5 factors affecting language learning strategies use (slides)

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A task completed for the course GGGE6533 Language Learning Strategies Instruction with the National University of Malaysia (UKM), Bangi for Masters in Education (TESL). The topic is on the 5 factors affecting language learning strategies (LLS). This presentation mainly presents what has been discovered in previous research and studies on the topic.

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5 factors affecting language learning strategies use (slides)

  1. 1. ge6533 language learning strategies instruction5 Factors Affecting LanguageLearning Strategies Use Lisa Kwan Su Li (P67239)
  2. 2. motivation 1• An important factor influencing strategy use (Oxford & Nyikos 1989)• Positive correlation between motivation level and use of language learning strategies (or LLS) (Yang 1999)• More motivated learners used more learning strategies, and more frequently (McIntyre & Noels 1996)• Number of learning strategies associated with motivation level (Chang & Huang 1999)
  3. 3. motivation 1• With Japanese students in England, instrumental and integrative motivation had significant effect on choice of LLs (Tamada 1996)• strategy use was affected by motivational level instead of a particular motivational orientation (instrumental or integrative) (MacLeod 2002)• One of the major predictors of the use of LLS by Persian learners (Rahimi et al. 2008)
  4. 4. motivation 1• Motivation most significant factor (followed by experience studying English and gender) affecting choice of LLS (Khamkhien 2010)• In a study with Korean immigrant college students in the United States, no correlation was found between motivation and direct LLS, but a significant relationship was evidenced between motivation and direct LLS (Stoffa et al. 2011)
  5. 5. gender 2• Females use significantly more learning strategies than males (Green & Oxford 1995; Gu 2002; Razak et al. 2012)• Females found to use strategies more frequently even across cultural backgrounds (Brazil, China, German, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, and Togo) and dis/favoured different strategies than males• Females used Social and Metacognitive strategies most, Memory the least; Males used Metacognitive and Compensation most, Affective least (Hong-Nam & Leavell 2006)
  6. 6. gender 2• In contrast, some studies found males to use learning strategies more than females• Males were more likely to use a variety of learning strategies than females in a study of adult Vietnamese refugees (Tran 1988)• With 678 Singaporean university students, males used a greater number of strategies significantly more often than females (Wharton 2000)• Although no significant gender differences, males used significantly more social strategies than females (Radwan 2011)
  7. 7. gender 2• Still other studies found no gender differences for LLS use• No significant effect on certain strategies like Memory, Metacognitive and Affective, UNLESS from different majors (Ma 1999)• No statistically significant differences according to gender with strategy use (Griffiths 2003)• Not one of the variables affecting strategy use choice (Khamkhien 2010)
  8. 8. proficiency level 3• High level of proficiency associated with increased use of both direct and indirect strategies (Green & Oxford 1995; Park 1997; Chen 2002)• In Park (1997) and Peacock and Ho’s (2003) studies, a linear correlation and significant correlations between strategy use and proficiency level were found among Korean EFL learners and university students in Hong Kong respectively• Cognitive and metacognitive strategies show high correlations with high language proficiency levels (Peacock & Ho 2003)
  9. 9. proficiency level 3• Differing levels of proficiency gave rise to differing frequencies of strategy use— intermediate students used metacognitive strategies more than beginners, while the latter used more translation strategies (O’Malley et al. 1985)• Low-proficiency students used more communication strategies than high- proficiency ones (Chen 1990)• Low-proficiency students outperformed the high-proficiency ones in their use of compensation strategies (Chen 2002)
  10. 10. proficiency level 3• Proficiency level strongest predictor of LLS used by Iranian learners (Rahimi et al. 2008)• Proficient students used more overall strategies, but significantly more cognitive, metacognitive and affective strategies than less-proficient ones (Radwan 2011)• High-proficiency students used compensation strategies more frequently than others while low-proficiency ones used social strategies most (Paul 2011)• High-level English proficiency students used more strategies more frequently (Rao 2012)
  11. 11. learning style 4• An individual’s learning style preferences influence the type of LLS they use• Extroverts show a strong preference for social strategies; introverts use metacognitive strategies more frequently (Ehrman & Oxford 1990)• Learners who favour group study tend to use social and interactive strategies (Rossi-Le 1995)• But, Rahimi, Riazi and Saif (2008) found no significant difference of learning style on Iranian EFL learners LLS choices
  12. 12. learning style 4• There were qualitatively significant differences between Iranian EFL learners’ perceptual learning style preferences and LLS (Alireza & Abdullah 2010)
  13. 13. experiences in studying 5• Studying abroad (in Europe or the United States) contributed to language learning strategy choices (Opper, Teichler & Carlson 1990)• Purdie and Oliver’s (1999) study showed that students who had been in Australia for a longer period of time (3 or less years and 4 or more) obtained significantly higher mean scores for Cognitive strategies and for Memory strategies• But, frequency of LLS used decreased across increasing time length of studying the language (Rahimi et al. 2008)
  14. 14. Thank you! :)
  15. 15. referencesAlireza, S. & Abdullah, M.H. 2010. Language learning strategies and styles among Iranian engineering and political science graduate students studying abroad. Educational Research and Reviews 5(2): 35-45.Chang, S.J. & Huang, S.C. 1999. Language learning motivation and language strategies of Taiwanese EFL students. Washington, DC: Department of Education.Chen, I.J. 2002. Language learning strategies used by high and low English proficiency students in a technology college. Master’s thesis, Changhua Normal University, Changhua, Taiwan.Chen, S.Q. 1990. A study of communication strategies in interlanguage production by Chinese EFL learners. Language Learning 40: 155–187.Ehrman, M. & Oxford, R. 1990. Adult language learning styles and strategies in an intensive training setting. Modern Language Journal 74: 311–326.Green, J.M. & R. Oxford. 1995. A closer look at learning strategies, L2 proficiency, and gender. TESOL Quarterly 29: 261– 297.Griffiths, C. 2003. Patterns of language learning strategy use. System 31: 367–383.Gu, Y. 2002. Gender, academic major, and vocabulary learning strategies of Chinese EFL learners. RELC Journal 33(1): 35–54.Hong-Nam, K. & Leavell, A.G. 2006. Language learning strategy use of ESL students in an intensive Eng-lish learning context. System 34: 399–415.Khamkhien, A. 2010. Factors affecting language learning strategy: reported usage by Thai and Vietnamese EFL learners. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching 7(1): 66-85.Ma, R. 1999. Language learning strategies of a sample of tertiary-level students in the P.R. China. Guide-lines 21(1): 1–11.
  16. 16. referencesMacLeod, P. 2002. Take two language learners: A case study of the learning strategies of two successful learners of English as a second language with instrumental motivation. Journal of Language and Linguistics 1: 1–13.McIntyre, P.D. & Noels, K. 1996. Using social-psychological variables to predict the use of language learning strategies. Foreign Language Annals 29: 373–386.O’Malley, J.M., Chamot, A.U., Stewner-Manzanares Küpper G.L., & Russo, R.P. 1985. Learning strategies used by beginning and intermediate ESL students. Language Learning 35: 21–46.Opper, S., Teichler, U. & Carlson, J. 1990. Impacts of studying abroad programmes on students and graduates. London: Jessica Kinglsey Publishers.Oxford, R. & Nyikos, M. 1989. Variables affecting choice of language learning strategies by university students. Modern Language Journal 73: 291–300.Park G.P. 1997. Language learning strategies and English proficiency in Korean university students. Foreign Language Annals 30(2): 211–221.Paul, P. 2011. Use of language learning strategies: an investigation of the use pattern of language learning strategies of Bangladeshi learners and its correlation with the proficiency level. Thesis submitted to the Department of English and Humanities of BRAC University In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Applied Linguistics and ELT.Peacock, M. & Ho, B. 2003. Student language learning strategies across eight disciplines. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 13: 179–200.Purdie, N. & Oliver, R. 1999. Language strategies used by bilingual school-aged children. System 27: 375–388.
  17. 17. referencesRadwan, A.A. 2011. Effects of L2 proficiency and gender on choice of language learning strategies by university students majoring in English. Asian EFL Journal 13(1): 114-162.Rahimi, M. Riazi, A. & Saif, S. 2008. An investigation into the factors affecting the use of language learning strategies by Persian EFL learners. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics 11(2): 31-60.Rao, Z. 2012. Language learning strategies and English proficiency: interpretations from information-processing theory. The Language Learning Journal, (ahead-of-print), 1-17.Razak, N.Z.A., Ismail, F., Aziz, A.A., & Babikkoi, M.A. 2012. Assessing the use of English language learning strategies among secondary school students in Malaysia. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 66: 240-246.Rossi-Le, L. 1995. Learning style and strategies in adult immigrant ESL students. In J.M. Reid (ed.), Learning styles in the ESL/EFL classroom. Boston: Heinle & Heinle, pp. 118–125.Stoffa, R., Kush, J.C. & Heo, M. 2011. Using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire and the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning in assessing motivation and learning strategies of generation 1.5 Korean immigrant students. Education Research International 2011: 1-8.Tamada, Y. 1996. The relationship between Japanese learners’ personal factors and their choices of language learning strategies. Modern Language Journal 80: 120–131.Tran, T.V. 1988. Sex differences in English language acculturation and learning strategies among Vietnamese adults aged 40 and over in the United States. Sex Roles 19: 747–758.Wharton, G. 2000. Language learning strategy use of bilingual foreign language learner in Singapore. Lan-guage Learning 50(2): 203–243.Yang, N.D. 1999. The relationship between EFL learners’ beliefs and learning strategy use. System 27: 515–535.

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