Music

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Music

  1. 1. music
  2. 2. MUSIC comes from the Greek word “mousike” means “the art of Muse”. is a common language of mankind. to the scientist, it is the system of vibrations.
  3. 3. MUSIC
  4. 4. Origin of Music there is no recorded beginning of music. 1000 A. D. -> there no such thing as melody up to this time. the time of Chaucer, singing was accompanied by four to five notes above. Followed by choral chants.
  5. 5. DARWIN- music was developed to attract the opposite sex. SPENCER- music was developed to express emotions just like language developed to express ideas. RICHARDWAGNER- thought that music unlike other arts, could exist quite independent for the visible world. GUMEY- music creates audible form. JOHANNWOLFGANG GOETHE- music as a decisive means to for man’s character, placing music as the center of all educational endeavors. ROBERT NYE- music then will serve as a medium through which individuals will be acquainted with the various aspects of life, being perspicuous reflections of humanity trough ages. Music is a divine gift that is soul-searching and soul- satisfying. Theories about Music
  6. 6. 1. The Babylonians – they used music to give signals to armies and to break the gatherings of people. 2. The Egyptians – they used music in their religious rituals and social activities. 3. The Hindus – music was interwoven with their religious ceremonies and festivities. 4. The Hebrews – considered music as a spiritual gift of God, because to them music was a matter of religion that art. 5. The Assyrians – used music in their religious ceremonies and rituals. Importance of Music in one’s culture
  7. 7. 6. The Greeks – they had their music and myths combined which give us the mythical gods and goddesses. 7. The Romans – music in Rome before the introduction of Grecian was crude and unsatisfactory. Roman philosopher who devised notation by placing letters over syllables , the next was placing signs (called neumes) over the words. 8. The Europeans – Southern Europe had the French troubadores (singers from the nobility), trouveres (knightly singers) and the minnesingers (love singers). Importance of Music in one’s culture
  8. 8. 9. The Chinese – music had a prominent niche among theChinese intellectuals.They used the pentatonic (five notes) scale. 10. The Japanese – they also used pentatonic scale. The national music instrument of Japan is the “Koto”. 11. The Italians – the art of singing came to perfection with the development of the opera in Italy in the 17th and 18th centuries largely due to the development of a new vocal composition “the art song”. 12. The Filipinos – music is their main source of communicating their feelings and emotions. Importance of Music in one’s culture
  9. 9. Introduction to Music Education
  10. 10. The story of music education is inextricably associated with the cultural history of mankind. Music is a regular past time of man and probably one of his earliest accomplishments. The ensuing changes in social and educational structure have dictated modifications in purposes and methods of music education. Introduction to Music Education
  11. 11. the significance of Music Education can be gleaned from the ongoing seminar workshops conducted by different institutions to upgrade knowledge, methods and procedures and teaching strategies. Music Education Law (RA 4723) – an act giving importance to the teaching music in the curriculum of elementary and secondary schools in 1966. Music Education will be the child’s limb to the present global music. Through the singing of folk songs and our soul-stirring kundimans, playing native instruments, participating in bamboo ensembles and the rondialas the child demonstrates love of country. SignificanceofMusicEducationinthePhilippines
  12. 12. TheodoreThomas – said that music is what awakens in you when reminded by the instruments. Music appreciation is difficult to define. It is an inclusive experience which embraces listening, interpretation, creative expression, rhythmic understanding, mood, voices, instruments, forms, styles, pictures in relation to music, orchestral effects, lives of the composers, eras, nationality in music, literature in relation to music, rudiments of harmony and music--- all as fields of exploration, understanding and enjoyment. Music Appreciation in the Philippines
  13. 13. in the elementary school, music is presented in five-fold program: singing, dancing, listening, playing, instruments and creating. thus the teacher training level, the prospective teacher has acquired considerable skills. music with its various texture and moods has a match for every condition and occasion. The theoretical knowledge of music will unlock for us a world of beauty splendor, harmony and joy which can be ours for the taking. It is one of the best means of satisfying one’s creative artistic impulse. Music Appreciation in the Philippines
  14. 14. no human society has been found which has not practiced the art of music and music education. In primitive societies music fulfills a basic function as a accessible agent of tribal tradition, aesthetic meaning and personal expression in which all participate. the educational practice of one “untouched tribe”, the Manus of the Admiralty Islands. (read the citation at the hand out) all evidence at hand handed down music education in one goal, it is that the youth should be able to carry on elaborated ceremonial traditions. The Beginning of Music Education
  15. 15. 1. Enrich life experiences. 2. Discover creative potentials. 3. Enhance visual and aural perception. 4. Utilize music as an outlet for ones feelings. 5. Gain acquaintance with music of different countries. Objectives of Music Education
  16. 16. 6. Develop fellowship. 7. Develop nationalistic spirit. 8. Awaken interest of global culture. 9. Gain familiarity with the different styles of native songs, dances, festivals, musical instruments native to the country. 10.Involve community participation for a harmonious school-community relationship. Objectives of Music Education
  17. 17. In the Mediterranean area, music education became more formal undertaking. 2nd millennium B.C. the Greeks considered music vital in shaping the character of the youth. Greek education was built in music and gymnastics. Music is the soul and gymnastics is the body. Its objective of education: to build citizens of character, stamina and grace. Musical Education in the Classical Era
  18. 18. accordingly, Lycurgus decreed regular education in music in Spartan. Solon recommended music training for all youth in Athens. on the fourth century B.C. music education had apparently reached the height of its influence.Aristoxenus and Pythagoras able to established music theory on a firm basis. Musical Education in the Classical Era
  19. 19. music education in Rome assumed the aspect of intellectual discipline. a curriculum gradually evolved, based on writings by Plato and Aristotle, in which music was bracketed with Arithmetic, Geometry and Astronomy or Quadrivium. Musical Education in the Classical Era
  20. 20. music education in classical era was properly represented with the following kinds of music: a. The classical orchestra – composed of 30 musicians holding different stringed instruments with the addition of the following instruments. b. The chamber music – produced by the four stringed instruments (2 violins, 1 viola and 1 cello). c. The Rococosub – is produce using the Rococo art. d. Opera Buffa – during the end part of the age of classicism Musical Education in the Classical Era
  21. 21. The Christians resisted the pagan educational system until the church assumed control of education. Boethius – prepared five books “De Musica”. Music was studied as pure science. Revised by Johannes de Muris. “ scholae cantorum” schools for the educations of choristers singing in the mass and greatly expanded by Pope Gregory at the end of 6th century. practical professional methods. Musical Education in the Middle Ages
  22. 22. music was carried into universities and was included in the requirements for baccalaureate degree. rise of troubadours, trouveres and meistersingers. Three types of musicians: a. Nobility b. The clergy c. The peasant, farmers and workers. Musical Education in the Middle Ages
  23. 23. music like the visual arts are spacious, elegant, balanced and with careful regard to form. music was no longer considered only a scientific discipline with the impact f humanistic philosophy and the advent of Protestantism. Music instruction thus became standard in the court schools and parochial institutions. music education continued to advance in Europe, the thriving of opera, instrumental performance, and news forms during the Baroque Era was accompanied by a corresponding widening and deepening of musical literacy. Musical Education in the Renaissance
  24. 24. Music Education in the Western World
  25. 25. Outlines ofthe ModernEuropean System Traditions has been carried into the universities. The various types of parochial schools have continued. State controlled elementary schools emphasize musical literacy and the general values of music. In the twentieth century the curriculum has been broadened and enriched. In Hungary, the efforts of Zoltan Kodaly resulted in a systematic and sell supported system of music education. Which utilizes the total music of the country and its indigenous musical heritage. The Hungarian system is not only bearing fruitful results in by its share in music instructions development but become strong influence for change in own program.
  26. 26. It can be traced trough historical documentation to the colonial era. It started as entirely oral in form.  American music is characterized as the reflection the wide and vast open geography and the sense of freedom characteristic of American life.  some beliefs were naturally based upon European system.  however, were in the process of creating new culture, environment. The earliest systematic music education was centered in training of singers for Protestant church services. 18th century- first singing schools in the country founded. Beginningsofthe Music Education intheUnitedStates
  27. 27. 1700- the Episcopal Church of Port Royal,Virginia imported a pipe organ. 1712- the Reverend Father JohnTuffs of Newbury, Massachusets, published the first practical instruction book in singing. 1640- the 2nd book to be printed in America entitled “Bay Song Book”. 1720- singing schools first appeared in New England.  Francis Hopkinson,William Billings and Lowell Mason- they were concerned in developing the ability to read music and ability to interpret a variety of choral works.  1752- an orchestra was employed in the production of “the Beggars Opera”. Beginningsofthe Music Education intheUnitedStates
  28. 28. 1815- extensive interest and acquaintance with music has been developed. 1829- first gathering of musical conventions in Concord,Vermont.  the kind of society which gave rise to music conventions were also the public school music. Teachers included singing as part of general classroom activity. Horace Mann- his time is the great expansion of the American public school system. Free public education itself, and because of this, music quickly assumed its place in the curriculum. Beginningsofthe Music Education intheUnitedStates
  29. 29. Neef – opened a school in Philadelphia in 1809 Principles of the Pestalozzian system of Music (Johann Henrich Pestalozzi)-presented in American Institute of instruction meeting in Boston in 1830. •To teach sounds before signs. •To lead him observe by hearing and imitating sounds. •To teach them but one thing at a time. •In making him practice each step of each, until he is master of it. •In giving the principles and theory after practiced. •In analyzing and practicing the elements of articultae sound in order to apply them into music. •In having the names of the notes correspond to those used in instrumental music. Beginningsofthe Music Education intheUnitedStates
  30. 30. Lowell Mason- visited Europe in 1837 & 1853. observe the methods of music instruction in the Pestalozzian schools and published several books, including the Pestalozzian MusicTeacher. 19th century- educator LutherWhiting Mason established music education in the school of Cincinnati, and became prominent author of textbooks. His “National Music Course”, published in 1970. The first formal school for music educators was founded in 1884 in Potsdam, NewYork by Julia Ettie Crane, but ObertineConservatory in Ohio in the 1920’s became first school to offer a four year degree in Music Education. Beginningsofthe Music Education intheUnitedStates

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