Increasing Cultural Intelligence In  Short Term Team Members, Their Senders And Their Hosts
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

Increasing Cultural Intelligence In Short Term Team Members, Their Senders And Their Hosts

  • 5,535 views
Uploaded on

This is the English version of a proposal on how to increase the cultural intelligence of the three parts involved in most short term missions trips (the senders, the goers (often North Americans) and ...

This is the English version of a proposal on how to increase the cultural intelligence of the three parts involved in most short term missions trips (the senders, the goers (often North Americans) and the host receivers, which in my case would be Hondurans.

More in: Education , Spiritual
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • Try http://vpsnet.wordpress.com for a good hosting. Review for vps hosting provided by vps.net
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • Glitter Graphics



    Hello, hope everything is oky by the grace of GOD im fine.its attractive yr profile ,i wanna talk to u,have a little time for me.my yahoo id is:
    gift_willian@yahoo.com
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • thank you very much, we've used it with two work teams for the last two years and have found it helps all three parties - the host receivers (Hondurans), the guest-goers (people from my church) and the senders as well (USA church members).
    Lisa
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • Thanks very high academic
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
5,535
On Slideshare
5,529
From Embeds
6
Number of Embeds
2

Actions

Shares
Downloads
86
Comments
4
Likes
1

Embeds 6

http://www.slideshare.net 4
http://presentacion.org 2

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. INCREASING CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE IN THE SHORT-TERM TEAM MEMBERS, THEIR SENDERS AND THEIR HOSTS by Lisa Anderson-Umana B.S., Penn State University, 1982 Master of Arts, Wheaton College Graduate School, 1993 FINAL PROJECT Submitted to the faculty in partial fulfillment of the requirements for ES 8624 Cross-Cultural Conflict, Duane H. Elmer for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Educational Studies at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School Deerfield, Illinois April 2008
  • 2. CONTENTS LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v BACKGROUND AND AUDIENCE FOR THIS PAPER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi DESIGNING A SHORT-TERM MISSIONS TRIP THAT INCREASES THE CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE OF THE SENDERS, THE GOERS AND THE RECEIVERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Mission defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Cultural Intelligence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Definition of culture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Definition of cultural intelligence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Unique factors of the trilogy of participants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Process of nurturing CQ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 First: Pre-trip Preparation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Second: Post-trip integration of the experience into the lives of participants once they return. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Third: During the trip. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 APPENDIX B: KEY CHAIN FOR GOERS-GUESTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 APPENDIX C: KEY CHAIN FOR HOST RECEIVERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 REFERENCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 iii
  • 3. ILUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1. Categorization of cultural differences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2. Apron: Be a servant! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 7 3. Cartoon depicting a particular cultural orientation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 iv
  • 4. TABLES Table Page 1 Common stereotypes Americans and Two-thirds World have of each other. . . . . . . . . . . .6 2 Cultural differences relevant to a 1-2 week STM trip. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 11 3 Aspects to observe during your “Foray into a foreign land” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 v
  • 5. BACKGROUND AND AUDIENCE FOR THIS PAPER The primary reader for this paper is my professor, Dr. Duane Elmer. My secondary readers are myself, being that I am in charge of receiving short-term missions trips in Honduras, since I live and serve in the host country, married to a Honduran, Alfredo Umaña, with whom I would have already made most of the cultural blunders you can make! I consider myself a host receiver together with six Honduran host families, Camp Villa Gracia where we will build eight low ropes course initiatives, Santidad School and church who serve children and families who live and work at Tegucigalpa’s city garbage dump and over a dozen members of Christian Camping International (CCI) with whom I work year- round. The CCI members will work alongside the North Americans who will be arriving. The other secondary reader is my USA counterpart, Henrietta Doren, for whom this will be her eighth consecutive STM trip to Honduras since 1999. She is in charge of the goers- guests and serves as the liaison between the sending church and myself. Thirdly are those readers who are fellow missionaries who serve in Latin America and receive short-term mission teams as part of their ministry. My home church, North Way Christian Community of Pittsburgh, Pa. has been sending me a short-term missions trip each year since 1996. I was the first missionary sent out from that church since it was founded over 25 years ago, so I will not be receiving strangers, but rather friends and supporters. vi
  • 6. In light of the fact that I pretty much hosted the teams the same way year after year, mostly focusing on construction work at camp, I am using the research done for this paper and the ideas that it contains as my turning point. I am preaching to myself. From now on, I would like to establish a new pattern of doing short-term missions and we will experiment with this year’s team in order to “test out our new theories and practices.” The short-term missions team members are willing and quite happy to serve as “guinea pigs” and since half of the team has accompanied me on previous trips, they are looking forward to a change! This being the case, the reader will note that I am combining theory with practical ways to implement it. Thankfully, Henrietta and I are in a position to test each of the ideas set forth in this paper within three months time with an eye towards creating a solid model for many years of short-term missions trips to come. By the way, I would love to see research done and material written for the host receivers not from the angle of how to better serve (pamper in some cases) the North American STM teams but rather, how to better teach the host receivers cultural intelligence as well how to utilize this experience to grow in their own understanding of other cultures. Most Latin American countries are homogeneous and not nearly as diverse in culture as are the USA and Canada, with the exception of certain native Indian populations which are usually isolated from the general population. Latin Americans can learn just as much about Westerners as North Americans can learn about them through short-term missions. vii
  • 7. DESIGNING A SHORT-TERM MISSIONS TRIP THAT INCREASES THE CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE OF THE SENDERS, THE GOERS AND THE RECEIVERS Mission defined I begin with a confession. Only after having served for twenty-five years on the mission field and having hosted no less than 25 short-term mission teams, has cultural intelligence even appeared on my radar screen! No doubt God figured it was time and I was ready for a new challenge. Or perhaps it was due to the convergence of reading of Serving with eyes wide open: Doing short-term missions with cultural intelligence (Livermore 2006) in 2007 and then attending this class in Cross-cultural conflict that prompted me to focus first on my own cultural intelligence and now on the short-term missions (STM) team that we will be hosting July 5-15, 2008, Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Lest I fall prey to making cultural intelligence an end in and of itself, I want to clarify that “mission is not to be the focus of our life and faith…. God calls us to a growing commitment to a Person, our Lord Jesus Christ, not a growing commitment to a task, even one as admirable as mission” (Dearborn 1997, vi.). 1
  • 8. 2 There has been a gradual shift over the last 20 years of viewing short-term mission as the up and coming solution to reach the world for Christ to consuming missions trips mostly for personal benefits in what Livermore (2006) calls the “drive-by mission trip mind-set” to seeing short-term missions as one of the many life experiences that impact us and others, albeit a good one! I have observed this last perspective in the writings of a number of authors including Elmer 2002; Livermore 2006; Dearborn 2003; and Stiles and Stiles 2000 to name a few. My prayer for this paper and the ensuing short-term missions trip from my home church is for all the participants involved to grow more globally aware, pray more for missions and missionaries and become more missions-minded Christians (Borthwick 1996). By all participants, I will adopt Petersen’s, et al. (2003) participant trilogy of senders, goer-guests, and host receivers. Senders represent the church or organization sponsoring the trip. Goer-guests is a unique term meant to clarify the role of those who go on a STM trip as being “guests” in another country. Host receivers refer to those who receive the “guests,” serving as their hosts while they are in their country. As an American married to a Honduran, serving as a career missionary, living in Honduras, and receiving a short-term mission team from her home church, it is clear I have a vested interest in all three participants! This vested interest is what prompts me to design a STM trip that includes increasing the cultural intelligence of the host receivers and not just the goer-guests. As an interesting side note, my own area of expertise is Christian Camping and I observe a strong parallel between the temporary community formed at camp (Slater 1984) and the one that is formed during a short-term mission trip. They even share some
  • 9. 3 of the same limitations! (i.e. it’s temporary, it takes place in physically remote places, it’s distant from the ordinary routine of life, and “we often take young people away from their families and then try to teach them how to live in families! We seek to teach ways of interrelating away from the primary group to which the campers must eventually relate” (Slater 1984, 59). Part of my “hidden agenda” is to see if throughout this short-term missions trip we discover some helpful insights that will help us deal more effectively with these limitations in the camping ministry. Cultural Intelligence There are many aspects of STM that could be considered and a wealth of material to investigate as has been noted in an article entitled All You Ever Wanted on Short Term Missions, (Moreau and O’Rear 2004) which if you access on-line, will provide you with links and more than you ever wanted to know about STM! In addition is the website of Short-Term Evangelical Mission (http://stemintl.org/). I have chosen to focus on one part of the short-term mission endeavor, cultural intelligence (CQ). Given that learning is an active process, one that must involve action in order to apprehend new understandings (Mezirow & Associates 1990), together with the theory base of cultural intelligence, I have created very practical ways in which to nurture it. Since the implementation of these practical ideas will be the key, I will literally provide a key chain to each of the trilogy of participants to carry with them during the 11-day trip. Given the myriad of pressing concerns and the rush of new experiences, a key chain will provide us all with a handy tool to remind the senders to pray, and the goers and receivers to seize the moment each time they put their hand in their pocket. Throughout this paper, I will
  • 10. 4 describe the different “keys” that will hang on each of the key chains. Images of these three key chains can be found in Appendices A, B and C. My hope is while these ideas and practices are applicable to a 11-day trip the lessons learned will also be transferable to other opportunities for cross-cultural connections once the trip is over. Definition of culture Culture, in the era of computers, can best be understood as the software that runs our minds, mental software (Hofstede and Hofstede 2005). As a mental program it contains the patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting that are likely to happen given one’s past and social environment. Culture determines, to a large degree, what people value, what they regard as right or wrong, what they believe to be true or false, their likes and dislikes and what they regard as acceptable or unacceptable. It is passed down from generation to generation. “Culture is in the person, not the setting or the context” (Storti 1994, 40). Let us not be fooled by appearances, even though the computers and office equipment may look alike all around the world, those sitting behind the computers retain their distinct cultural orientations. Sadly, many STM projects pay little or no heed to culture sensitivities, perhaps they perceive modernization and globalization to pretty well have flattened the world and minimized the major cultural differences, or they believe culture to be more a product of the context (Friedman 2007). Definition of cultural intelligence I have read a number of approaches designed to help the people deal effectively with cultural differences. The authors use different terminology to describe
  • 11. 5 more or less the same objective, like cultural sensitivity (Stiles and Stiles 2000), adjustment competency (Elmer 2002), learning to delight in differences (Dearborn 2003) and making the transcultural connection (Hales 1995). Here are a few highlights gathered from their expertise combined with some practical “keys” for implementation. Growing in cultural sensitivity is best considered a journey. Mack and Leeanns (Stiles and Stiles 2000, 63) trace the journey traveled by our beloved St. Peter concerning his own prejudices against Gentiles. Even though Peter had an earth shaking, paradigm shifting experience at Pentecost regarding God’s desire to draw all cultures to himself, it was but a stop in his journey since he needed further work, which prompted God to give him a dream (Acts 10). Likewise, no short-termer should consider himself “cured” of cultural biases just because he successfully completed a missions trip. Mack and Leeann recommend the journey start like Peter’s did: with prayer. It was while Peter was praying that God gave him the vision. “We need to ask God to show us our cultural bias before we enter another culture. Name your fears about other cultures to God and examine them in light of God’s love for all people” (Stiles and Stiles 2000, 63). To this end one of the keys provided on the key chain for the senders will be a prayer calendar (see Appendix A) which suggests how to pray according to each segment of the pre-during-post trip. Dearborn’s (2003) workbook contains a number of excellent exercises with reflection questions to start you on the journey of discovering your cultural fears and biases as well as exercises designed to help you learn to delight in the differences. Just to give the reader a flavor of his exercises, Table 1 provides an example followed by suggested questions for reflection and discussion (Dearborn 2003, 25-26).
  • 12. 6 Common stereotypes Americans have of Common stereotypes people in the Two-Thirds people in the Two-Thirds World World have of Americans lazy aggressive inefficient preoccupied with tasks emotional harshly pragmatic slow and unmotivated tense and pressured rooted in traditions discontented and lonely corrupt leaders corrupt leaders naive educated strongly interdependent strongly individualistic eagerly seeking a better life securely enjoying the good life highly spiritual highly materialistic Table 1 Common stereotypes Americans and Two-thirds World have of each other Evaluate the list of stereotypes. To what extent do you share these impressions of people in the Two-thirds World and of Americans? Which stereotypes would you delete? What stereotypes would you want to add? What challenges and opportunities do these stereotypes create? Our short-term missions team is using Dearborn’s workbook (2003) to prepare for this trip. Elmer’s approach throughout all three of his “cross-cultural” books is his strategic use of the concept of differences. He defines cross-cultural conflict (1993) in terms of differences, “the existence of differences which when misunderstood or unresolved create distance in relationships”. In Cross-cultural connections (2002) he admonishes us to broaden our category of differences in order not to label the cultural differences we observe as right or wrong, prompting us to declare “It’s not wrong, it’s just different!” when facing aspects of a culture we do not understand. I have modified his diagram to add yet another category called “Not as good” in light of my own tendencies to maybe not declare something as being “wrong” but rather just “not as
  • 13. 7 good” as my way. Sadly, it may have been my way of rationalizing my rejection of some difference. Right Differences Not as Wrong good Figure 1: Categorization of cultural differences, adapted from Duane Elmer, Cross-cultural connections (Downer’s Grove, Ill.: Intervarsity Press, 2002), p. 27. Used by permission. This simple diagram will serve as a key on the key chains of both the goers-guests and host receivers (see Appendices B and C) to remind them to broaden their category of differences. In Cross-cultural servanthood (2006) he makes a sharp difference between serving with a towel or with a robe. His biblical exegesis leaves no doubt that since God connected with us as a servant in the form of his Son Jesus Christ, we best connect with others across cultures choosing not the robe of royalty and special privileges but rather the towel of a lowly, humble, obedient servant going not to be served but to serve. To remind the goers-guests and host receivers to choose servanthood, each keychain contain a small apron, see figure 2, which is a more culturally appropriate symbol for Latin America since many people have servants (domestic help) and they often wear aprons to work in). Figure 2 Apron: Be a servant! Expectations play a huge role in life in another culture. “Every disappointment or frustration you experience is a result of some expectation that has been violated or unfulfilled” (Elmer 2002, 54). That being the case, I have adapted an exercise from Elmer’s book (2002, 56) to help our goers-guests and host receivers bring to the surface their expectations by naming them, owing them and comparing them with what
  • 14. 8 may be reality. This, in the hope of closing the gap between expectations and reality and thus allowing us all to have a “more positive experience, leave a positive impression on each other and thus have a greater impact for the kingdom of God. In the final analysis, your single most important goal is to represent Christ to the people in the other culture. That is more likely to happen when you are not struggling with all kinds of unrealistic expectations” (Elmer 2002, 57). The modified comparison chart, found in Appendices B and C contains four columns. The first column contains a brief reminder of how the senders will be praying for the goers-guests, the second column describes the basic segments of the 11- day trip schedule, the third column, entitled My expectations, is to be filled out by the goers-guests (a Spanish version will be provided for the host receivers), after which information for the fourth column named Probable Reality will given to them. My co- leader, Henrietta Doren and I will provide this information for them. This chart would serve several purposes: (a) to inform everyone of our schedule, (b) to prompt them to foresee possible areas of conflict, (c) to allow Henrietta and I to shape their expectations by informing them what “reality” will probably be like, and (d) to remind them daily that they are not alone, they are being prayed for and that short-term missions is first and foremost a spiritual exercise (Reese 2008), one to be approached with and covered in prayer. While there are numerous other points of counsel that could be incorporated from a multitude of books available to prepare short-term mission workers, I will dedicate the remainder of this paper to expounding on cultural intelligence (CQ) (Livermore 2006).
  • 15. 9 Livermore adapts cultural intelligence for use in the missions arena but the framework for CQ was originally developed by P. Christopher Earley, Soon, and Joo- Seng (2006) for cross-cultural interactions in the world of business and the hospitality industry. I have taken the liberty of drawing exclusively from chapters nine through twelve of Livermore’s (2006) book to explain cultural intelligence (CQ) through the excerpts found below. Cultural intelligence is just a way of measuring our ability to interact effectively when we cross cultures. …CQ will help us sharpen our focus and service in short-term missions, and it will enhance our missional living wherever we are, all the time. …CQ is a matrix that consists of four different emphases, all of which are linked together. …The four interconnected elements of CQ are: (1) knowledge CQ, (2) interpretive CQ, (3) perseverance CQ, and (4) behavioral CQ. …The interdependence of these four factors is important, because having one without the others may actually be worse than having none of them. (Livermore 2006, 110-112) Knowledge CQ refers to our understanding about cross-cultural issues and differences. …The most important part of knowledge CQ is gaining general knowledge about how cultures vary. … The point is not to master our knowledge CQ before we take off on our next trip. Knowledge CQ continues to stretch and grow throughout our lifetime. Interpretive CQ is simply the degree to which we are mindful and aware when we interact cross-culturally. …It is turning off the “mental cruise control” we typically use as we interact with people, stepping back, paying close attention to the cues and intentionally questioning our assumptions. As we interpret the cues received through interpretative CQ, we continually adjust our knowledge CQ. These two elements of CQ are very dependent upon one another. Perseverance CQ refers to our level of interest, drive, and motivation to adapt cross-culturally. It is the traveler’s robustness, courage, hardiness, and capability to persevere through cultural differences. …It is soaking in the culture and setting the tone for others to do likewise. It is persisting through difficult interactions, trying the food and the language, continuing the hard work of journaling and seeking to understand what is really going on beneath the surface of what you see. Behavioral CQ is the extent to which we change our verbal and nonverbal actions when interacting cross-culturally. …Behavioral CQ is being sensitive and appropriate with our actions and behavior as we engage in a new culture. At the
  • 16. 10 end of the day, our cultural intelligence and, more importantly, our short-term mission endeavors, will be measured by this element: our behavior. The things we actually say and do and the ways we go about our work become the litmus test for whether we are doing STM with cultural intelligence. Our ability to draw upon all the other CQ elements and act appropriately is behavioral CQ. Unique factors of the trilogy of participants Having explained briefly what cultural intelligence consists of, I will now explore ways to increase the CQ of the trilogy of participants, not just of the goers-guests. There is a growing body of research available -http://www.calvin.edu/academic/sociology/staff/kurt/ but most of it focuses on the positive impact of STM on the goers-guests and the senders. I am thankful to be in a unique position to promote, plan for and verify the positive impact a STM trip can have on the host receivers. Process of nurturing CQ I will use the following order to describe how to nurture and increase cultural intelligence. The most important aspect of short-term mission service is preparation; the second most important aspect is integration of the experience into the lives of participants once they return home; and third most important aspect is the trip itself. The long-term impact of your service will be deeply affected by the quality of your preparation, and the long-term impact on your own life will be deeply affected by the quality of your debriefing and integration. (Dearborn 2003, 22) First: Pre-trip Preparation Knowledge CQ: The easiest element of CQ to work on prior to the trip is the Knowledge CQ. Becoming aware of your own cultural frame of reference will enable you to better understand your host culture. Rather than read a long grocery list of
  • 17. 11 “culture does and don’ts” I would recommend reading a user-friendly version of cultural orientations. Sarah Lanier’s book, Foreign to familiar: A guide to understanding hot- and cold-climate cultures (2000) is a very easy read, it offers plenty of examples from Latin America and highlights the cultural differences most likely to be relevant for a 1-2 week trip (see Table 1: Cultural differences relevant to a 1-2 week STM trip). Westerners Cultural Differences or Orientations Majority World Task 1. . . 2. . . 3 . . . 4 . . .5 Relationship Direct communication 1. . . 2. . . 3 . . . 4 . . .5 Indirect communication Individualism 1. . . 2. . . 3 . . . 4 . . .5 Collectivism or group identity Privacy 1. . . 2. . . 3 . . . 4 . . .5 Inclusion Clock time 1. . . 2. . . 3 . . . 4 . . .5 Event time Achievement focus 1. . . 2. . . 3 . . . 4 . . .5 Status focus Categorical thinking 1. . . 2. . . 3 . . . 4 . . .5 Holistic thinking Secular (scientific) mindset 1. . . 2. . . 3 . . . 4 . . .5 Spiritualistic (animistic) mindset Cold-climate hospitality 1. . . 2. . . 3 . . . 4 . . .5 Hot-climate hospitality Table 2: Cultural differences relevant to a 1-2 week STM trip (chart format adapted from Dr. Duane Elmer’s handout, Differences, 14 December 2007, ES 8624 Cross-cultural conflict) Table 1 conveys the fact that these differences are on a continuum; tension exists between both extremes. You cannot talk about culture without generalizations, but remember that while stereotypes may be accurate about groups, they are never going to be wholly true of individuals (Storti 1994). There are many excellent books available to study these orientations apart from Lanier’s book (2000). I highly recommend Elmer’s (2002) approach because he provides you with the basic cultural anthropologic research illustrated with stories, then he takes you to the Bible for further insights and tips and then leaves you with very thought provoking personal reflection questions and group discussion questions. Remember, knowing the differences will save you some confusion, while understanding yourself and others will reduce judgmentalism (Elmer 2002, 142).
  • 18. 12 Scenario wi th low cultural i ntelligence Negative Situation: Negative Action Why is every one so Action The entire team is 5 Can’t these people do things on tim e? Time uptight? What’s the rush? is m oney ! We need to to meet at 4pm, We’ll leave when every - Scowls, get going. it’s 5pm and half one gets here. Avoidance of grimaces; of the host fami- others who are looking at lies have not yet uptight; faces watch; flurry arrived with their downcast. of activity to guests. “ get the show on the road”. Clock vs. Event Time Negative attribution Negative attribution Scenario wi th increased cultural i ntelligence Positive Action Same Positive Action Hmm, Westerners operate by Hmm , our hosts are not worried, their concept of Situation the clock, they seem to be anxious right now because Approach tim e is oriented towards we’re behind schedule. Approach to the event. I’ll just relax. others to reassure them converse and that the host discuss families were observations of probably just their host talking and not family to worry. experience. P ositive attribution P ositive attribution Figure 3 Cartoon depicting a particular cultural orientation As a help to those who learn and retain best visually, the key chain for both the goers-guests and host receivers will contain little 3x5 cards with cartoons depicting cultural differences that are likely to experience (See example in Figure 3: Clock vs. Event Time orientation). The format for each cartoon: (a) starting from the middle of the page, a typical situation that is likely to happen during the STM trip; (b) in the top tier, branching out from center to the left for North Americans and to the right for Latin Americans, possibly two different thought patterns take place, this is called negative attribution which can breed negative actions; (c) in the bottom tier, the North American and Latin American use their increased CQ to generate understanding and positive attribution (giving the benefit of the doubt) and thus fostering positive, edifying behavior.
  • 19. 13 Perseverance and interpretive CQ: This element is related to your willingness to move out of your comfort zone into what in camp we call the groan zone. You have to persevere through the groan zone in order to move into the growth zone, in our case, to grow in CQ. One way to assess the goers-guests and host receivers Perseverance CQ before the trip would be to ask them, as a group preferably, to frequent some place (restaurant for example) where they could be exposed to people and customs of that culture and then debrief afterwards. In the case of the host receivers in Honduras, the group could go to a Hotel lobby or English-speaking church service where they could sit and observe North Americans. In the case of the goers-guests, they could eat a meal in a Mexican restaurant (must be an authentic restaurant with Latin personnel, not “YO QUIERO TACO BELL”!). This experience would be combined with a written and verbal debrief. Journaling, in order to increase interpretive CQ must go beyond recording the superficial details, you must think and write about the meaning behind what you observe and analyze the why’s behind your own reactions and those of others. Some aspects to observe and comment on amongst the group members can be found in Table 2: Aspects to observe during your “Foray into a foreign land.” Food /Comida Clothing/ Vestimenta Architecture / Personal space / People interaction / Arquitectura Espacio personal Interacción de la gente Manner in Tone of voice, Concept of Misc. Gestures, body which people inflection /Tono de time/ concepto language / Lenguaje are served / voz de tiempo corporal servicio Table 3 Aspects to observe during your “Foray into a foreign land” Behavior CQ: The last activity done prior to the trip is studying about the country, culture, trends, language, and customs and implications for proper behavior. The internet has made that much easier. Since it is almost overwhelming the sheer volume of information you can acquire, I recommend the following process.
  • 20. 14 1. Filter your choice of information through this question: What do I need to do to blend in well in Honduras (or for the host receivers, to get along with North Americans)? Focus is on how you should act and behave. 2. Distill the information so it can fit on 1-2 typewritten pages, including phrases and expressions to learn in their language. 3. Meet face to face with someone from that country (or a neighboring country) to discuss the information and get their first-hand input. Interpretive CQ: For the brave of heart, I would encourage you to check your interpretive CQ by reading Craig Storti’s book: Cross-cultural dialogues: 74 brief encounters with cultural differences (1994). It will test your ability both to notice the subtle cues and then to interpret them. I guarantee you will quickly discover how “clueless” most of us Americans are. Second: Post-trip integration of the experience into the lives of participants once they return As the host receiver I have much less control over this aspect than what the goers-guests/host receivers do during the trip, therefore I will offer a series of questions whereby each participant can test him or herself to assess any increase in CQ as well as be challenged to apply their new skills and understandings. Ideally, one would take this test one month after the trip, then three to six months afterward and lastly, right before they take another trip. Knowledge CQ Interpretive CQ Perseverance CQ Behavior CQ What do I know about How have I grown You are in a foreign Do I have a vocation or the other culture that I more sensitive to country and are hungry, at calling to be a did not know before? cues? Can I read more what place would you missionary? Am I more accepting of between the lines of choose to eat? Will I give financially to differences? Is my what people say and a. Find a familiar fast missions? category for differences mean? food chain How willing am I to broader? As I reread my b. Find a local restaurant adjust my behavior to Am I continuing to read journal, what new (local cuisine) other cultural and study about other insights did I gain Will I participate in conditions? cultures, as well as read about myself, others, another STM trip? How much effort will I biographies of the world, and God? How inclined am I to get put forth to learn and missionaries? With who have I to know people from other use another language? shared these insights? cultures? There is a similarity between the control we have over campers and the control we have over the goers-guests once they return. The key is the long-term partnership established between the senders and the host receivers (Stiles and Stiles 2003.)
  • 21. 15 Third: During the trip Appendices A, B, and C contain the bulk of the theory and practical means of nurturing cultural intelligence during the short-term missions trip. Interpretative CQ: As the hosts we have the liberty of creating a daily schedule that best suits the needs of all parties involved. Given the vital importance of time to pray, reflect, study scripture, journal and listen to the Lord we schedule sixty minutes of quiet time each morning before breakfast for all and everyone to find a tranquil place where they can comfortably sit, write and pray. In addition, we will stop work or ministry early enough to leave time and energy at night, to reflect and debrief as a group. In regards to CQ, journaling is one of the best ways to self-monitor particularly in terms the perseverance and interpretive elements. Knowledge CQ: Every evening, after dinner, we will take turns sharing our stories of how we came to know the Lord. This type of exchange adds greatly to our understanding of how God works in the people of other cultures. Perseverance CQ: In order to persist in staying on the growing edge once the novelty wears off, participants will be coached to identity what makes them comfortable and what makes them groan in order to learn to how push past the discomfort and grow through it, with the help of others. (See Growth Circles in Appendices B and C.) Behavior CQ: “As we nurture the other aspects of CQ, they have inevitable implications on how we act. In a sense, behavioral CQ is the outcome of the other three factors of CQ” (Livermore 2006, 157). I will provide on-the-spot training immediately before we shift from one major segment of the trip to another. For instance, right before we release each pair of North Americans to stay with their host family, I will
  • 22. 16 review a short list of pertinent “does and don’t’s related to proper conduct, likewise right before we begin the work project with the Hondurans, as well as when we are on the way to play with the children who live and work at the city garbage dump. This amounts to on-the-job behavioral training which Livermore (2006) highly recommends. The schedule for the trip can be found in Appendix B. Conclusion I started this paper by stating that missions is not the goal, but rather learning to love God and grow in our commitment to love Jesus Christ and others is the goal. My belief is that a lack of cultural intelligence can diminish our attempts to love God and others (Livermoore 2006, 174) so my hope is that this paper and its ideas have served to increase the cultural intelligence of the senders, goers-guests, and host receivers, thus enhancing our efforts to love God and others.
  • 23. 17 APPENDIX A: PRAYER CARDS FOR SENDERS www.lisaander sonumana.blogspot.com 1 Appendix A: Prayer cards for senders Audience: The senders The primary audience for these prayer cards are those individuals who have responded to the Lord’s pro mpting to prayerfully and/or financially support one of the goers-guests who will be participating on the short-term missions trip to Honduras July 5-15, 2008. We call you the senders because of your obedient support, the goers-guests can go! The informat ion provided is designed to make you more knowledgeable about how to interact effectively when crossing cultures (increase your cultural intelligence so to speak!). Further- more, we wrote these cards to guide you praying for the one going on the trip (goer-guest). www.lisaander sonumana.blogspot.com Pre-tri p segment 2 I ask you to prayer with me so God can show me my cultural bias before I enter another culture. As part of our team preparation I will be naming my fears about other cultures to God and examin ing them in light of God’s love for all people. Pray that I would work through my cultural bias by asking: Is this difference I see right, wrong, or just different? Pray that I would broaden my category of differences and not see everything that is different as being wrong or not as good as “the American way.” Right Differences Wrong Diagram tak en f rom Dua ne Elmer, Cross-cultu ral connections (Downe r’s Grove, Ill.: I nte rvarsity P ress, 2002), p. 27.
  • 24. 18 www.lisaander sonumana.blogspot.com Day 1: Arri val — (S aturday) Pray for me to be curious about the other culture. 3 Curiosity is essential for cross-cultural service. When encountering a different culture in the airport, upon my arrival, on the bus ride fro m San Pedro Su la to Tegucigalpa, tonight with my host family, —and the strange way people act, live and think—pray for me to be curious. I need enough curiosity to seek to understand the meanings behind people’s actions, cus- toms and ideas. If I do not penetrate beneath the surface to discover why people do what they do, I will forever be a foreigner, on the outside rather than the inside of people’s lives. Taken from Tim Dearborn, Short-term mis sions workbook (Downer’s Grove, Ill. : Interv arsity Press, 2003), p. 29-30. www.lisaander sonumana.blogspot.com Day 1-2 : Ti me with Host family- (Saturday and Sunday) Pray for me to truly be a guest in my host’s home. 4 I am called a goer-guest. By virtue of this title, I am reminded of my proper role in relationship to my host family, who will be graciously providing for me and my partner a place to sleep tonight, Saturday and Sunday as well. Pray for me to remember that when you are a guest in someone’s home, you do not come to criticize or judge life in their ho me but rather to form a relat ionship. Americans have been characterized as being the type of people who go into a country and try to change things, which carries the assumption that we know best, our ways of doing things are superior and the local ways are therefore inferior, not as good. That posture is like unto a guest going into someone home and rearranging their furniture (Doolings 1994)! Pray for me to remember that I am a guest here. “When in Ro me, do as the Ro mans.” As we attend church together on Sunday morning, cook a meal together in their ho me on Sunday, pray for me to try and blend in, which goes against our individualistic cultural tendency to stand out, be unique, make a statement, etc. Latin American society is more collectiv istic, people form part of strong, unified in-g roup, primarily their family. By the way, p ray for me to eat everything served to me, “remembering that eating the food is an acceptance of their hospitality, and this has a higher value than the taste of the food” (Lan ier 2000, 47). Richard Do olings, White man’s grave. (New York: Picador, 1994). A nd Sarah A. La nier, Foreign to f amiliar. (Hagerst own , Md. : McDougal Publishing, 2000).
  • 25. 19 www.lisaander sonumana.blogspot.com Days 3-4- 5: Work Project at camp- (Monday, Tuesday, Wednes day until noon) Pray for 5 me to serve and “ do everything wi thout complaini ng or arguing” (Phil. 4:14). Pray for me to choose to wear an apron! The towel (or apron) is the sign of a servant. Pray that I learn the value of hard work for a good cause. Pray that I would not be self-righteous about my service, seeking human applause and wanting people to see and appreciate my efforts. “True service rests contented in hiddenness. It does not fear the lights and blare of attention, but it does not seek them either. Self-righteous service is highly concerned about results. It becomes bitter when the results fall Be a servant! below expectations. True service is free of the need to calculate the results. It delights only in the service.” Pray for me to be a true servant! Taken from Foster, Richard. Celeb ration of discipline. (New Yo rk: Harper & Row, 1978 ), p. 112 . During the evenings, Lisa and the Hondurans will be helping us get the big picture by showing us pictures and sharing with us what they do in Christian camping. We will learn what the role of short-term missions is as well. Afterwards, we will debrief our experience, so please pray for me to be alert, aware and participative in these discussions. www.lisaander sonumana.blogspot.com Day 5: Preparati on day: (Wednes day afternoon & evening) 6 Preparation for ministry day, which will be done at Alfredo and Lisa’s house. Pray for me because by this time the fascination of the culture may have worn off, and I may be experiencing some culture shock. A brief word about culture shock is due. “Culture shock is when you experience frustration from not knowing the rules or having the skills for adjusting to a new culture.” Is that wrong? No, it is good and normal to experience culture shock. It is good if I am experiencing it, because that means I am making an effort to enter into the culture and it gives me the opportunity to know God better. God is so grand that it requires us experiencing him in a diversity of cultures to more fully grasp his greatness. Culture shock is normal in the sense that it is universally experienced by all who venture out from their familiar culture to an unknown one like I will be doing. Pray that I would not respond to the cultural differences by rejecting the culture, which can lead me to withdraw and isolate myself or become critical of everything. Pray that I would not listen to the lies of Satan in thinking that I am abnormal, or unspiritual for feeling this way or that somehow I have missed God’s call, I should not be here or that I am not skilled for ministry. Pray that I will relax and use this as an opportunity to grow and work through my feelings of discord by journaling, asking questions, sharing my feelings with others and if necessary, make a strategic withdrawal to recuperate and then return. Taken fro m Mack and L eeann Stiles, Sho rt -te rm missions (Downer’s Grov e, Ill.: Inte rvarsity Press, 2000 ), chapters ten and eleve n. Taken fro m Duane Elmer, Cross-cult ural connections (Downer’s Grove, Ill.: Int erva rsity Press, 2 002), cha pter five.
  • 26. 20 www.lisaander sonumana.blogspot.com Days 6-7: Ministry to chil dren who li ve and work in g arbage dump (Thurs day & 7 Fri day) Today and tomorro w will serve as a wakeup call to the injustices in the world around us. Pray that I would not be so overwhelmed as to fall into a moral state of hopelessness and despair. Mack and Leeann, an experienced couple in short-term missions clarify what we can do so that we see injustice and evil for what it is. Pray with me to: 1. Develop a co mpassionate heart. John Piper argues for a compassion for the lost based in our awareness of their eternal destiny and the pain of their earthly existence apart from any satisfaction in Christ (Let the Nations Be Glad!, Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Books, 2003). 2. Develop an understanding of what the Bib le says about injustice. Pray that I will remember that God cares and feels and “ so closely identified with us that he shared in our misery and tasted our death.” Pray that I will remember that “ judgment will come beyond judgment on earth. One day God will judge the world. 3. Be willing to take action. Pray that I will grasp, if ever so slightly, the forces that create poverty and injustice. These are complex issues, both on the worldwide scale and here and now, but the way injustice continues is for good people to say and do nothing. Pray that the action I am taking by just playing with the children will prompt me to take further action in the future. Taken fro m Mack and L eeann Stiles, Sho rt -te rm missions (Downer’s Grov e, Ill.: Inte rvarsity Press, 2000 ), chapter twelve. Recommended reading fo r mac ro scale o f world poveryt: William Easte rly, The White man’s bu rden: W hy the West’s effo rts to aid the rest have done so much ill and so little good. (New York: Penguin P ress, 200 6). Recommended reading fo r micro scale: Ga ry Ha ugen, Good News about injustice. (Downe r’s Grove, Ill.: Inte rvarsity Press, 1999 ). www.lisaander sonumana.blogspot.com Day 8: Family Camp Outreach —Ministry to families and chil dren who work in 8 garbage dump (S aturday) Pray for me to be bol d in communicating my testimony (i n Spanish) as we work in partnershi p with Lisa’s mi nistry, Christian Campi ng Internati onal, to present the g ospel. “The point of cultural sensitivity is not to appear culturally sophisticated or simply to avoid offense; it is to communicate the gospel. ...The g reatest tool in sharing your faith across a culture is to know your own faith. …To go on a short-term mission without being prepared to share our faith is like inviting people to a banquet while forgetting to serve the food.” Taken fro m Mack and L eeann Stiles, Sho rt -te rm missions (Downer’s Grov e, Ill.: Interva rsity Press, 2 000), cha pter thirt een. As part of our preparation, each member of the team will p repare his or her testimony. We are to make it clear, use the right terminology (contextualized and free of Christian clichés), and keep it short. The goal is to write it out and translate it into Spanish so we can actually read it today during Family Camp Outreach. We will use the fo rmat presented by David Staal, Leadin g kids to Jesus: How to have on e-on-one conversatio ns about faith. (G rand Ra pids, Mich.: Zonderva n, 2005), chapt er three. The pastor who min isters in the garbage dump has asked us to present the gospel to every single person today (approx. 175 people). He informed us that because it is a special camp outing many will be p resent who do not normally attend his church. This is a unique opportunity. Pray fo r the ministry Lisa serves with, Christian Camp ing International, who is in charge of the program.
  • 27. 21 www.lisaander sonumana.blogspot.com Days 9 and 10: Cultural appreci ati on and debrief (Sunday and Monday) Pray for me to 9 conti nue to learn about the culture as we travel outside the camp. Even as we travel by bus to Valle de Angeles, a picturesque town known for its artisan work, p ray for me not to sing McDonald’s theme song of: You deserve a break today… so get up and get away to a comfy hotel and shop ‘til you drop (or run out of money!). Pray for me to be mindful of the setting, to continue to learn about the culture. If I am observant of their practices, I can see the symbols, like how they dress, hairstyles, but pray for me to peel back layer upon layer, just like peeling an onion to really understand the culture. Pray for me to ask questions to help me understand who their heroes are, we have our Barbie’s and Bat man’s, but who possesses characteristics that are highly prized for Latin A mericans? I will probably have noticed their ritual in Figure 1: The quot;Onionquot;: Manifestations of Culture at Different Levels of Depth greeting one another with a kiss, but are there other rituals I may have missed? Pray for me to have eyes to see, even a glimpse of what this culture values, the core of the onion. Figure 1: Taken from Hofstede a nd Hofstede, Cultures and organizations: S oftware of the mind . (New Yo rk: McGraw-Hill, 2005), p. 7. www.lisaander sonumana.blogspot.com Day 10: Worship Celebrati on at Umaña-Anderson house for all the host families and 10 North Americans (last evening together on Monday). Pray for our host receivers as we worship together and sing for joy, remembering that worship is the fuel and goal of missions. It is an odd feeling to think that many of the people with whom I have drawn so close, I may well not see until we are all together again celebrating the wedding supper of the Lamb! (Rev. 19:9). Today, as we stand and worship together, may I be reminded of what John Piper wrote about missions: “Worship is the fuel and goal of missions. It’s the goal of missions because in missions we simply aim to bring the nations into the white-hot enjoyment of God’s glory. The goal of missions is the gladness of the peoples in the greatness of God’s glory. “The Lord reigns, let the earth rejoice; let the many coastlands be glad! (Ps. 97:1). “Let the peoples praise you, O God; let all the peoples praise you! Let the nations be glad and sing for joy!” (Ps. 67:3-4). John Piper, Let the Nations Be Glad!, (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Books, 2003), p. 17 As we come together from these two nations to be glad and sing for joy, pray God would sear into my heart and mind this image of the unity of Christ’s bride worshipping before His throne; on that day every knee will bow and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord. Pray for me to enter into awe and wonder of God together with my brothers and sisters of another land. Pray that we never forget the goal of missions, God’s glory! As we go our separate ways, pray that each of us would remember the chief end of man is to glorify God and enjoy him forever.
  • 28. 22 www.lisaander sonumana.blogspot.com Day 11: Departure Day —(Tuesday) Pray for our re-adjustment and re-entry. 11 Over the last couple of days, we will be focusing on debriefing our entire experience as well as preparing for re-entry back to our ho me culture. Th is cycle is so common to short-term missions that there is a diagram illustrating the emotional cycle and readjustments we all may be going through. Please observe the diagram and exp lanation below, prayerfully covering me throughout the next days and weeks as I move through the re-entry process. Pray for me to turn the corner and move into fruitfulness which takes time and effort to continue to journal, reflect with others and see that my experience in another culture was a gift from 1. Have fun. I may feel euphoric to return to the God, something to be thankful comforts of home. I feel changed and want to do for and to benefit others with. Fruitfu lness things differently. 2. Flee. I may be discouraged by people’s lack of Start interest in what was such a life-changing experience here for me. I miss the sense of community we had devel- oped on the team. I may want to flee back to Hondu- ras. 3. Fight. I may want to fight against the materialism, the busyness and self-centeredness I see all around me. 4. Fit in. I may be ready to just give up my fight to change things and be different. I just want to fit it now. The trip may become a distant memory. Taken from Tim Dearborn, Sh ort -te rm missions work book (Downe r’s Grove, Ill.: In tervarsity Press, 2003 ), p. 96 -98. www.lisaander sonumana.blogspot.com Safety and health issues 12 Dear Senders, You will note the obvious omission of prayer for safety and health in this prayer calendar. We know that you will pray for that nevertheless. We are concerned over what we observe to be a growing cultural view in A merica that safety is our highest value. We will not take unnecessary risks and will be prudent, however, we refuse to worship safety over God. We believe we have a Protector to who m we entrust our lives and well-being, therefore, we have guided you to pray for many other aspects of this trip. Taken from Mack and Leeann’s Stiles Guide to Short- term missions. (Downer’s Grove, Ill. 2000. ), p.149.
  • 29. 23 APPENDIX B: KEY CHAIN FOR GOERS-GUESTS Prayer calendar Schedule My Expectations Probable Reality Day 1 Arrival day (Sat.) Pray for me to be curious 4-hour bus ride from San about the other culture. Pedro Sula to Tegucigalpa Days 1 & 2 Host family experience (Sat. Pray for me to behave as a night & all day & night on guest, appreciative and Sunday) nonjudgmental. Days 3, 4, & 5 Camp- work project Pray for me to serve and (Monday, Tues. Wed. ‘til “do everything without noon). Build 8 ropes courses complaining or arguing” initiatives. (Phil. 4:14). Day 5 Preparation for ministry Pray for me as I may be days (Wed. afternoon & experiencing culture shock evening at Lisa’s house, will or fatigue. include some R&R and a home cooked meal) Day 6 & 7 Ministry to children who Pray for me to develop a work in garbage dump compassionate heart, to (Thursday & Friday) develop an understanding Visit the garbage dump, do of what the Bible says light chores at school, serve about injustice, and to be as needed, play with willing to take action. children. Day 8 Family camp outreach Pray for me to be bold in (Saturday) communicating my Share my testimony in testimony (in Spanish) as Spanish today as part of a we work in partnership presentation of the gospel to with Lisa’s ministry to families and children who present the gospel today. work at garbage dump. Day 9 & 10 Tourist attraction /hotel/ Pray for me to continue to shopping/ Debrief (Sunday learn about the culture as & Monday) we travel outside the camp. Day 10 Worship Celebration at Pray for our host receivers Umaña-Anderson house for as we worship together and all host families and North sing for joy, remembering Americans (last evening- that worship is the fuel and Monday) goal of missions. Day 11 Departure day (Tuesday). Pray for our re-entry and We travel by bus 4 hours re-adjustment process to from Tegucigalpa to San life in the USA. Pedro Sula where we fly out from. Adapted from Duane Elmer, Cross-cultural connections (Downer’s Grove, Ill.: Intervarsity Press, 2002), p. 56. Used by permission.
  • 30. 24 www.lisaander sonumana.blogspot.com 1 Appendix B: Cards for key chain for goers-guests Audience: The goers-guests The primary audience for these cards are those individuals who have responded to the Lord’s prompting to go on the short-term missions trip to Honduras July 5-15, 2008. We call you the goers-guests because of your obedience in going and to remind you that you are going as guests, to the hosts who will receive you, Lisa Anderson-Umaña and her team of Hondurans. We call the informat ion provided “keys” since no doubt if you use them, they will unlock the doors to discovering the great treasures the Lord has prepared for you. They are designed to teach you how to interact effectively when crossing cultures (increase your cultural intelli- gence so to speak!). The cartoons were created taking material fro m Duane Elmer’s book: Cross-cultural connections (Downer’s Grove, Ill.: Intervarsity Press, 2002). www.lisaander sonumana.blogspot.com 2 1 What treasures will you discover when you use this key? It’s not wrong, it’s just different. Widen your category of differences! Right Differences Wrong In my own life (Lisa) living in a foreign culture, I d iscovered that I had developed a subtle variation of “It’s wrong category” called “It ’s not as good.” Maybe I wouldn’t be so crass as to say “it’s wrong” but in reality the assumption underlying both categories is still the same: My way is better. Diagram tak en f rom Dua ne Elmer, Cross-cultu ral connections (Downe r’s Grove, Ill.: I nte rvarsity P ress, 2002), p. 27. Used by permission.
  • 31. 25 www.lisaander sonumana.blogspot.com 3 What treasures will you discover when you use this key? Since God connected with us as a servant in the form of his Son Jesus Christ, we best connect with others across cultures choos- ing not the robe of royalty and special privileges but rather the towel of a lo wly, humb le, obedient servant going not to be served but to serve. To encourage you to choose servanthood we will be g iving you a min iature apron. (this is a more culturally appropriate symbol for Latin A merica since many people have servants—domestic Be a servant! help— and they often wear aprons to work in). In your journey to become a servant, remember these key steps: Humility is the posture of a servant Openness meaning welco ming others into your presence Acceptance communicates respect for others Trust entails build ing confidence in relationships Lastly, Serving is to becoming Learning seeks information that changes you like Christ to others Understanding means seeing through the other’s eyes I highly recommend reading Cross-cultural servanthood by Duane Elmer (Downer’s Grove, Ill.: Intervarsity Press, 2006). He thoroughly explains each of these characteristics. What treasures will you discover www.lisaandersonumana.blogspot.com when you use this key? Step 3 4 Growth Zone Growth Zone If the Lord blesses your efforts and Step 1 those around Co mfort Zone you cooper- Co mfort Zone ate, what Identify what do you would that need to have around growth look you to be comfort- like? What able? Draw or write it. would it entail? How would some- one notice Groan Zone your growth? Groan Zone Step 2 What causes you to groan? What stuff makes you uncomfortable? Draw or write it. Growth Circles
  • 32. 26 Scenario wi th low cultural i ntelligence Negative Situation: Negative Action Why is every one so Action The entire team is 5 Can’t these people do things on tim e? Time uptight? What’s the rush? is m oney ! We need to to meet at 4pm, We’ll leave when every - Scowls, get going. it’s 5pm and half one gets here. Avoidance of grimaces; of the host fami- others who are looking at lies have not yet uptight; faces watch; flurry arrived with their downcast. of activity to guests. “ get the show on the road”. Clock vs. Event Time Negative attribution Negative attribution Scenario wi th increased cultural i ntelligence Positive Action Same Positive Action Hmm, Westerners operate by Hmm , our hosts are not worried, their concept of Situation the clock, they seem to be anxious right now because Approach tim e is oriented towards we’re behind schedule. Approach to the event. I’ll just relax. others to reassure them converse and that the host discuss families were observations of probably just their host talking and not family to worry. experience. P ositive attribution P ositive attribution Scenario wi th low cultural i ntelligence What a wonderful Negative opportunity to get to know Negative Action Time’s a’wastin! We Action Situation: 6 raised a lot of money to come here and get the The tea m is build- new people. If it makes work so much m ore enj oy- j ob done. These people able, then why aren’t the Glaring at those ing a ropes course. Am ericans stopping to chat. Finding excuses need to stay on task. who are talking; The job can get done if everyone pitches to wander off; head down, avoiding contact in. But, the Hondu- focused on task; rans keep talking to with those who overcompensating everyone. are scowling. to make up for those “ slackers” Task vs. Relationship Negative attribution Negative attribution Scenario wi th increased cultural i ntelligence Positive Action Same Positive Action I need to understand that their Starting a People come first. Situation culture does focus forem ost on the Showing interest People are more im por- conversation as tant than projects. task, it’s not wrong, it ’s different. and appreciation They don’t m ean to hurt any one’s you work, May be my first task is for the work pausing every so being done, often to make asking permis- eye contact, sion to take showing interest breaks and have in getting to hear down time to people’s stories. hang out. P ositive attribution P ositive attribution
  • 33. 27 Scenario wi th low cultural i ntelligence Negative I thought we were Negative Action Why is she taking it so Action friends! She barely knows 7 personally ? All I did was mention there was room for Situation: me and y et has criticizes the Jody was sharing way we do things here. Wonder what is improvement. I was just her observations Due to feeling try ing to be helpful. going on, why did of life in Hondu- very offended, Blanca withdraw? ras with her new avoid contact; Try to further friend Blanca. “ walk on egg- explain what she shells,” and keep meant, break the your distance. problem observed Categorical vs. Holistic into parts to thinking analyze and solve Negative attribution Negative attribution it. Scenario wi th increased cultural i ntelligence Positive Action Same Situation I need to understand that Westerners Positive Action Life and friendship is like a do not mean to offend with their tapestry , y ou cannot separate criticism, they see the world differ- Apologize for them, the threads are all woven ently , preferring to putting every- Approach your together. Focus on the posi- offending tive. thing into a neat category . friend, confess- Blanca. Praise ing hurt but and affirm her willingly try friendship and again to develop appreciation for the friendship. her country. P ositive attribution P ositive attribution Scenario wi th low cultural i ntelligence Negative Situation: They have not said any thing Negative Action Action Hmm, will he ever get to his The sermon was about my serm on. I wonder if 8 point? He keeps going around and around, with no translated well they liked it. They probably think they can do better. No Offer to help him clear logic or outline in but the North doubt since they are so well Try to learn write an three- mind. May be he is not Americans educated, there way is better. the proper prepared... point outline of couldn’t make American way what he wants to heads or tails of of preaching, say; correct his it. feel insecure . tendency to beat around the bush Straight (linear) vs. and show him curve d (spiral) logic the right way to speak. Negative attribution Negative attribution Scenario wi th increased cultural i ntelli- Positive Same We do think logically , but in a Positive Action Action Oh, so there’s more than one m ore indirect, roundabout form of logic? It’s not wrong, Situation m anner. Their logic fits to- Comment on it’s just different! Their form of gether like a chain link fence. Learn from other the main point logic looks Each culture has its own ways of thinking, form of logic. of his sermon without holding and discuss the in contempt your illustrations, own. validating his form of preaching. P ositive attribution P ositive attribution
  • 34. 28 APPENDIX C: KEY CHAIN FOR HOST RECEIVERS The key chains of the goers-guests and host receivers are identical with the exception of the first three cards which you will find below. www.lisaander sondeumana.blogspot.com 1 Appendix B: Cards for key chain for host receivers Audience: The host receivers The primary audience for these cards are those individuals who have responded to the Lord’s prompting to jo in as hosts of the short-term missions trip to Honduras July 5-15, 2008. We call you the host receivers because of your obedience in receiving our guests from North A merica. We call you hosts and you will serve together with Lisa Anderson-Umaña to receive this group of a dozen North Americans fro m her ho me church in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. We call the informat ion provided “keys” since no doubt if you use them, they will unlock the doors to discovering the great treasures the Lord has prepared for you. They are designed to teach you how to interact effectively when crossing cultures (increase your cultural intelligence so to speak!). Remember, although it corresponds to the guest to adapt to the host culture, we do not want you to lose the opportunity to grow in your awareness and understanding of another culture. On this trip you will rub elbows with North A mericans, but who knows with who m the Lord may lead you to serve Him in the future.
  • 35. 29 www.lisaander sondeumana.blogspot.com 2 As a host receiver, we ask you to commit to the following: 1. Co mplete devotional book that has been translated into Spanish in order for us to participate in the preparation for the Short term missions experience. This book will also be studied and discussed during the trip itself. 2. Co mmit to being present with the team fro m the day of their arrival, Saturday July 5, until their departure, Tuesday, July 15 (with the exception of Sunday/Monday morning when the North Americans will be spending some time alone as a team to do debriefing and reflection.) 3. Co mmit to wo rk alongside the North Americans whether that be in camp build ing ropes course elements or playing with the children at the school by the city garbage dump. 4. Co mmit to helping lead key aspects of the Family Day outreach at Camp on Saturday. 5. Co mmit to meeting after the trip for a t ime of debrief and reflection at Lisa’s house. www.lisaander sonumana.blogspot.com 3 1 What treasures will you discover when you use this key? It’s not better, it’s just different. Widen your category of differences! Right Differences Wrong As Latin A mericans, we may be inclined to bow our heads when we see how North A mericans do things and mu mble to ourselves: Their way is better than ours. We tend to undervalue our culture compared to their do minant culture. God has manifested His character in unique ways in every culture and just like every culture has ways that manifest His character, each culture has ways to distort His character and values. Let’s learn to say, it’s not better, it’s different. Diagram tak en f rom Dua ne Elmer, Cross-cultu ral connections (Downe r’s Grove, Ill.: I nte rvarsity P ress, 2002), p. 27. Used by permission.
  • 36. 30 REFERENCES Borthwick, Paul. 1996. Short Term Youth Teams: Are They Worth It? Evangelical Missions Quarterly. 1996 October. Accessed 21 March 2008. Available from https://bgc.gospelcom.net/emqonline/emq_article_read.php?ArticleID=2234; Internet. Dearborn, Tim. 1997. Beyond duty: A passion for Christ, a heart for mission. Federal Way, Wash.: World Vision. Dearborn, Tim. 2003. Short-term missions workbook. Downers Grove. Ill.: InterVarsity Press. Doolings, Richard. 2000. White man’s grave. New York: Picador, 1994). Earley, P. Christopher, Ang Soon, and Tan Joo-Seng. 2006. CQ: Cultural intelligence at work. Stanford, Calif. Stanford University Press. Elmer, Duane. 1993. Cross-cultural conflict: Buidling relationships for effective ministry. Downers Grove. Ill.: InterVarsity Press. Elmer, Duane. 2002. Cross-cultural connections: Stepping out and fitting in around the world. Downers Grove. Ill.: InterVarsity Press. Elmer, Duane. 2006. Cross-cultural servanthood: Serving the world in Christlike humility. Downers Grove. Ill.: InterVarsity Press. Friedman, Thomas L. 2007. The world is flat: A brief history of the twenty-first century. New York: Picador. Foster, Richard. 1978. Celebration of discipline. New York: Harper & Row. Hales, Thomas. 1995. On being a missionary. Pasadena, Calif.: William Carey Library. Hofstede, Geert and Hofstede, Gert Jan. 2005. Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill. Lanier, Sarah A. 2000. Foreign to familiar: A guide to understanding hot- and cold- climate cultures. Hagerstown, Md.: McDougal Publishing. Livermore, David A. 2006. Serving with eyes wide open: Doing short term missions with cultural intelligence. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Books
  • 37. 31 Mezirow, J., & Associates. 2000. Fostering critical reflection in adulthood: A guide to transformative and emancipatory learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Moreau, A. Scott, and O'Rear, Mike. 2004. All You Ever Wanted on Short Term Missions. Evangelical Missions Quarterly. 2004 January. Accessed 21 March 2008. Available from https://bgc.gospelcom.net/emqonline/emq_article_read.php?ArticleID=637. Internet. Slater, Tom. 1984. The temporary community: Organized camping for the urban society. Sutherland, Australia: Albatross Books. Stiles, J. Mack and Stiles, Leann. 2000. Mack & Leann’s guide to short-term missions. Downers Grove. Ill.: InterVarsity Press. Storti, Craig. 1994. Cross-cultural dialogues: 74 brief encounters with cultural difference. Yarmouth, Maine: Intercultural Press, Inc. Short-Term Evangelical Mission. http://stemintl.org/. Minneapolis, Minn. Peterson, Roger, Aeschliman, Gordon, Sneed, R. Wayne with Hurst, Kim., ed. Maximum Impact Short-term Missions: The God-Commanded, Repetitive Deployment of Swift, Temporary, Non-Professional Missionaries. Minneapolis, Minn.: STEMPress. Piper, John. 2003. Let the Nations Be Glad! Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Books. Reese, Robert. 2008. Short-term Missions as Spiritual Exercise. Evangelical Missions Quarterly. 2008 April. Accessed 1 April 2008. Available from https://bgc.gospelcom.net/emqonline/emq_article_read.php?ArticleID=3815. Internet.