecting, ICT- and medialiteracy, communication, teamwork, evaluation, self-direction all workplaceskillsthatcanemergewhenpairingheutagogywithsocialmedia.Excerpt from Blaschke & Brindley (in press): Social media’s shared spaces provide a place where students can learn the collaborative process by working on a project from beginning to end, assess their individual strengths and weaknesses against those of peers, and work to improve the latter while completing a task by pooling complementary strengths. Communication and interaction, essential to online teaching and learning, (Conrad, 2013), can be facilitated and enhanced using the affordances of shared spaces and social networking, for example, through peer critiquing and feedback and information sharing. The distributed authorship capabilities of social media further support individual and shared user-generated content and knowledge construction (Griesemer, 2012, p. 9)…There is also evidence to suggest that embedding social media tools within courses supports skill development that can lead to learner capability (capacity to use skills with confidence in a variety of situations), as well as stimulate cognitive skills such as critical thinking and reflection on content and one’s individual learning process (Blaschke & Brindley, 2011; Blaschke, Porto, and Kurtz, 2010; Griesemer, (2012).
AdaptedfromKaplan & Hainlein (2010) in Blaschke & Brindley (in press)Each of this social media categories – except for gaming – have been used in the OMDE601 Foundations of Distance Education and E-learning course as part of the redesign of that course, incorporating heutagogical practice.
In integrating social media into the OMDE601 course, the backward design, or results-based, approach was integrated (Wiggins & McTighe, 2005). Together with another MDE faculty, Jane Brindley, I identified the desired outcomes at both course and program level and then worked backward in developing learning activities and course content that would support development of those outcomes.Specific aspects of a heutagogical teaching approach were also incorporated into the new design, for example:Considering students’ level of learner autonomy and adjusting accordingly to achieve balance between ability and autonomy (through learner questionnaires)Building learner skills while allowing them to determine and reflect on their learning path (through scaffolding of learning activities and learner-directed questions for reflection)Incorporating activities for self-reflection, self- and information-discovery, and collaborative information creation (through learning journals and collaborative group work)Assessing learner achievement using formative and summative assessment
Learners work together engaged in activities such as problem-solving and carrying out research with the goal of constructing and developing new knowledge by creating content togetherTools: Wikis, GoogleDocs, brainstorming tools (e.g., mindmaps), mashups, Dropbox, boxnetExcerpt from Blaschke & Brindley (in press):Web 2.0 tools provide much greater capacity than an LMS for both synchronous and asynchronous student-student interaction and collaboration. At the same time, complex problems and issues in higher education and the workplace call for multi-disciplinary and cross-functional team approaches. Employers place a high value on collaborative skills and ability to work in teams using a variety of online collaboration tools (Johnson et al, 2010; 2012). Collaborative tools such as wikis and Google Apps are particularly well suited to support student-student collaboration, promote discussion and dialogue, and help bring more balance to the teacher-student relationship (Johnson et al, 2012). Collaborative projects help aid in the development of negotiation skills, support student collaboration and interaction, and are easily and centrally accessible in shared virtual spaces (Harris & Rea, 2009). They can be used for constructing knowledge both individually and in groups, evaluating peer contributions, problem-solving, understanding concepts and their complexities, engaging students in classroom tasks, and promoting deeper thinking and reflection on ideas and concepts through observation (Harris & Rea, 2009).
These projects are primarily used to present ideas and concepts, and to document and curate other types of content such as progression toward a goal, achievements or important resources, using social media as the platform.Tools: Blogs, e-portfoliosExcerpt from Blaschke & Brindley (in press):Individual showcase projects such as blogs and e-portfolios are particularly useful for developing skills of self-expression, and with their capacity for different levels of access can also accommodate dialogue. Pedagogical benefits include supporting reflective thinking, development of meta-cognitive skills, and sharing of knowledge and experience. Individual showcase projects can be used for communicating ideas, inspiring reflective thinking, and documenting and curating content. They can also be used to make connections, provide advice, make announcements, or as a living record of progress and achievements such as an e-portfolio (Harris & Rea, 2009). For example, students can use blogs or wikis as a form of reflective learning journal (Blaschke & Brindley, 2011; Conole & Alevizou, 2010), as well as e-portfolio showcasing a student’s work for purposes of assessment and/or employment (Porto, Blaschke, & Kurtz, 2010).
Skills: Design and create; think critically, deeply, and logically; share knowledge; share experience; give advice; express yourself
Learners use social networking for making and sustaining connections with family, colleagues, and other students. Learners create personalized profiles, invite their contacts to connect with them, and then use the site for e-mailing and instant messaging. Tools: Twitter, LinkedIn, Facebook, social tagging (e.g., Flickr, pinterest), CloudworksExcerpt from Blaschke & Brindley (in press):Social networking supports interaction amongst participants in a community and has become more popular within academia, as “scientists and researchers use social media to keep their communities informed of new developments” (Johnson et al., 2013, p. 14). Pedagogical benefits of social networking include increased student engagement and interaction, collaboration, and peer support (Conole, 2012; Conole & Alevizou, 2010; Rodriguez, 2011). Networking can be used for creating communities, making connections with peers, broadcasting and self-promotion, sharing information and resources, exchanging ideas, back-channelling, gathering viewpoints through surveys, and for research purposes (Conole, 2012; Conole & Alevizou, 2010). One example of using social networking for research is the use of Twitter to follow specific trends within a field of study, thus conducting active research while observing development of the trend. An example of a social networking site used for exchange instructional ideas is Cloudworks (http://cloudworks.ac.uk/).
Skills: Communicate (read, write, discuss, interact); collaborate; search; explore; listen; connect; share; think critically; reflect; support others; build community; promote (self); exchangeLearners are in class all the time. “With the Twitter hashtag, class is always open…It never ends.” Helen Keegan, EDEN Research Workshop, Leuven, Belgium (October 23, 2012)Anexample of connectionsisonefromKeegan (2013), where a studentwrote a review of audioboo in blog --- which was consequentlytweetedby the CEO of audioboo. , Anotherstudentwrote a blogpost on copyright and licensing in the musicindustry – and beganengaging in a discussionwith a leading professional in the industry. Helpedtoempowerbothstudents.
Learners share information and learning resources with others using a variety of media.Tools: YouTube, Diigo, Twitter, LinkedIn, news aggregators (RSS), EvernoteExcerpt from Blaschke & Brindley (in press):Online communities allow learners and educators to share user-generated content, resources, and information with each other and can offer pedagogical benefits such as supporting self-directed and inquiry-based learning, collaboration, and interaction amongst students (Conole, 2012). Instructors can use these resources as supplementary material to course content to provide additional guidance to students as a form of scaffolding (Harris & Rea, 2009). Information sharing communities can also be used to distribute a variety of multimedia such as presentations (e.g., SlideShare), lectures (e.g., YouTube), and images (e.g., Flickr and pinterest) and to disseminate these using different channels (Conole, 2012).
With this form of social media, learners create avatars that interact with other avatars in a virtual gaming environmentTools: Minecraft, alternate reality games (ARGs), massively multiplayer online games (MMO), and global social awareness games, Simulations, Second LifeExcerpt from Blaschke & Brindley (in press):Use of virtual game worlds for learning is steadily on the rise. Johnson et al (2013) report that game-based learning supports “cognitive development and the fostering of soft skills among learners, such as collaboration, communication, problem-solving, and critical thinking” (p. 2). Their NMC report goes on to describe game-based learning as goal-oriented, social, and offering real-world and relevant simulation. Games used for pedagogical purposes have the capacity to support learning objectives and incorporate instructional aspects such as assessing student performance and providing feedback (Hays, 2005). Minecraft (https://minecraft.net/), is an example of an online video game where gamers (individually or with others) use blocks to build virtual worlds that can be used in learning contexts. For example, Minecraft has been used by students who work together to create a virtual community and, through the process, learn about city planning, environmental issues, and project management (Dunn, 2013). Other examples of virtual games for learning include UNESCO’s games for change (http://www.gamesforchange.org/) and the United Nations’ global social awareness games such as the Stop Disasters (http://www.stopdisastersgame.org/en/home.html) and the Free Rice (http://freerice.com/#/english-vocabulary/1467).
We need new pedagogies for a changing technological landscape. Heutagogy, is a net-centric pedagogy (Anderson, 2010), that is not only alignment with DE characteristics but also its theories.Withourrichhistory in DE theory and practice, distanceeducatorsare in essencepoisedtolead the innovation in digital learningenvironments.
Beforegoingtoquestions on the contentpart of the presentation, I givetoyou the words of Otto Peters fromhiskeynoteaddressat the Third EDEN Research Workshop, Oldenburg, Germany, in 2004. Are thereanyquestionsbeforewemovetocollaboration and reflection?Reference:Peters, O. (2010). Distance education in transition: New trends and challenges, 4th ed. Oldenburg, Germany: BIS-Verlag der Car von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg.
Respondtoanyquestionsparticipantsmayhavebeforemoving on.NowI‘dliketogiveyou a little taste of heutagogy in action.Askparticipantsto formthreegroups (alignedwith the conferencesthreethemes): design for learning, futuretechnologies, and studentengagement. Fromhere, I wouldaskeachgrouptoputtogether a list of whattheywanttolearnduring the day. I wouldgivethem 10 minutesto do this, thenaskeachgrouptobrieflypresenttheirresults.
Then I wouldaskthemtoreflect on howthey will achievetheirlearninggoals for the day (audienceparticipation). Anytakers for bloggingabout the conference andwhat and howtheylearned?Hand off the liststo the speakers for eachstrand: "Hereiswhatyourlearnerswanttolearn, and you'veheardhowthey plan tolearn it. Youcandecidehowyou'llincorporatethisintoyoursessionstoday.“
P21, a coalitionof business community, education leaders, and policymakers to position 21st century readiness with education, including the U.S. DOE, AOL Time Warner, Apple Computer, Inc., Dell, Microsoft, National Education Association, as well as my own former employer, SAP. They‘vegonefurtherbycategorizingtheseskillsinto: life and careerskills, learning and innovationsskills (criticalthinking, communication, collaboration, creativity), and information, media, and technologyskills.
Blaschke final ride_2013_london
Using Social Media & Heutagogy to
Support Development of
Lifelong Learning Skills
LISA MARIE BLASCHKE
CENTER FOR LIFELONG LEARNING (C3L)
CARL VON OSSIETZKY UNIVERSITÄT OLDENBURG
CONNECT AND SHARE
CONNECT & SHARE
INTRODUCE YOURSELF TO THE PERSON
NEXT TO YOU.
TELL HIM/HER WHO YOU ARE AND WHY YOU
ARE HERE (AT THE CONFERENCE, NOT HERE
ON THE PLANET) AND WHAT YOU WANT TO
GET OUT OF THE CONFERENCE.
THE INDUSTRY CHALLENGE
HEUTAGOGY (OR SELF-DETERMINED
WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT
(Prensky, 2010; Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21), no
date; Thomas & Brown, 2011; Trilling & Fadel, 2009)
WHAT STUDENTS WANT
“If you‟re a student…it is no
longer a question of choosing a
degree course you want to do at
a university…It‟s a question of
thinking…„How will I keep
learning through my life, how do
I combine a range of educational
experiences not just from one
university but also from a range
of universities - potentially
around the world?‟”
Sir Michael Barber, Times Higher
Education (in Parr, 2013)
“The increasing demand for education that is
customized to each student‟s unique needs is
driving the development of new technologies
that provide more learner choice and control
and allow for differentiated instruction.”
HORIZON Report (2013)
DRIVEN BY TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE
Massive open online
WHICH PEDAGOGICAL FRAMEWORK?
Community of Inquiry
Complexity is the new reality. One of the main challenges of implementing
new pedagogies, learning models, and technologies in higher education is the
realization of how inter-connected they all are. - Horizon Report (2013, p. 15)
Heutagogy is the study of selfdetermined learning and
applies a holistic approach to
developing learner capabilities
with the learner serving as “the
major agent in their own
learning, which occurs, as a
result of personal experience”
Stewart Hase & Chris Kenyon (2007, p. 112)
LEARNERS AT THE CENTER
Active and selfdetermined in
“For the teaching and learning experience, for the people who are actually paying
tuition dollars, they have to be at the center of the experience. In the past, we
needed the university to do a lot of the knowledge mediating for us...[now]
students can go directly to the source and they don't need the university to play
that mediating role.” - George Siemens (YouTube interview, October 21, 2013)
NON-LINEAR DESIGNS AND CONNECTIONS
creative commons image
from Daniel Tenerife,
CONTINUUM OF ANDRAGOGY?
► Heutagogy (Self-determined)
► Double-loop learning
► Capability development
Linear design and learning
► Non-linear design and learning approach
Getting students to learn
► Getting students to understand how they
(Blaschke, 2012; Garnett , 2013a, 2013b)
BENEFITS OF HEUTAGOGY
• Improves critical thinking and reflection
• Increases and sustains learner engagement and motivation
• Gives learners more control over learning (learner-centered)
• Encourages growth and personal empowerment
• Improves ability of learners to investigate and question ideas –
and apply knowledge in practical situations
• Supports development of independent ideas and self-confidence
• Makes learners more capable and able to adapt to new
• Helps learners develop teamwork and project management skills
(Canning, 2013; Canning & Callan , 2010; Ashton & Elliott, 2008; Ashton & Newman, 2006; Dick , 2013;
WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT
(Prensky, 2010; Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21), no
date; Thomas & Brown, 2011; Trilling & Fadel, 2009)
HEUTAGOGY & WEB 2.0 AFFORDANCES
SOCIAL MEDIA CATEGORIES
Individual showcase projects
Content/information sharing communities
Virtual game / social worlds
(Adapted from Kaplan & Hainlein , 2010 , in Blaschke & Brindley, in press).
The world of work is increasingly
collaborative, driving changes in the way student
projects are structured. As more and more
employers are valuing collaboration as a critical
skill, silos both in the workplace and at school are
being abandoned in favour of collective intelligence.
To facilitate more teamwork and group
communication, projects rely on tools like
wikis, Google Docs, Skype, and online forums.
Projects are increasingly evaluated by educators
not just on the overall outcome, but also on the
success of the group dynamic. (NMC Horizon
Report , 2012, p. 14)
OMDE601: GOOGLE DOCS
Skills: Collaborate; communicate (write, read, discuss, interact); construct
knowledge (individual and group); socialize; navigate; negotiate; solve problems;
think deeply, critically, and logically; reflect; evaluate
WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT FOR DISTANCE
Aligns easily with distance education characteristics:
use of technology for teaching and learning purposes
learning in non-linear environments
…and theories: behaviorism, constructivism,
“It [the university of the future] will be more like a distanceteaching university than a traditional university.”
(Hoyer, 1997, as cited in Peters, 2010)
…we need a vision of how learning in virtual spaces will have to differ
from learning in real spaces. The problem is that nobody can tell
us, as the changes before us may be drastic and therefore
My vision tells me that in ten or twenty years parents and
schoolteachers will be much more concerned with fostering
independent thinking in their children and students, that they will
encourage their natural curiosity and their urge to explore their
environment independently. I envisage a time in which children will
be no longer kept dependent, but be dealt with in ways Carl
Rogers, the humanistic psychologist and educator, has taught us.
When children are educated in this way, when they are motivated to
“learn how to learn” by themselves, they will be prepared for
autonomous and self-regulated learning at colleges and
universities, and also throughout their lives.
(Oldenburg, Germany, Third EDEN Research Workshop, 2004)
CHOOSE ONE OF THREE GROUPS:
DESIGN FOR LEARNING
• FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES
• STUDENT ENGAGEMENT
PUT TOGETHER A LIST OF WHAT YOU WANT
TO LEARN TODAY.
REFLECT ON HOW YOU WILL ACHIEVE THEIR
LEARNING GOALS FOR THE DAY (AUDIENCE
We need a pedagogical framework for helping our
learners develop lifelong learning skills for the
Heutagogy, paired with social media, helps us to
Distance education is poised to guide the path of
innovation in digital learning environments.
MORE ON HEUTAGOGY…
Hase, S., & Kenyon, C. (2013)
Heutagogy in action. Sydney,
Australia: Bloomsbury Academic.
Heutagogy Community of Practice:
What is heutagogy? A curated
Anderson, T. (2009). The dance of technology and pedagogy in self-paced distance education. AU Space. Retrieved from:
Anderson, T. (2010). Theories for learning with emerging technologies. In G. Veletsianos (Ed.),Emerging technologies in
distance education. Edmonton: Athabasca University Press. Retrieved from
Ashton & Elliott, 2008; Ashton & Newman, 2006; Blaschke, L. (2012). Heutagogy and lifelong learning: A review of
heutagogical practice and self-determined learning. The International Review Of Research In Open And Distance
Learning, 13(1), 56-71. Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/1076/2087
Blaschke, L.M. (2012). Using social media to engage and develop online learners. In Proceedings of the Seventh European
Distance and E-learning Network (EDEN) Research Workshop, October 22-23, 2012. Leuven, Belgium. Available
Blaschke, L. (2012). Heutagogy and lifelong learning: A review of heutagogical practice and self-determined learning. The
International Review Of Research In Open And Distance Learning, 13(1), 56-71. Retrieved
Blaschke, L.M., & Brindley, J. (in press). Using social media in the online classroom. In M. Ally & B. Khan, The international
handbook of e-learning. Athabasca, Canada: Athabasca University Press.
Canning, N. (2013). Practitioner development in early years education. In S. Hase & C. Kenyon, Self-determined learning:
Heutagogy in action. Sydney, Australia: Bloomsbury Academic.
Canning, N. (2010). Playing with heutagogy: Exploring strategies to empower mature learners in higher education. Journal
of Further and Higher Education, 34(1), 59-71.
Dick , B. (2013). Crafting learner-centered processes using action research and action learning. In S. Hase & C. Kenyon, Selfdetermined learning: Heutagogy in action. Sydney, Australia: Bloomsbury Academic.
Garnett, F. (2013a). Developing creativity. In S. Hase & C. Kenyon, Self-determined learning: Heutagogy in action.
Sydney, Australia: Bloomsbury Academic.
Garnett, F. (2013b). The PAH Continuum. Retrieved from: http://heutagogycop.wordpress.com/2013/03/04/the-pahcontinuum-pedagogy-andragogy-heutagogy/
Johnson, L., Adams Becker, S., Cummins, M., Estrada, V., Freeman, A., & Ludgate, H. (2013). NMC Horizon Report: 2013
Higher Education Edition. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium. Retrieved from:
Kaplan, A.M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media. Business
Horizons, 53, 59-68. doi: 10.1016/j.bushor.2009.09.003.
Keegan, H. (2013). Open Lecture: Helen Keegan on Transformation in Practice. [YouTube video].
Retrieved from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aOtqMwBE6-g
Kerry, T. (2013). Applying the principles of heutagogy to ap ostgraduate distance-learning programme. In S. Hase & C.
Kenyon, Self-determined learning: Heutagogy in action. Sydney, Australia: Bloomsbury Academic.
Murphy Paul, A. (2013). Ready to learn? The key is listening with intention. MindShift. Retrieved from:
P21. (no date). 21t Century Student Outcomes and Support Systems Framework. Retrieved from:
Parr, C. (2013). Fund „pick-and-mix‟ Mooc generation, ex-wonk advises. Times Higher Education. Retrieved from:
Peters, O. (2010). Distance education in transition: New trends and challenges, 4th ed. Oldenburg, Germany: BIS-Verlag
der Car von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg
Prensky, M. (2010). Teaching digital natives: Partnering for real learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Siemens, G. (2013). Changing schools, changing knowledge. Retrieved from:
Thomas, D., & Brown, J.S. (2011). A new culture of learning: Cultivating the imagination for a world of constant change.
Trilling, B., & Fadel, C. (2009). 21st century skills: Learning for life in our times. San Franciso, CA: Jossey-Bass.