Taller impartido por Lisa Anderson de Umaña: Convencion de ACSI Honduras, Sept. 2007


                 COMO FOMENTAR EL P...
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                        Aprovecha el énfasis de los postmodernistas en la experiencia

Dado el hecho de que los postmod...
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Los maestros pueden conscientemente provocar incertidumbre, ambigüedad y duda en la mente de sus alumnos sobre ciertas
i...
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                                           BIBLIOGRAFIA


Bohlin, Sue. 2007. Four killer questions. Richardson, Texas...
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                     Teaching Agenda: Promoting Critical Thinking in a Post Modern World


Honduran Convention of the...
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During the Session

 5 min.      Large     Introduce myself briefly.
             group     Explain my agenda. Allow tho...
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            LEARNING GOAL




During the session

 10 min.      G-1    • Read killer question 3: Briefly mention the ref...
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Evaluation of Promoting critical thinking in a postmodern world
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            Promoting a fuller understanding of what you are teaching on the basis of learning styles


Honduran Co...
PRE-SESSION PREPARATIONS
   Lisa
                            Questions previously written on the board or Flipchart #1: Ho...
Demonstration of teaching just for auditive and visual learners

LEARNING GOAL
The teachers will question the adequacy of ...
Reflection questions:                                             9:41)
                            What’s the hardest par...
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Spanish Promoting Critical Thinking Final Project Addressing A Current Issue

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Teaching agenda and Notes in Spanish of a 2 hour workshop given in Academia Pinares (Honduras) for teacher training conference.

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Spanish Promoting Critical Thinking Final Project Addressing A Current Issue

  1. 1. Taller impartido por Lisa Anderson de Umaña: Convencion de ACSI Honduras, Sept. 2007 COMO FOMENTAR EL PENSAMIENTO CRITICO EN EL NINO Y JOVEN Ante la realidad del creciente postmodernismo en la sociedad, ¿qué papel juega el pensamiento crítico en ayudar a nuestros alumnos a perseguir la verdad? ¿Cómo podemos fomentarlo en todas las materias y en una forma apropiada para su edad? ¿Qué quieres decir con esto? ¿Qué quieres decir con esto? En otras palabras, define tus términos. Vamos a comenzar definiendo postmodernismo y luego lo que quiero decir con pensamiento crítico. Quiérase o no, nuestros alumnos están creciendo en un mundo postmodernista. Es nuestro contexto; sin embargo no existe una definición definitiva de postmodernismo. Pero, Andy Crouch (2000) ofrece un poco de entendimiento con esta descripción. Los postmodernistas rechazan fervientemente la noción de que existan verdades absolutos y considerarían cualquier declaración de haberlo encontrado una jugada de poder, una imposición y muy falta tolerancia. Se puede entenderlo un poco al contrastarlo con el modernismo (Goetz 1997). El modernismo, que comenzó más o menos en los 1700s y supuestamente se ha terminado en los 1950s, es la perspectiva cultural que pone su fe en el optimismo, el progreso, y la búsqueda de conocimiento objetivo, y en las ciencias. J.L. Packer dice, “Modernismo…. asumía que era dentro del poder de la razón resolver todos los problemas del mundo y determinar todo lo que el hombre necesitaba saber. El postmodernismo es su medula esta en contra de todo lo asume el modernismo. Tienden a ser muy pesimistas hacia cualquier progreso verdadero del hombre. Los postmodernistas no creen en la existencia de una verdad objetivo (es decir, algo externo a uno mismo) o absoluto (aplicable a todo el mundo). Mas bien, creen en verdades subjetivas, formada por cada persona según su parecer y experiencia. Puedes escuchar esta creencia en los programas de televisión con comentarios como: Esta es tu verdad, mi verdad es otra. Cada quien tiene su propia verdad. Ahora, vamos a definir pensamiento crítico. Aunque suena mas bien como algo que diría Winnie-Pooh, la forma más fácil de definirlo es lo siguiente: El pensamiento critico es pensar acerca de tu pensamiento mientras estás pensando para poder pensar mejor (Paul 1992). Para la mentalidad postmodernista, el pensamiento crítico es un fin en si. Desde la perspectiva bíblica, el pensamiento crítico forma una parte de un proceso de aprender y saber/conocer. (Vamos a considerar intercambiables las palabras aprender, saber, y conocer.) Para entender mejor el papel que juego el pensamiento crítico en la enseñanza, tenemos que tomar un paso para atrás para analizar un modelo de conocimiento. Recuerda, hay varios modelos; el modernismo tiene uno que difiere del modelo que visualiza el postmodernismo. El modelo que presento fue recopilado de varios libros, los cuales se encuentran en una bibliografía que puedo entregarles por aparte al final de la clase si lo desean. Dios, nuestro Creador, ha provisto una variedad de fuentes de conocimiento para aprender y crecer. Aprender no es solamente una actividad mental como los modernistas querrían hacernos creer. Los postmodernistas reconocen una pequeña faceta de la verdad de Dios cuando argumentan a favor de otras fuentes de adquirir conocimiento. 1
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  4. 4. 4 Aprovecha el énfasis de los postmodernistas en la experiencia Dado el hecho de que los postmodernistas atribuyen un alto valor a la experiencia subjetiva, a los maestros les conviene maximizar el uso de la experiencia y participación activa de los alumnos en la clase. Yo estaría de acuerdo con la premisa de los postmodernistas que todo aprendizaje comienza con la experiencia. Considera las leyes de físico. Fueron descubiertos y después escritos en libros de texto sobre la base de las experiencias personales de los inventores. Lo que ha pasado es que con el pasar de los años nuestros libros de texto han separado el conocimiento de las mismas experiencias que los produjo. Exigimos que los alumnos memoricen contenido sin que entiendan la conexión con las circunstancias o experiencias originales de donde se provenían (Piensa en las ecuaciones y formulas matemáticas de las cuales decimos: ¡Algún día vas a necesitar esto!) Durante este taller, discutiremos estrategias para hacer esta conexión según tu materia y / o grado que enseñas (Tennant 1991, 196-197). Los maestros necesitan vincular sus explicaciones y ilustraciones con la previa experiencia que traen en si mismos los alumnos. 1 De acuerdo a tu materia, ¿cuáles explicaciones o ilustraciones pueden ser vinculados directamente con las experiencias previas de tus alumnos? Los maestros puede intentar a vincular las actividades en la clase con lo que están viviendo en casa, en su comunidad o trabajo. 2 ¿Cuáles problemas actualmente enfrentan tus estudiantes en casa o en la vida cotidiana que tu materia puede ayudarles a resolver o tratar? Los maestros pueden crear experiencias de las cuales el aprendizaje fluirá. En otras palabras, pueden diseñar actividades que los hará participes en su propio aprendizaje como juegos, dinámicas, dramas (sketches) o acertijos. Estas experiencias establecerán una base común de la cual cada alumno construirá su propio significado por medio de la reflexión individual y grupal posterior. 3 Qué actividad participativa puedes crear que promovería que tus estudiantes hiciera preguntas sobre la material o clase? Referirse a la clase que Lisa enseñó sobre el cielo para niños de segundo grado.
  5. 5. 5 Los maestros pueden conscientemente provocar incertidumbre, ambigüedad y duda en la mente de sus alumnos sobre ciertas interpretaciones o suposiciones que ellos tienen. Considera lo que Jesús hizo cuando él intencionalmente sanó la mujer paralítica en el día sagrado del Señor. Léelo en Lucas 13:10-17. Jesús consideró que sus suposiciones estaban equivocadas e hizo algo que los provocaría. 4 ¿Cómo puedes ayudar a tus alumnos a descubrir qué piensan y suponen que podría ser incorrecto o malinterpretado? Para muchos, esto es la esencia del pensamiento crítico. Consideramos otros ejemplos de la Biblia. Mira cómo Jesús les ayudó a sus discípulos descubrir que sus suposiciones sobre porqué la gente se enfermaba estaban equivocadas. Juan 9:1-3: “A su paso, Jesús vio a un hombre que era ciego de nacimiento. Y sus discípulos le preguntaron: —Rabí, para que este hombre haya nacido ciego, ¿quién pecó, él o sus padres? —Ni él pecó, ni sus padres —respondió Jesús—, sino que esto sucedió para que la obra de Dios se hiciera evidente en su vida. Otro ejemplo de fomentar el pensamiento crítico en la visión que Dios le dio a Pedro en Hechos 10. Dios le mostró una visión de los animales impíos para retar las suposiciones que Pedro tenía sobre los gentiles y Dios le indujo a una forma alterna de pensamiento sobre los gentiles: Que eran dignos recipientes del mensaje de salvación por medio de Jesucristo. ¿De dónde obtienes tu información? ¿De dónde obtienes tu información? Para este taller estudié la Biblia y varios libros y artículos que se encuentran en una Bibliografía aparte si desea tener una copia. ¿Cómo sabes que es verdad?? ¿Cómo sabes que es verdad? No puedo tener un 100% de certeza que todo lo que he leído y lo que yo he escrito sea infaliblemente cierto y verdad. Después de todo, somos seres humanos y solamente Dios es infalible. Pero yo confío que Dios ha revelado su verdad tanto en la Palabra como en el mundo y que El desea que conozcamos la Verdad y que crezcamos en nuestro conocimiento. Puedes validar por ti mismo la veracidad del Diagrama 1 por medio de personalizarlo con tus propios ejemplos de aprendizaje. Completa los espacios en blanco debajo de cada figura usando un ejemplo personal donde has aprendido o descubierto verdades. Este ejercicio te obligará a reflexionar sobre tus pensamientos y acciones en aquel entonces. 5 Qué aprendiste sobre tu papel en ayudar a tus alumnos perseguir la verdad y el conocimiento?
  6. 6. 6 BIBLIOGRAFIA Bohlin, Sue. 2007. Four killer questions. Richardson, Texas: Probe Ministries International. Accessed 28 September 2007. Available from http://www.probe.org/current-issues/four-killer- questions.html; Internet. (I used three of these killer questions as sub-titles for the handouts.) Brookfield, Stephen D. 1987. Developing Critical Thinkers: Challenging Adults to Explore Alternative Ways of Thinking and Acting. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Crouch, Andy. 2000. What Exactly Is Postmodernism? The often-maligned movement is today's academic Rorschach blot. Accessed 28 September 2007. Available from http://www.christianitytoday.com/spiritualhelp/articles/le7l1052.html: Internet. Goetz, David L. 1997. The Riddle of Our Postmodern Culture: What is postmodernism? Should we even care? Leadership Journal, Vol. XVIII, No. 1: 52. Accessed 28 September 2007. Available from http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2000/november13/8.76.html: Internet. Meek, Esther Lightcap. 2003. Longing to Know: The Philosophy of Knowledge for Ordinary People. Grand Rapids, MI: Brazos Press. Mezirow, Jack and Associates. 1990. Fostering critical reflection in adulthood: A guide to transformative and emancipatory learning. San Francisco, Calif.: Jossey-Bass. Paul, Richard. 1992. Critical thinking: What every person needs to survive in a rapidly changing world. Santa Rosa, Calif.: Foundation for Critical Thinking. Tennant, Mark. 1991. Adult and continuing education in Australia. In Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide, ed. Merriam, Sharan B. and Caffarealla, Rosemary S., 327. San Francisco, Calif.: Jossey-Bass.
  7. 7. 7 Teaching Agenda: Promoting Critical Thinking in a Post Modern World Honduran Convention of the Association of Christian Schools International September 28-29, 2007 AGE RANGE OF STUDENTS: NUMBER OF CLASSTIME LEARNERS: STUDENTS: Aprox. 50 min. Young Adults Young adults, many recently graduated from college, 30 most with teaching degrees. EDUCATIONAL PURPOSE: LEARNING GOALS: (AS THE LORD BLESSES THIS CLASS, IN FAITH, I SEE THESE TEACHERS… Asking TEACHERS: DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES: PHYSICAL Lisa, PhD student SETTING final assignment for a Classroom with class in Instructional tables and chairs. Design for Critical Thinking Time- Group Duration / size Educational Activity Notes / Materials Responsible PROCESS 1. 5 min. Explain my agenda. Allow those for whom this particular slant is not what they thought it would be to participate in another workshop. 2. 5 min. Define term of critical thinking. 3. 5 min. Define postmodernism. 4. 10 min. Define Meek’s model of “acts of knowing” from the diagram. 5. 15 min. Discuss what their role as a teacher can be in their student’s transformative learning as each small group answers one of the questions and listens to the others. 6. 10 min. Hand them a blank diagram and ask them to fill in the empty balloons with an incident of transformative learning from their own life. Comment on their validation or not of this model of knowing. 7. 5 min. Allow time for wondering and questions. PRE-SESSION PREPARATIONS Lisa Post the written agenda on the flipchart. Handout name tags and markers for people to do their own nametag. Have on hand the reference books. Sample props from teaching heaven to second graders. . ARRIVAL AT CLASS Warmly greet the people at the door as they arrive. Ask them to put on nametags (self-adhesive labels). Introduction LEARNING GOAL
  8. 8. 8 During the Session 5 min. Large Introduce myself briefly. group Explain my agenda. Allow those for whom this particular slant is not what they thought it would be to participate in another workshop. Lisa Definition of terms LEARNING GOAL During the session 10 min. Large 5 min. Define term of critical thinking. Read through handout group 5 min. Define postmodernism. with them Lisa Meek’s Model of acts of knowing LEARNING GOAL During the session 10 min. Large Define Meek’s model of “acts of knowing”. Study the diagram group Read the example from Transformation learning (on green sheet of paper) with them Lisa Their role as teachers LEARNING GOAL During the session 15 min. Small Assign each group a question to answer, asking them to be very specific Write on the board groups regarding their answers. They will be given 10 min. to work on their question exactly what I expect and only 1 min. to share their answer with the rest of the group. Their answer from each small Lisa should include: group. • Subject matter/grade. • Methodology, question asked, activity designed, etc. • Discuss what their role as a teacher can be in their student’s transformative learning as they go through each question Share what you did with the second graders regarding heaven, bring the samples props. Validation of Meek’ model with their own example
  9. 9. 9 LEARNING GOAL During the session 10 min. G-1 • Read killer question 3: Briefly mention the references and show them my Allow them time to books. fill in the blanks. GG • Hand them a blank diagram and ask them to fill in the empty balloons with Lisa an incident of transformative learning from their own life. • Answer questions as needed. • Comment on their validation or not of this model of knowing on the basis of their own experience. Conclusion LEARNING GOAL During the session 5 min. Large Read through the last killer question. group Allow time for wondering and questions. Lisa
  10. 10. 10 Evaluation of Promoting critical thinking in a postmodern world
  11. 11. 11 Promoting a fuller understanding of what you are teaching on the basis of learning styles Honduran Convention of the Association of Christian Schools International Sept. 28-29, 2007 AGE RANGE OF STUDENTS: NUMBER OF CLASSTIME LEARNERS: STUDENTS: Aprox. 50 min. Teachers Adult teachers engaged full time in teaching 20-50 at private Christian schools. EDUCATIONAL PURPOSE: To teach teachers to attend to all three learning styles, audio, visual and kinesthetic learners. LEARNING GOALS: (AS THE LORD BLESSES THIS CLASS, IN FAITH, I SEE THE TEACHERS… Appreciating God’s diversity in having created three main types of learning styles. Struggling with how to teach their subject matter so as to explain it for auditive, visual and kinesthetic learners. Realizing the inadequacy of teaching only for one or two styles, usually their own. TEACHER: DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES: PHYSICAL Workshop teacher SETTING Seven-eight year olds are still at a concrete operations level of cognitive thinking, so heaven is being explained with concrete objects in order to try and Classroom with bridge the gap between the abstract concept of heaven and the choices they tables and chairs. make in their day to day living. Special attention will be made to explain the concepts for all three learning styles: audio, visual and kinesthetic. Time- Group Duration / size Educational Activity Notes / Materials Responsible PROCESS 1. Opening reflection questions 2. Demonstration and timing of teaching a brief portion of the children’s class on heaven only for auditive learners. 3. Demonstration and timing of teaching a brief portion of the children’s class on heaven only for audio and visual learners. 4. Demonstration and timing of teaching a brief portion of the children’s class on heaven for all three learning styles. 5. Brief attempts at teaching to meet the needs of all three learning styles 6. Conclusions
  12. 12. PRE-SESSION PREPARATIONS Lisa Questions previously written on the board or Flipchart #1: How do people learn? Flipchart #2: What did you observe in my teaching? What did you feel? Flipchart #3: What did you observe in my teaching? What felt different in my teaching this time? Flipchart #4: What did you observe in my teaching? What difference did it make for me to get you physically engaged? How did your own understanding of heaven vary after each demonstration? Flipchart #5: What’s the hardest part of teaching this way? What would be the fruit of your efforts if you taught this way? Flipchart #6: In light of this class, what insights have you gained as to how people learn? Stopwatch Whiteboard markers and eraser Bag of props: Each object will be in its own paper bag: One tennis ball, a jump rope, wooden letters, wooden numbers, flash cards, a Bible verse on a 4x6 card (Mark 9:41) 5 min. STUDENTS ARRIVING TO CLASS SESSION Game Introduction to the class LEARNING GOAL To awaken in the teachers a desire to address the needs of each learning style as they teach. During the Session 5 min. Large Opening reflection question: How do people learn? How did you just learn group the game we did as you entered? Lisa Give folks the opportunity to answer. Observe who answers and try to gauge their depth of understanding on this subject. There is a large body of research that has been done on the learning cycle, both for children and adults. What we are going to explore today is a very small piece of the pie, there’s an entire bakery available, which to me as a teacher who loves to teach is like eating your favorite pastry! The backdrop of what we’re going to explore together today comes from a David Kolb’s (1985) research on Experiential Learning. The concepts of the three major learning styles (audio, visual and kinesthetic) form a part of how we learn. To show you what I mean by these three learning styles, I’m going to do three demonstrations of teaching a portion of a class I taught to children on heaven. I would like you to observe the differences between them. Demonstration of teaching just for auditive learners LEARNING GOAL The teachers will experience for themselves the inadequacy of teaching just to one style of learner. During the Session 5 min. Large Teach a portion of the children’s class on heaven just speaking. Read the group scriptures from the Bible. Give someone in the class a stopwatch to time you. Ask him or her to make note on a piece of paper how long each demonstration took. After all three Lisa demonstrations, you’ll write the times on the board. Reflection questions: What did you observe in my teaching? What did you feel?
  13. 13. Demonstration of teaching just for auditive and visual learners LEARNING GOAL The teachers will question the adequacy of teaching to just two styles of learners. During the Session 5 min. Large Teach the same portion of the children’s class on heaven but Visual aid: Draw the timeline on group this time both speaking and visualizing. the board. Lisa Draw on the board the timeline. Give them the scripture on handouts and read them together. Give someone in the class a stopwatch to time you. When you are done, ask the person to go to the board and write the time down. Reflection questions: What did you observe in my teaching? What felt different in my teaching this time? Demonstration of teaching just for auditive and visual and kinesthetic learners LEARNING GOAL The teachers will experience for themselves a greater level of comprehension of the subject matter because all three learning styles were attended to. During the Session Large Teach the same portion of the children’s class on heaven both Visual aid: group speaking and visualizing and engaging them in the activity 15 min. with props. Tape the strings on the board to Do a portion of the class on heaven like you did it with the serve as a visual reference to children. what they’re doing. Lisa Hand each student a bag of props and exit the classroom. Give them the scripture on handouts and read them together. Give someone in the class a stopwatch to time you. Write the times of each demonstration on the board. Reflection questions: What did you observe in my teaching? What difference did it make for me to get you physically engaged? How did your own understanding of heaven vary after each demonstration? Attempts at teaching for all three learning styles LEARNING GOAL The teachers will try their hand at briefly teaching so as to meet the needs of all three learning styles. During the Session Individual Try it! I need several volunteers who are willing to give this a Prop bag practices try (choose three). 15 min. Put your hand into the prop bag and pull out an object. Each object will be in its own You have sixty seconds to prepare a three minute class based paper bag: One tennis ball, a Lisa on the object you’ve chosen. Remember: Explain it to us so jump rope, wooden letters, all three types of learners understands. wooden numbers, flash cards, a Use a stopwatch to give each of them equally three minutes. Bible verse on a 4x6 card (Mark
  14. 14. Reflection questions: 9:41) What’s the hardest part of teaching this way? What would be the fruit of your efforts if you taught this way? Reflection time on how to teach your subject mattes for all three learning styles LEARNING GOAL The teachers will struggle with how to teach their own subject matter to meet the needs of all three learning styles, which will in turn deepen their comprehension of the content. During the Session 5 min. Individual Individual learning task: Visual aid: writing and Write down one thing that you as a teacher can do differently conclusion in order to meet the needs of all three learning styles and Write the learning task on the deepen your students’ grasp of your subject matter. board for each individual to Lisa Reflection question: In light of this class, what insights have work on. you gained as to how people learn? Provide paper in the handouts for people to journal their answers.

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