1. KENYA INSTITUTE OF PROFFESSIONAL COUNSELINGCAMPUS : KISUMUCOURSE : HIGHER DIPLOMA IN SOCIAL WORK&COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENTDEPARTMENT : DISTANCE LEARNINGMODULE TITTLE : COMMUNICATION SKILLSMODULE CODE : PSY 203TASK : WHY COMMUNICATION IS CONSIDERED TO BE A PROCESSNAME : ELIZABETH ADHIAMBO OPIYOADMISSION NO :TRAINER : JACKLINE NGETICHDATE OF SUBMISSION: JULY 2012
2. TABLE OF CONTENT PAGEINTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………..2COMMUNICATION PROCESS (Sender/Encoder, messages) .…………………4Messages, Channels, Recipient/decoder, Feedback………………………………5Feedback, Noise, COMMUNICATION PROCESS DIAGRAM………………..6CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………………7SUMMARY………………………………………………………………………….8REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………...9
3. INTRODUCTIONThe communication process is made up of four key components. Those components includeencoding, medium of transmission, decoding, and feedback. There are also two other factors inthe process, and those two factors are present in the form of the sender and the receiverIt is a process human use to construct meaning together. It is also any process in which peopleshare information, ideas and feeling. It involves not only the spoken and written words but alsothe body language, Personal manner and styles anything that adds meaning to a message.Communication is a process because it is always changing.Communication can best be summarized as the transmission of a message from a sender to areceiver in an understandable manner. The importance of effective communication isimmeasurable in the world of business and in personal life. From a business perspective,
4. COMMUNICATION PROCESSEffective communication is an absolute must, because it commonly accounts for the differencebetween success and failure or profit and loss. It has become clear that effective businesscommunication is critical to the successful operation of modern enterprise. Every businessperson needs to understand the fundamentals of effective communicationEffective communication is the most critical component of total quality management. Themanner in which individuals perceive and talk to each other at work about different issues is amajor determinant of the business success. It has proven been proven that poor communicationreduces quality, weakens productivity, and eventually leads to anger and a lack of trust amongindividuals within the organization.The communication process is the guide toward realizing effective communication. It is throughthe communication process that the sharing of a common meaning between the sender and thereceiver takes place. Individuals that follow the communication process will have theopportunity to become more productive in every aspect of their profession. Effectivecommunication leads to understanding.The sender/encoder:.A sender is an individual, group, or organization who initiates the communication. This sourceis initially responsible for the success of the message. The senders experiences, attitudes,knowledge, skill, perceptions, and culture influence the message. The written words, spokenwords, and nonverbal language selected are paramount in ensuring the receiver interprets themessage as intended by the sender. All communication begins with the sender. The first step thesender is faced with involves the encoding process. In order to convey meaning, the sender mustbegin encoding, which means translating information into a message in the form of symbols thatrepresent ideas or concepts. This process translates the ideas or concepts into the coded messagethat will be communicated. The symbols can take on numerous forms such as, languages, words,or gestures. These symbols are used to encode ideas into messages that others can understand.When encoding a message, the sender has to begin by deciding what he/she wants to transmit.This decision by the sender is based on what he/she believes about the receivers knowledge andassumptions, along with what additional information he/she wants the receiver to have. It isimportant for the sender to use symbols that are familiar to the intended receiver. A good way forthe sender to improve encoding their message is to mentally visualize the communication fromthe receivers point of view.Messages: It is made of the ideas and feelings that the sender-receiver wants to share. Ideas canbe communicated only if they are represented by symbols verbal and non verbal. The words in alanguage are verbal symbols, which stand for a particular thing or ideas. Verbal symbols arelimited and complicated e.g., when we talk about chairs we agree we are talking about somethingwe sit on. This chair is a concrete symbol, a symbol that represents an object. On verbal symbolsare ways we communicate without using words , they include facial expressions e.g. s
5. To begin transmitting the message, the sender uses some kind of channel (also called a medium).The channel is the means used to convey the message. Most channels are either oral or written,but currently visual channels are becoming more common as technology expands. Commonchannels include the telephone and a variety of written forms such as memos, letters, and reports.The effectiveness of the various channels fluctuates depending on the characteristics of thecommunication. For example, when immediate feedback is necessary, oral communicationchannels are more effective because any uncertainties can be cleared up on the spot. In asituation where the message must be delivered to more than a small group of people, writtenchannels are often more effective. Although in many cases, both oral and written channels shouldbe used because one supplements the other.If a sender relays a message through an inappropriate channel, its message may not reach theright receivers. That is why senders need to keep in mind that selecting the appropriate channelwill greatly assist in the effectiveness of the receivers understanding..Channel: After the appropriate channel or channels are selected, the message enters thedecoding stage of the communication process. Decoding is conducted by the receiver. Once themessage is received and examined, the stimulus is sent to the brain for interpreting, in order toassign some type of meaning to it. It is this processing stage that constitutes decoding. Thereceiver begins to interpret the symbols sent by the sender, translating the message to their ownset of experiences in order to make the symbols meaningful. Successful communication takesplace when the receiver correctly interprets the senders message.The receiver is the individual or individuals to whom the message is directed. The extent towhich this person comprehends the message will depend on a number of factors, which includethe following: how much the individual or individuals know about the topic, their receptivity tothe message, and the relationship and trust that exists between sender and receiver. Allinterpretations by the receiver are influenced by their experiences, attitudes, knowledge, skills,perceptions, and culture. It is similar to the senders relationship with encoding. Recipient / Decoder: is a person for whom the message is intended / aimed / targeted. Thedegree to which the decoder understands the message is dependent upon various factors such asknowledge of recipient, their responsiveness to the message, and the reliance of encoder ondecoder.Feedback: Feedback is the final link in the chain of the communication process. After receivinga message, the receiver responds in some way and signals that response to the sender. The signalmay take the form of a spoken comment, a long sigh, a written message, a smile, or some otheraction. "Even a lack of response, is in a sense, a form of response" (Bovee & Thill, 1992).Without feedback, the sender cannot confirm that the receiver has interpreted the messagecorrectly.Feedback is a key component in the communication process because it allows the sender toevaluate the effectiveness of the message. Feedback ultimately provides an opportunity for thesender to take corrective action to clarify a misunderstood message. "Feedback plays an
6. important role by indicating significant communication barriers: differences in background,different interpretations of words, and differing emotional reactions" (Bovee & Thill, 1992). Noise: The communication process is the perfect guide toward achieving effectivecommunication. When followed properly, the process can usually assure that the sendersmessage will be understood by the receiver. Although the communication process seems simple,it in essence is not. Certain barriers present themselves throughout the process. Those barriers arefactors that have a negative impact on the communication process. Some common barriersinclude the use of an inappropriate medium (channel), incorrect grammar, inflammatory words,words that conflict with body language, and technical jargon. Noise is also another commonbarrier. Noise can occur during any stage of the process. Noise essentially is anything thatdistorts a message by interfering with the communication process. Noise can take many forms,including a radio playing in the background, another person trying to enter your conversation,and any other distractions that prevent the receiver from paying attention. COMMUNICATION PROCESS DIAGRAM MESSAGE SENDER ENCORDDING MEDIA DECORDING RECEIVER FEEDBACK RESPONSE
7. CONCLUSIONSuccessful and effective communication within an organization stems from the implementationof the communication process. All members within an organization will improve theircommunication skills if they follow the communication process, and stay away from the differentbarriers. It has been proven that individuals that understand the communication process willblossom into more effective communicators, and effective communicators have a greateropportunity for becoming a success. Effective communication is a major part in achieving youreducational.
8. SUMMARYCommunication is a two-way process that involves getting your message across andunderstanding what others have to say. Communication involves active listening, speaking andobserving. Now that you have learned the communication process, you can begin to evaluateyour communication skills. Begin to watch yourself in action. Each time you communicateobserve what you do, how it went, what went well, and what could have been better.
9. REFERENCES 1. Bovee, C.L.&Thill, J.V. (1992) Business Communication Today. (7th Ed).New York. Mc Graw-Hill. 2. Guffey. M.E. (2010) Business Communication. (3rd Ed).Canada. Nelson Education Limited. 3. Scott, M.D. (1999) Dimension of Communication. (Ed). London. Mayfield. 4. Gibson, J.W. & Hudget. R.M (1990) Business Communication Today. (Ed). New York. Mc Graw-Hill. 5. Weaver II, R. O(2001)Communicating Effectively.(6thEd).United States of America.Mc Graw-Hill.