Adam R.T. Smith
session overview
my journey into, away from and
       back to user experience
how I got into UX
my struggles with UX
the current state
of user experience
what does UX mean to you?
"user experience is an emotional response to
interacting with whatever the communicative tool is”
                     int...
“a user experience is how enjoyable it is to
    use something to complete a task”
                   developer
“This is an umbrella term used to describe all the factors that contribute to a
    user’s overall perception of a system....
“the feeling I get as I am doing something”
                  developer
“how I engage with the content being presented to me.
It's akin to going to a movie and covers a whole range of things.”
 ...
“level of satisfaction I undergo when interacting with anything
     designed to serve a specific purpose or purposes”
    ...
“user experience - the result of interfacing”
                   UX designer
“user experience refers to whether or not a user is
positively or negatively affected by the use of the item.”
           ...
“a good user experience is kind of like good sex:
 hard to define but you know it when you feel it.”
                      ...
“user experience is often [the] reason behind software application
    creation and always the validation of the creators'...
“simple, intuitive site navigation.”
            marketing executive
we have a perception problem...
why there’s a perception issue with
                   user experience
“user experience” as a term
user (ˈyoōzər)
noun
1. A person who uses or operates something, esp. a computer or other machi...
“user experience” as a term


• a user can experience an experience that they have yet to previously
  experience in their...
“user experience” as a term


• a user can partake in an event or occurrence that they have yet to
  previously participat...
“user experience” as a term
• specific problems with experience

 • to experience

 • an experience

 • co-experience

 • e...
too ambiguous
• as a term in general

• as a professional field   (user experience)


• as a discipline/ practice of that fi...
where does that leave
UX designers, and UX as a field?
tasks confused as roles
• practitioners coming from singular disciplines (IA, ID) perceive their
  components of user expe...
tech & techniques more valued than UX
• AJAX, Web 2.0, Social Networking, etc. are easier to grasp conceptually
  by the m...
over reliance on “best-practices”
• as a community, we seem to have a need to quantify our value though
  documenting best...
little to no accountability
• because user experience is so misunderstood:

 • clients can be embarrassed by lack of knowl...
what now?


• if we don’t know where we came from, how do we expect to
  understand where we are?

• and more importantly,...
a short history of
user experience
history
•   1940s - human factors grows out of WW2 cognitive psychology research on the strains on military personnel

•  ...
history
•   usability more easily understood and value more easily sold in organizations so it takes off
    faster than t...
the elements and principals
        of user experience
elements of user experience
elements of user experience
•   useful: allows the user to accomplish a particular goal or task

•   usable: allows the us...
“fuzzier” aspects
• physical: how the product feels, is it easy to manipulate, carry and physically interact
  with

• sen...
context of use
•   psychological: who the user “thinks” they are and what they bring to the experience, their needs,
    d...
an experience framework
•   sub-conscious: the most automatic or fluent
    experiences

•   experience: consistent stream ...
a hierarchy of UX?
•   user and product working together seamlessly to accomplish goals

•   pride of use, pride of compet...
brand & user experience
•   user experiences are enhanced customer-to-brand touch-points

•   the more interactions a user...
roles & titles
• ethnography/ anthropology/   • functional design
  cognitive psych/ research
                            ...
roles & titles
• separate the work from the worker

• should not be separate titles, but tasks performed by members of a
 ...
practitioner “types”



I’s T’s O’s
where UXD fits in product development
• user experience needs to start at the beginning of the project

• research should n...
why thoughtful UX design matters...
•   UX goes beyond the screen, into the thoughts and emotions of the user creating str...
mobile is a different
           medium
devices as lenses
web   iPhone   mobile web
mobilize, don’t... cripple
• mobile UX is no longer simply about short task completion.

• users beginning to perform expl...
different contexts of use

• environmental differences

• situational differences

• relational differences

• cultural & ...
different interruptions
• plan for interruption

• casual interruptions

• disruptive interruptions

• dangerous interrupt...
different intentions

• different motivations

• different desires

• different goals
different physical and technical constraints
• size of screen                     • user settings, pre-set
               ...
different capabilities
• ubiquitous

• sensors

• gps location awareness

• network versatility & persistent connectivity
...
more mobile UX considerations...
•   mobile products allow users to fail gracefully, encouraging more curious and explorat...
iPhone as a catalyst
• the iPhone UX has raised the expectations of the general public from
  accepting poor, difficult dev...
the future of mobile user experience
•   awareness of not just location, but context of location, situation, environment a...
mobile will inform stationary UXD
thank you!


• the evolution of mobile user experience will not be made by the big
  software companies, the handset manuf...
FITC Mobile 09 Presentation: UX From Stationary To Mobile
FITC Mobile 09 Presentation: UX From Stationary To Mobile
FITC Mobile 09 Presentation: UX From Stationary To Mobile
FITC Mobile 09 Presentation: UX From Stationary To Mobile
FITC Mobile 09 Presentation: UX From Stationary To Mobile
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FITC Mobile 09 Presentation: UX From Stationary To Mobile

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A high level review of the state of UX design and a personal perspective of its issues, and how it is evolving to expand the medium of mobile.

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  • about me & LR
  • Overview of the Talk
  • - coming from design education, working in graphic design studios, and web design studios
    - 2000 TD securities
    - re-work portal product proof-of-concepts
    - in the days when software companies let you test out the product to see if it was customizable to your needs- In a design and front-end code role
    - quickly aligned myself with 2 hired gun consultants
    - became a key part of the UX definition team
    - interviews, complex navigation flow diagrams, user needs, business needs, tech constraints etc.
    - fell in love and never turned back
  • I’ve always had interest in branding, marketing, business strategy, human behavioral and cognitive psychology, human to human relationships,

    the reasons why technology succeeds and fails, obviously interface design, interaction design, Information architecture,

    why I absolutely love certain products (even during the Steve-less years), and the concept of simplicity and complexity as useful tools in the right context.

    I never saw each as a whole, but rather as independent elements that somehow could abstractly help me in my ability to design powerful user experiences... not knowing why.

    Always intrigued by the work done by Xerox Park, early Mac OS teams and how it related to design...

    always felt that there was a stronger connection between UX and brand development

    I’ve had problems connecting how human computer interaction research and development evolved before the web, and how it is progressing now, somewhat independently or ignorantly from its early roots.
    for years I haven't been able to define UX, and thus I hadn't been able to describe what I do in a succinct manner that felt complete or even correct

    when I was asked by random non industry people I would generally say "i do some things..." to avoid explaining what ux is, and what value it provides...

    I may not have known exactly what ux is, but I certainly knew what it isn't
  • - given my issues with grasping the concept of UX in the past...

    - thought it might be interesting to get a pulse on how UX is understood and perceived by both practitioners and the general public
  • - asked a collection of people, both inside and outside the industry to define user experience in their own words:
    - found the responses quite interesting
  • - so it’s obvious that we have a conceptual problem with the understanding, or lack thereof, with UX as a profession, a practice, and as a valuable service.

    - not only with the general public - which makes it hard to promote, sell and advance the profile of UX

    - but with the people that actually call themselves UX designers, or consider themselves involved in UX design
  • - problems with perception, understanding and as a result: formalization outside of our own community

    - this isn’t anyone else’s fault, but rather our own as practitioners

    - let’s take a quick look at the main reasons why UX is misunderstood:

    - a lot has to do with the name
  • According to the New Oxford American Dictionary: on screen.

    User: an “individual” that operates or manipulates, so basically a crackhead, or politician.

    Experience: noun, verb, and tactile event or occurrence, knowledge, previous experience, current experience, life as experience... on and on...
  • The experience a user has with a product

    The concept of defining a product to deliver an optimal experience for its users

    The perception of the interaction with a product once experienced by a user as defined by their memory of it
  • Experience - something that is occurring to or involved with the participant creating a continuous stream that flows through the mind of the participant.

    An Experience - something with a beginning and an end. Usually extraordinary, outside of the norm and distinctly memorable. May influence the participant in terms of behavior, or perception.

    Co-Experience - experiences created with others, creating meaning and emotion through use of product (a nightclub is a shared/ co-experience)

    Experience as Story - the digestion, organization, and storage of ‘an experience’ for later retrieval and recounting. A means of describing an experience to ones self or others.
  • information architects vs. interaction designers.

    the ultimate battle
  • - usability more easily understood and value more easily sold in organizatrions so it takes off faster than the more integrated concept of ux

    - as an industry we see the need to have an integrated approach, but ech try to do it from the perspective of thier practice experience, not from a holistic perspective.

    - Coalescence confusion - what are we, where ds we come from? We're right back where we were before the web scatter bomb

    - Reintegration power struggle- what we're seeing between the IAs and UXers (same as content vs. creative in web early days)

    - today 

    - how is this innate infighting going to affect Mobile? Segregation? Or cross-pollination? 
  • JJG has a different model based on the same elements

    broken into two modes information and application

    too rigid

    the types of experiences we are designing for are expanding 2 fast
  • emotional affect: creating the desired expressed or observed emotional response
  • Forlizzi & ford model

    cognitive when learning/ concentrating

    becomes sub-conscious when learned

    storytelling when storing, remembering, recounting to others

    jumps back to cognitive when interupted, or something unexpected occurs



    Sub-conscious: Routine previously learned and mastered, walking, golf swing

    Experience: as written

    Cognition: First use, adaptive/ contextual dynamic menus, learning curve

    Narrative: (realization of what was happening - or is happening) more process/ procedural in nature

    Storytelling: This means that the user interacts with subset of features to make their own unique and subjective story and relates the “experience” in their own words to make it their own. Gives meaning to the situation or product.
  • brand and UX are inextricably intertwined

    customers dont like to think, so brands tell them what to think.

    users dont like to think, so ux simplifies the interaction for them
  • O’s or Diamonds (where we should go. cross pollination...)

    o’s have the full gamut. Business, marketing, brand, technology, design

    outside forces are business and product centric
    diamonds tie it into the centre
    centre is the user focussed and business aligned sweet spot.
  • start at first meeting.
  • micro-interactions
  • content/ functionality remains constant, only the focal length changes.

    mobile is more detailed, intimate interaction experienced in quick, functional manner


    Many device categories:
    Small screen cellphones
    Smartphones
    Full Screen Smartphones & Mobile Devices

    Many product variants:
    WAP
    Mobile Web (it is different)
    Mobile Web Apps
    Native Mobile Apps
  • Bell WAP portal coded differently to give same/similar UI / UX across all devices
  • lighting conditions, weather, more distractions,

    washroom, desk, bus, walking down the street, sleeping

    how the user relates to the device OEM, the network provider (ahem... AT&T) the app developer, the content... and how it relates to the users current situation

    private & public use, use with and in front of friends
  • - interupted by passer by, horn honking,

    - receiving call (takes user out of current focus or app)
  • explore -> evaluate -> decision -> understand -> acclimate -> basic use -> intermediate use -> expert use -> abandon
  • input: take a picture of a book & send to amazon
  • 0- We have still not even begun to take advantage of the unique capabilities, both physical and technological, of the mobile device. We are on the brink of a new world of products and applications - augmented reality is merely the beginning - we don’t even know what our devices will be doing for us in 5 years. This is a first, and the most exciting revolution since 1984.

    1 - allowing for more complex, more robust feature sets and software capabilities

    5 -like the business person at the other end of the bar that is currently desperately seeking a service provider with exactly the service and experience you have.

    6 - A users experience with their data does not start and stop on a particular device or medium, it merely continues from one to the next as they use, interact and manipulate it through various lenses.

    7- from the desktop model of a product that contains a set of features that allow you to perform tasks to a more service / experience model - like interactive digital music experiences as applications/ products.
  • FITC Mobile 09 Presentation: UX From Stationary To Mobile

    1. 1. Adam R.T. Smith
    2. 2. session overview
    3. 3. my journey into, away from and back to user experience
    4. 4. how I got into UX
    5. 5. my struggles with UX
    6. 6. the current state of user experience
    7. 7. what does UX mean to you?
    8. 8. "user experience is an emotional response to interacting with whatever the communicative tool is” interface designer
    9. 9. “a user experience is how enjoyable it is to use something to complete a task” developer
    10. 10. “This is an umbrella term used to describe all the factors that contribute to a user’s overall perception of a system. Is it easy to use, attractive and appropriate? Does it meet user needs?” customer support
    11. 11. “the feeling I get as I am doing something” developer
    12. 12. “how I engage with the content being presented to me. It's akin to going to a movie and covers a whole range of things.” film producer
    13. 13. “level of satisfaction I undergo when interacting with anything designed to serve a specific purpose or purposes” entrepreneur
    14. 14. “user experience - the result of interfacing” UX designer
    15. 15. “user experience refers to whether or not a user is positively or negatively affected by the use of the item.” interaction designer
    16. 16. “a good user experience is kind of like good sex: hard to define but you know it when you feel it.” lawyer
    17. 17. “user experience is often [the] reason behind software application creation and always the validation of the creators' abilities” technical analyst
    18. 18. “simple, intuitive site navigation.” marketing executive
    19. 19. we have a perception problem...
    20. 20. why there’s a perception issue with user experience
    21. 21. “user experience” as a term user (ˈyoōzər) noun 1. A person who uses or operates something, esp. a computer or other machine. • A person who takes illegal drugs; a drug user : the drug causes long-term brain damage in users; a heroin user. • A person who manipulates others for their own gain : he was a gifted user of other people. experience (ikˈspi(ə)rēəns) noun 1. Practical contact with and observation of facts or events : he had already learned his lesson by painful experience; he spoke from experience. • The knowledge or skill acquired by such means over a period of time, esp. that gained in a particular profession by someone at work : older men whose experience could be called upon; candidates with the necessary experience. • An event or occurrence that leaves an impression on someone : for the younger players it has been a learning experience. verb [ trans. ] encounter or undergo (an event or occurrence) : the company is experiencing difficulties. • feel (an emotion) : an opportunity to experience the excitement of New York.
    22. 22. “user experience” as a term • a user can experience an experience that they have yet to previously experience in their personal experience.
    23. 23. “user experience” as a term • a user can partake in an event or occurrence that they have yet to previously participate in in their life.
    24. 24. “user experience” as a term • specific problems with experience • to experience • an experience • co-experience • experience as a story
    25. 25. too ambiguous • as a term in general • as a professional field (user experience) • as a discipline/ practice of that field (user experience design) • as a description of the resulting product of that practice (a user’s experience) • perhaps we need a new label for UX?
    26. 26. where does that leave UX designers, and UX as a field?
    27. 27. tasks confused as roles • practitioners coming from singular disciplines (IA, ID) perceive their components of user experience design to be the most important... and push the process in that direction • I believe: the culmination of a number of individual, and previously independent, disciplines (IA, ID, GD, UID, MarCom, Brand, etc.) into a cohesive and collaborative unit (whether individual or team) with shared knowledge, experience and mutual respect for the value provided by each to build the best experience possible.
    28. 28. tech & techniques more valued than UX • AJAX, Web 2.0, Social Networking, etc. are easier to grasp conceptually by the masses than UX and get more focus as a result • technology, methods and techniques are means to an end, not a value offering • easier to sell what can be explained, and easier to buy what can be understood • difficult to convince clients of the value of research & testing when faced with tight timelines and budgets
    29. 29. over reliance on “best-practices” • as a community, we seem to have a need to quantify our value though documenting best-practices • best-practices may have worked on a previous product, but may not be the optimal solution for the current • UXD is evolving so quickly that best-practices are generally outdated once disseminated • Best-practices can be the lazy way out - stagnating innovation
    30. 30. little to no accountability • because user experience is so misunderstood: • clients can be embarrassed by lack of knowledge... so they don’t push for explanations or justifications • UX deliverables are rarely held to task & measured for effectiveness • products languish and degrade as a result of poor updates & management - lack of respect for good UX • partial deliverables passed off as full UXD
    31. 31. what now? • if we don’t know where we came from, how do we expect to understand where we are? • and more importantly, where we’re going?
    32. 32. a short history of user experience
    33. 33. history • 1940s - human factors grows out of WW2 cognitive psychology research on the strains on military personnel • 1970s - human computer interaction (HCI) develops thanks to Scandinavian labour unions demand for usable computer systems from occupational health perspective, starting with hardware, then software • 1980s - usability emerges • 1980s - term User Experience coined by Don Norman as self title at Apple • 1990s - Norman builds on concept of User Experience with series of “...Everyday Things” books • late 1990s - the explosion in popularity acts as a scatter-bomb for existing practices and thinking in UX • 1999 - usability takes forefront “Designing Web Usability” • 2004 - Norman quantifies the “fuzzy” / intangible side of interaction with book Emotional Design
    34. 34. history • usability more easily understood and value more easily sold in organizations so it takes off faster than the more integrated concept of UX • numerous new roles, titles and disciplines emerge as a result of popularity of web, fractured, disconnected • as an industry we see the need to have an integrated approach, but each try to do it from the perspective of their fractured discipline - no cohesion • confusion - what are we, where did we come from? where are we going? • reintegration power struggle - what we're seeing between the IAs and IDs • and here we are today...
    35. 35. the elements and principals of user experience
    36. 36. elements of user experience
    37. 37. elements of user experience • useful: allows the user to accomplish a particular goal or task • usable: allows the user to interact intuitively, with ease & fails gracefully • desirable: satisfies an emotional need, personal or social, for the user • findable: content or functionality must be easily discovered, exploited and remembered • accessible: can be used without barrier by majority of target audience • credible: creates an environment of trust and safety • valuable: provides a return on investment for the user (acquisition cost, time spent interacting)
    38. 38. “fuzzier” aspects • physical: how the product feels, is it easy to manipulate, carry and physically interact with • sensual: arouses and gratifies the senses outside of the intellectual brain • cognitive: allows for concentration when needed, but doesn’t overwhelm the users mind • emotional: creates a bond between user and brand, product, or service provided • aesthetic: is pleasing to look at, aligns with users self-concept, aligns with expectations
    39. 39. context of use • psychological: who the user “thinks” they are and what they bring to the experience, their needs, desires, values, personality, preferences and current mindset, mentality and disposition • relational: how the user relates or perceives the product, brand or company behind the product, also any third-party user or company they interact with through the product • situational: psycho-social “where” the user is communicating: in a meeting vs. alone at their desk • environmental: physical “where” the user is communicating: noise level, distractions, lighting, time of day, etc. • cultural: what is perceived as acceptable and unacceptable from a societal perspective
    40. 40. an experience framework • sub-conscious: the most automatic or fluent experiences • experience: consistent stream of input in context of situational, environmental and perception factors • cognition: experience that demands user to concentrate on how to use the product • narrative: experiences that have been formalized in the users head explaining what to do or what has been done • storytelling: remembering and communicating subjective aspects of experience. Gives meaning
    41. 41. a hierarchy of UX? • user and product working together seamlessly to accomplish goals • pride of use, pride of competence with product • emotional bond, personal connection, loyalty • fails gracefully, promotes exploration • functional, does what it’s supposed to
    42. 42. brand & user experience • user experiences are enhanced customer-to-brand touch-points • the more interactions a user has with a brand, the more the message is reinforced • good branding personifies a company; good ux personifies a product or service as well as the company • ux, like branding, allows users to attribute emotions and create bonds otherwise impossible with inanimate objects • the experience a user has with a companies’ product is more valid, persuasive, and powerful than advertising • user experience is the new brand ambassador in a world where individuals don’t pay attention to advertising • negative ux can hurt a brand, but poor brand perception can prevent a product from ever being used
    43. 43. roles & titles • ethnography/ anthropology/ • functional design cognitive psych/ research • graphic design • human factors design • user Interface design • content design • usability design • information architecture • interaction design
    44. 44. roles & titles • separate the work from the worker • should not be separate titles, but tasks performed by members of a UXD team • each task should be performed on rotation, cross-pollination • JJG: “we are all user experience designers” - IA Summit ‘09
    45. 45. practitioner “types” I’s T’s O’s
    46. 46. where UXD fits in product development • user experience needs to start at the beginning of the project • research should not only inform the experience, but the direction of the product • needs to be considered and consulted throughout • evaluates and measures success to gain insight • iterate, iterate, iterate...
    47. 47. why thoughtful UX design matters... • UX goes beyond the screen, into the thoughts and emotions of the user creating stronger connections • a products user experience is the new brand ambassador in a world where individuals don’t pay attention to advertising • prevent the commoditization of a product • reduce price sensitivity of the product • increase customer acquisition and retention • protect against competitive threat by building stronger bonds with users • users will feel the company behind the product cares more about them • can mitigate excessive feature bloat - the reason software is versioned • micro interactions culminate into a unified macro experience
    48. 48. mobile is a different medium
    49. 49. devices as lenses
    50. 50. web iPhone mobile web
    51. 51. mobilize, don’t... cripple • mobile UX is no longer simply about short task completion. • users beginning to perform exploratory and organic browsing tasks on mobile web (mobile safari, 3G, Wi-Fi) • don’t omit features to make products more mobile centric, provide full featured products with mobile-optimized task flows • mobile specific features that take advantage of mobile-only capabilities
    52. 52. different contexts of use • environmental differences • situational differences • relational differences • cultural & social differences
    53. 53. different interruptions • plan for interruption • casual interruptions • disruptive interruptions • dangerous interruptions • mobile as an interruption to life
    54. 54. different intentions • different motivations • different desires • different goals
    55. 55. different physical and technical constraints • size of screen • user settings, pre-set parameters • size of physical buttons • available networking protocols • portability of device itself • available bandwidth • inherent capabilities of product type (app, web, WAP) • network latency • hardware limitations • battery life
    56. 56. different capabilities • ubiquitous • sensors • gps location awareness • network versatility & persistent connectivity • input methods: camera, voice, orientation, motion, gesture & touch
    57. 57. more mobile UX considerations... • mobile products allow users to fail gracefully, encouraging more curious and exploratory mentalities when using devices • mobile UX should never need a help system • mobile UX is no longer simply about short task completion. Now performing exploratory and organic browsing tasks more and more • the problem now is not to omit features to make products more mobile centric, but rather to provide full featured products with mobile-optimized task flows • different scenarios will bring about different purposes or goals in the user - the desk chair in front of the computer will afford the user more time, patience, and less distractions than walking down the street using a mobile app • features & functionality need to be more carefully balanced with simplicity & effectiveness
    58. 58. iPhone as a catalyst • the iPhone UX has raised the expectations of the general public from accepting poor, difficult device software to why doesn’t it just work the way I want it to? • gestural touch is the biggest leap in input method since the mouse • a wake up call to the rest of the industry - from OEMS, to software developers, to the telcos • made mobile a platform, not an afterthought
    59. 59. the future of mobile user experience • awareness of not just location, but context of location, situation, environment and other individuals around you - automatically adapting the priority of user interface elements, features and functionality to the current situation • persistent and instant cloud sharing of data between all devices, your friends and family creating an always on, pervasive “you” ecosystem • smart agents that not only find what you know you’re looking for, but anticipate and find things you didn’t know you wanted or needed • mobile vs. desktop experiences as separate concepts will dissolve and information/ data experiences will evolve • concept of an “App” will change
    60. 60. mobile will inform stationary UXD
    61. 61. thank you! • the evolution of mobile user experience will not be made by the big software companies, the handset manufacturers, or the carriers, it will become what we, the designers and developers of mobile applications and products make it to be
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