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Online Teaching Standards Document Transcript

  • 1. Idaho Standards for K-12 Online Teachers Table of Contents Standard #1: Knowledge of Online Education - The online teacher understands the central concepts, tools of inquiry, and structures in online instruction and creates learning experiences that take advantage of the transformative potential in online learning environments. ............................................2 Standard #2: Knowledge of Human Development and Learning - The online teacher understands how students learn and develop, and provides opportunities that support their intellectual, social, and personal development.................................................................................................................................3 Standard #3: Modifying Instruction for Individual Needs - The online teacher understands how students differ in their approaches to learning and creates instructional opportunities that are adapted to learners with diverse needs.........................................................................................................................4 Standard #4: Multiple Instructional Strategies - The online teacher understands and uses a variety of instructional strategies to develop students' critical thinking, problem solving, and performance skills....5 Standard #5: Classroom Motivation and Management Skills - The online teacher understands individual and group motivation and behavior and creates a learning environment that encourages positive social interaction, active engagement in learning, and self-motivation. ..............................................................6 Standard #6: Communication Skills, Networking, and Community Building - The online teacher uses a variety of communication techniques including verbal, nonverbal, and media to foster inquiry, collaboration, and supportive interaction in and beyond the classroom....................................................7 Standard #7: Instructional Planning Skills - The online teacher plans and prepares instruction based upon knowledge of subject matter, students, the community, and curriculum goals. ...............................7 Standard #9: Professional Commitment and Responsibility - The online teacher is a reflective practitioner who demonstrates a commitment to professional standards and is continuously engaged in purposeful mastery of the art and science of online teaching. ...................................................................8 Standard #10: Partnerships - The online teacher interacts in a professional, effective manner with colleagues, parents, and other members of the community to support students' learning and well being. .....................................................................................................................................................................9
  • 2. Idaho Standards for Online Teachers All teacher candidates are expected to meet the Idaho Core Teacher Standards, as well as the standards specific to their discipline area(s) at the “acceptable” level or above. Additionally, all teacher candidates are expected to meet the requirements defined in State Board Rule (08.02.02: Rules Governing Uniformity). The following knowledge, disposition, and performance statements for the K-12 Online Teacher Standards are widely recognized, but not all-encompassing or absolute indicators that teacher candidates have met the standards. It is the responsibility of a teacher preparation program to use indicators in a manner that is consistent with its conceptual framework and that assures attainment of the standards. The characteristics of online instruction can be vastly different from teaching in traditional face- to-face environments. Online schools and programs serving K-12 students should be structured to support the unique needs of students and teachers in online environments. The Online Teacher Standards are aligned to the Idaho Core Teacher Standards. Standard #1: Knowledge of Online Education - The online teacher understands the central concepts, tools of inquiry, and structures in online instruction and creates learning experiences that take advantage of the transformative potential in online learning environments. Knowledge - Online Teaching 1. The online teacher understands the current standards for best practices in online teaching and learning. 2. The online teacher understands the role of online teaching in preparing students for the global community of the future. 3. The online teacher understands concepts, assumptions, debates, processes of inquiry, and ways of knowing that are central to the field of online teaching and learning. 4. The online teacher understands the relationship between online education and other subject areas and real life situations. 5. The online teacher understands the relationship between online teaching and advancing technologies. 6. The online teacher understands appropriate uses of technologies to promote student learning and engagement with the content. 2
  • 3. 7. The online teacher understands the instructional delivery continuum. (e.g., fully online to blended to face-to-face). Disposition 1. The online teacher realizes that online education is not a fixed body of knowledge but is complex and ever evolving. 2. The online teacher has enthusiasm for online education and the potential to positively impact student learning. Performance – Content (online teaching technology use and design) 1. The online teacher utilizes current standards for best practices in online teaching to identify appropriate instructional processes and strategies. 2. The online teacher demonstrates application of communication technologies for teaching and learning (e.g., Learning Management System [LMS], Content Management System [CMS], email, discussion, desktop video conferencing, and instant messaging tools). 3. The online teacher demonstrates application of emerging technologies for teaching and learning (e.g., blogs, wikis, content creation tools, mobile technologies, virtual worlds). 4. The online teacher demonstrates application of advanced troubleshooting skills (e.g., digital asset management, firewalls, web-based applications). 5. The online teacher demonstrates the use of design methods and standards in course/document creation and delivery. 6. The online teacher demonstrates knowledge of access, equity (digital divide) and safety concerns in online environments. Standard #1 Research: Granger, D., and M. Bowman. 2003. Constructing knowledge at a distance: The learner in context. In Handbook of distance education, ed. M. G. Moore and W. G. Anderson, 169-180. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Gunawardena, C. N., and M. S. McIsaac. 2004. Distance education. In D. H. Jonassen (Eds.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology, 355-395. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Moore, M. G. 1989. Three types of interactions. The American Journal of Distance Education 3(2):1-6. Standard #2: Knowledge of Human Development and Learning - The online teacher understands how students learn and develop, and provides opportunities that support their intellectual, social, and personal development. Performance 1. The online teacher understands the continuum of fully online to blended learning environments and creates unique opportunities and challenges for the learner (e.g., Synchronous and Asynchronous, Individual and Group Learning, Digital Communities). 3
  • 4. 2. The online teacher uses communication technologies to alter learning strategies and skills (e.g., Media Literacy, visual literacy). 3. The online teacher demonstrates knowledge of motivational theories and how they are applied to online learning environments. 4. The online teacher constructs learning experiences that take into account students’ physical, social, emotional, moral, and cognitive development to influence learning and instructional decisions. {Physical (e.g., Repetitive Use Injuries, Back and Neck Strain); Sensory Development (e.g.Hearing, Vision, Computer Vision Syndrome, Ocular Lock); Conceptions of social space (e.g.Identity Formation, Community Formation, Autonomy); Emotional (e.g.Isolation, cyber-bullying); Moral (i.e Enigmatic communities, Disinhibition effect, Cognitive, Creativity)}. Standard #2 Research Weber, S., & Dixon, S. (2007). Growing up online : young people and digital technologies (1st ed.). New York, N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan. Goodman, R. D., Maggio, J., Lyman, W., Ark Media (Firm), WGBH (Television station : Boston Mass.), & PBS Home Video. (2008). Growing up online [videorecording]. [Boston, MA]Alexandria, VA]: WGBH ; distributed by PBS Home Video,. Lankshear, C., & Knobel, M. (2006). New literacies : everyday practices and classroom learning (2nd ed.). Maidenhead: Open University Press. Lankshear, C., & Knobel, M. (2008). Digital literacies : concepts, policies and practices. New York: Peter Lang. MacArthur Foundation, Digital Media and Learning YouTube Channel http://www.youtube.com/user/macfound Education, Social Media, and Ethics: Howard Gardner, Harvard Graduate School of Education, Vimeo: http://vimeo.com/2235438 Standard #3: Modifying Instruction for Individual Needs - The online teacher understands how students differ in their approaches to learning and creates instructional opportunities that are adapted to learners with diverse needs. Disposition 1. The online teacher is familiar with legal mandates stipulated by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), the Assistive Technology Act and Section 508 requirements for accessibility. Performance 1. The online teacher knows how adaptive/assistive technologies are used to help people who have disabilities gain access to information that might otherwise be inaccessible. 2. The online teacher modifies, customizes and/or personalizes activities to address diverse learning styles, working strategies and abilities (e.g., provide multiple paths to learning objectives, differentiate instruction, strategies for non-native English speakers). 3. The online teacher coordinates learning experiences with adult professionals (e.g., parents, local school contacts, mentors). 4
  • 5. Standard #3 Research: Rice, K., & Dawley, L. (2008). Going virtual: Unique needs and Challenges of K-12 Online Teachers. White paper prepared for the North American Council for Online Learning. Washington, DC. Rose, R. & Blomeyer, R. L. (2007). iNACOL Research Committee Issues Brief: Access and equity in online classes and virtual schools. Washington, DC: The International Association for K-12 Online Learning. US Department of Justice’s Americans with Disabilities Act information page http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/adahom1.htm Information on Public Law 94-142 now called IDEA: http://www.scn.org/~bk269/94-142.html Council of Educators for Students with Disabilities, Inc Section 504 overview: http://www.504idea.org/504overview.html US Department of Justice’s Americans with Disabilities Act information page: http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/adahom1.htm US Department of Education’s Nondiscrimination On The Basis Of Disability In State And Local Government Services: http://www.ed.gov/policy/rights/reg/ocr/edlite-28cfr35.html The Federal Government’s website on section 508 and the 508 standards: http://www.section508.gov/ http://www.section508.gov/index.cfm?FuseAction=Content&ID=12 Department of Education Charter School Legislation: http://www.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/esea02/pg62.html Standard #4: Multiple Instructional Strategies - The online teacher understands and uses a variety of instructional strategies to develop students' critical thinking, problem solving, and performance skills. Knowledge: 1. The online teacher understands the techniques and applications of various online instructional strategies (e.g., discussion, student-directed learning, collaborative learning, lecture, project-based learning, forum, small group work). 2. The online teacher understands appropriate uses of learning and/or content management systems for student learning. Disposition: 1. The online teacher promotes student autonomy, independence and responsibility for lesson mastery. 2. The online teacher promotes, supports, and models creative and innovative thinking, and inventiveness. 3. The online teacher promotes student reflection using collaborative tools to reveal and clarify students’ conceptual understanding and thinking, planning, and creative processes Performance: 5
  • 6. 1. The online teacher evaluates methods for achieving learning goals and chooses various teaching strategies, materials, and technologies to meet instructional purposes and student needs. (e.g., online teacher-gathered data and student offered feedback). 2. The online teacher uses student-centered instructional strategies to engage students in learning. (e.g., Peer-based learning, peer coaching, authentic learning experiences, inquiry-based activities, structured but flexible learning environment, collaborative learning, discussion groups, self-directed learning, case studies, small group work, collaborative learning, and guided design) 3. The online teacher uses a variety of instructional tools and resources to enhance learning (e.g., LMS/CMS, computer directed and computer assisted software, digital age media). Standard #4 Research: PlasmaLink Web Services. (2007). Glossary of instructional strategies. Retrieved January 21, 2009 from http://glossary.plasmalink.com/glossary.html University of Illinois. (2007). Instructional strategies for online courses. Retrieved January 21, 2009 from the Illinois Online Network Web site: http://www.ion.uillinois.edu/resources/tutorials/pedagogy/instructionalstrategies.asp Standard #5: Classroom Motivation and Management Skills - The online teacher understands individual and group motivation and behavior and creates a learning environment that encourages positive social interaction, active engagement in learning, and self-motivation. Performance 1. The online teacher establishes a positive and safe climate in the classroom and participates in maintaining a healthy environment in the school or program as a whole (e.g., digital etiquette, Internet safety, Acceptable Use Policy [AUP]). 2. The online teacher performs management tasks (e.g., tracks student enrollments, communication logs, attendance records, etc.). 3. The online teacher uses effective time management strategies (e.g., timely and consistent feedback, provides course materials in a timely manner, use online tool functionality to improve instructional efficiency). Standard #5 Research: Chickering, A.W., & Erhmann, S.C. (1996). Implementing the seven principles: Technology as lever. AAHE Bulletin, 49(2), 3-6. Chickering, A.W., & Gamson, Z.F. (March,1987). Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. AAHE Bulletin, 39(7), 3-7. 6
  • 7. Rice, K., & Dawley, L. (2008). Going virtual: Unique needs and Challenges of K-12 Online Teachers. White paper prepared for the North American Council for Online Learning. Washington, DC. Wang, S. & Reeves, T.C. (2006). The effects of a Web-based learning environment on student motivation in a high school earth science course. Educational Technology Research and Development, 54(6), 597-621. Standard #6: Communication Skills, Networking, and Community Building - The online teacher uses a variety of communication techniques including verbal, nonverbal, and media to foster inquiry, collaboration, and supportive interaction in and beyond the classroom. Disposition 1. The online teacher recognizes the importance of verbal (synchronous) as well as nonverbal (asynchronous) communication. Performance 1. The online teacher is a thoughtful and responsive communicator. 2. The online teacher models effective communication strategies in conveying ideas and information and in asking questions to stimulate discussion and promote higher-order thinking (e.g., discussion board facilitation, personal communications, and web conferencing). 3. The online teacher demonstrates the ability to communicate effectively using a variety of mediums. 4. The online teacher adjusts communication in response to cultural differences (e.g., wait time and authority). Standard #6 Research: Akayoğlu, S., Altun, A., Stevens, V. (2009, January). Social presence in synchronous text-based computer-mediated communication. Journal of Educational Research 34, p1-16. Retrieved EBSCOhost February 13, 2009. Harris, J. & Jones, G., (1999, Fall). A descriptive study of telementoring among students, subject matter experts, and teachers: Message flow and function patterns. Journal of Research on Computing in Education 32 (1) 36 – 48. Retrieved EBSCOHost February 13, 2009. Standard #7: Instructional Planning Skills - The online teacher plans and prepares instruction based upon knowledge of subject matter, students, the community, and curriculum goals. Performance 7
  • 8. 1. The online teacher clearly communicates to students stated and measurable objectives, course goals, grading criteria, course organization and expectations. 2. The online teacher maintains accuracy and currency of course content, incorporates internet resources into course content, and extends lesson activities. 3. The online teacher designs and develops subject-specific online content. 4. The online teacher uses multiple forms of media to design course content. 5. The online teacher designs course content to facilitate interaction and discussion. 6. The online teacher designs course content that complies with intellectual property rights and fair use standards. Standard #7 Research: Dabbagh, N. (2004). DISTANCE LEARNING. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 5(1), 37-49. Retrieved December 3, 2008, from Academic Search Premier database. Irlbeck, S., Kays, E., Jones, D., & Sims, R. (2006). The Phoenix Rising: Emergent models of instructional design. Distance Education, 27(2), 171-185. Retrieved December 3, 2008, doi:10.1080/01587910600789514 McLoughlin, C. (2002, October). Learner Support in Distance and Networked Learning Environments: Ten Dimensions for Successful Design. Distance Education, 23(2), 149-162. Retrieved December 3, 2008, doi:10.1080/0158791022000009178 Standard #8: Assessment of Student Learning - The online teacher understands, uses, and interprets formal and informal assessment strategies to evaluate and advance student performance and to determine program effectiveness. Performance 1. tests, performance tasks, projects, student self-assessment, peer assessment, standardized tests, tests written in primary language, and authentic assessments) to enhance knowledge of individual students, evaluate student performance and progress, and modify teaching and learning strategies. 2. The online teacher enlists multiple strategies for ensuring security of online student assessments and assessment data. Standard #8 Research: Bangert, A. & Rice, K. (in press). What we know about assessing online learning in secondary schools. In L. T. W. Hin & R. Subramaniam (Eds.), Handbook of research on new media literacy at the K-12 level, Eds. US: Hershey. Standard #9: Professional Commitment and Responsibility - The online teacher is a reflective practitioner who demonstrates a commitment to professional 8
  • 9. standards and is continuously engaged in purposeful mastery of the art and science of online teaching. Knowledge 1. The online teacher understands the need for professional activity and collaboration beyond school (e.g. professional learning communities). 2. The online teacher knows how educational standards and curriculum align with 21st century skills. Disposition 1. The online teacher recognizes his/her professional responsibility to contribute to the effectiveness, vitality, and self-renewal of the teaching profession as well as to his/her online school and community. Performance 1. The online teacher adheres to local, state, and federal laws and policies (e.g., FERPA, AUP’s). 2. The online teacher has participated in an online course and applies experiences as an online student to develop and implement successful strategies for online teaching environments. 3. The online teacher demonstrates alignment of educational standards and curriculum with 21st century technology skills. Standard #9 Research: Georgia Department of Education. 505-3-.85 Online teaching endorsement program., Retrieved November 24, 2008 from http://rules.sos.state.ga.us/docs/505/3/85.pdf Interstate New Online teacher Assessment and Support Consortium Standards. (INTASC). 2008.* Nagel, D. (October 20, 2008). Professional development program targets 21st century skills. T.H.E. Journal. Retrieved November 20, 2008 from http://www.thejournal.com/articles/23458 Partnership for 21st Century Skills. (2008). Tools and resources for professional development. Retrieved November 29, 2008 from http://www.21stcenturyskills.org/ Southern Regional Education Board. (SREB). (2008). Multi-state online professional development toolkit. Retrieved November 25, 2008 from http://www.sreb.org/programs/edtech/MOPD/resources.asp Standard #10: Partnerships - The online teacher interacts in a professional, effective manner with colleagues, parents, and other members of the community to support students' learning and well being. Standard #10 Research: 9
  • 10. Fusco, J., & Schlager, M.S., (2003, July/August). Teacher professional development, technology, and communities of practice: Are we putting the cart before the horse? Information Society 19(3) 203 – 224. Retrieved EBSCOHost February 13, 2009. 10
  • 11. National and Regional Standards International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE). (2008). National Educational Technology Standards for Online teachers. 2nd Ed. ISTE: Washington, DC. National Education Association (NEA). (2006a). Guide to online high school courses. Retrieved August 19, 2007 from http://www.nea.org/technology/onlinecourseguide.html National Education Association (NEA). (2006b). Guide to teaching online courses. Retrieved August 19, 2007 from http://www.nea.org/technology/onlineteachguide.html North American Council for Online Learning (NACOL). (2007). National standards of quality for online courses. Retrieved May 22, 2008 from http://www.nacol.org/nationalstandards/index.php#teaching North American Council for Online Learning (NACOL). (2008). National standards for quality online teaching. Retrieved May 22, 2008 from http://www.nacol.org/nationalstandards/index.php#teaching Southern Regional Education Board (SREB). (2006a). Standards for quality online courses. Retrieved August, 19 2007 from http://www.sreb.org/programs/EdTech/pubs/2006Pubs/StandardsQualityOnlineCourses.asp Southern Regional Education Board (SREB). (2006b). Standards for quality online teaching. Retrieved August, 19 2007 from http://www.sreb.org/programs/EdTech/pubs/PDF/StandardsQualityOnlineTeaching.asp Southern Regional Education Board (SREB). (2006c). Checklist for evaluating online courses. Retrieved August, 19 2007 from http://www.sreb.org/programs/EdTech/pubs/2006Pubs/ChecklistEvaluateOnlieCourses.asp 11