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  • Flow of Events: Leadership development opportunities abound in everyday life (work, family, community). Some are big and lasting, some are short and fleeting. No two people will interpret and respond to a particular “trigger event” in exactly the same way in terms of whether and how much the event contributes to leadership development. One of the key explanations for this variation is a construct called Developmental Readiness. Developmental Readiness : both the ability and motivation to attend to, seek performance feedback, make sense of it and incorporate it effectively and positively into one’s self-concept; the ability to access and effectively process self-knowledge, and ultimately apply that knowledge during self-evaluation and the formation of efficacy beliefs. Self Concept Clarity – self-beliefs are clearly and confidently defined, internally consistent and stable
  • After reviewing the second team survey, your team might want to huddle and discuss what’s working and what could be done to improve team effectiveness. You can do this face-to-face and/or use the LSTDeveloper portal to start a team discussion thread on how team climate, how that’s impacting attitudes and behavioral outcomes.
  • Methodology: T4, T7 and T11 assess the same aspects of leadership (authentic [ALQ], transactional, transformational & communication) using the same method (self report and peer ratings) T8 assesses self reported agentic leadership efficacy with a 22-item measure. This measure was also rolled into T3, but made that survey too long and so the second administration is a stand-alone. T9 is an optional 360° assessment using the MLQ. This is a future component of our assessment protocol.

 Leadership models, UW EMHA Leadership models, UW EMHA Presentation Transcript

  • Leadership: an introduction Ed Walker MD, MHA Director, UW Healthcare Leadership Development Alliance
  • What is your definition of leadership? Pick a word or phrase that best describes what you think leadership is
  • Four important components of a definition of leadership
    • Leadership is a
    • 1) process whereby an
    • 2) individual influences a
    • 3) group of individuals to
    • 4) achieve a common goal .
  • But what exactly is it?
    • Trait of the leader?
    • Skill set?
    • Situational moment?
    • Stylistic process
    • A set of transactions?
    • Ability to influence or manipulate?
    • A transformational experience of inspiration?
    • Knowledge of people and their motivations?
    • Clear understanding of goals and paths?
  • Trait vs. Process Leadership
    • Certain individuals have special innate or inborn characteristics or qualities that differentiate them from nonleaders.
      • Resides in select people
      • Restricted to those with inborn talent
    Trait definition of leadership: LEADER FOLLOWERS Leadership
    • Height
    • Intelligence
    • Extroversion
    • Fluency
    • Other Traits
  • Trait vs. Process Leadership
    • Leadership is a property or set of properties possessed in varying degrees by different people (Jago, 1982).
      • Observed in leadership behaviors
      • Can be learned
    Process definition of Leadership: LEADER Leadership (Interaction) FOLLOWERS
  • Assigned vs. Emergent Leadership
    • Leadership based on occupying a position within an organization
      • CEO
      • Chief of Staff
      • Director of HR
      • Department heads
    • An individual perceived by others as the most influential member of a group or organization regardless of the individual’s title
      • Emerges over time through communication behaviors
      • The virtual org chart
    Assigned Emergent
  • Leadership & Power
    • Five Bases of Power
  • Leadership & Management Kotter (1990) Major activities of management and leadership are played out differently; BUT, both are essential for an organization to prosper.
  • My gender? My skills and learned behaviors? My ability to capitalize on circumstance? My personal style? My ability to influence and negotiate? My group’s ability to form a team? The culture of my organization? My flexibility to adapt? My genes? What makes me a good leader? Who I am Who I lead How I lead
  • Is leadership a trait?
  • Historical Shifts in Trait Perspective Great Man Theories Early 1900s
    • Research focused
    • on individual
    • characteristics
    • that universally
    • differentiated
    • leaders
    • from nonleaders
    Traits Interacting With Situational Demands on Leaders 1930-50s
    • Landmark Stogdill (1948)
    • study - analyzed and
    • synthesized 124 trait studies
    • - Leadership
    • reconceptualized
    • as a relationship between
    • people in a social situation
    • Mann (1959) reviewed 1,400
    • findings of personality and
    • leadership in small groups
    • - Less emphasis on situations
    • - Suggested personality traits
    • could be used to discriminate
    • leaders from nonleaders
    Revival of Critical Role of Traits in Leader Effectiveness
    • Stogdill (1974)
    • - Analyzed 163 new studies
    • with 1948 study findings
    • - Validated original study
    • - 10 characteristics
    • positively identified with
    • leadership
    • Lord, DeVader, &
    • Alliger (1986) meta-analysis
    • - Personality traits can be
    • used to differentiate
    • leaders/nonleaders
    • Kirkpatrick & Locke (1991)
    • - 6 traits make up the
    • “ Right Stuff” for leaders
    1970’s - Early 90s Innate Qualities Situations Personality / Behaviors Today
    • Intelligence
    • Self-Confidence
    • Determination
    • Integrity
    • Sociability
    5 Major Leadership Traits
  • 5-Factor Personality Model & Leadership Big Five Personality Factors
  • Emotional Intelligence & Leadership
    • People who are more sensitive to their emotions & their impact on others will be more effective leaders
    Underlying Premise Definition
    • Ability to perceive and :
      • apply emotions to life’s tasks
      • reason/understand emotions
      • express emotions
      • use emotions to facilitate thinking
      • manage emotions within oneself & relationships
  • Is leadership more of a well developed skill set?
  • Basic Administrative Skills – Katz (1955) Management Skills Necessary at Various Levels of an Organization
    • Leaders need all three skills – but, skill ability/ importance changes based on level of management
  • Skills Model Skills Model of Leadership
  • Maybe leadership is a matter of interactive style?
  • Balancing people and productivity Blake-Mouton Grid
  • Ok, maybe leadership is just the flexibility to adapt to a given situation?
  • Blanchard and Hersey Telling Participating Delegating Selling
  •  
  • How Does The Situational Approach Work? Followers Developmental level D1 Low Competence High Commitment D2 Some Competence Low Commitment D3 Mod-High Competence Low Commitment D4 High Competence High Commitment Leaders Leadership style S1 – Directing High Directive-Low Supportive S2 – Coaching High Directive-High Supportive S3 – Supporting High Supportive-Low Directive S4 – Delegating Low Supportive-Low Directive How Does The Situational Approach Work?
  • Perhaps leadership is just staying out of the way and letting people do their jobs?
  • Path-Goal Theory
  • Is leadership more than just getting the job done?
  • Transformational Leadership…
    • A process of charismatic and visionary leadership that changes and transforms individuals
    • A form of influence that moves followers to accomplish more than what is expected of them
    • Concerned with emotions, values, ethics, standards, and long-term goals
    • assesses followers’ motives, satisfying their needs, and treating them as full human beings
    • both specific (one-to-one with followers) and broad (whole organizations or entire cultures)
    • follower(s) and leader are inextricably bound together in the transformation process
  • Transformational Leadership Factors
    • Leaders who exhibit TL:
    • have a strong set of internal values & ideals
    • are effective in motivating followers to support greater good over self-interest
  • Transformational Leadership
    • TLs empower and nurture followers
    • TLs stimulate change by becoming strong role models for followers
    • TLs commonly create a vision
    • TLs require leaders to become social architects
    • TLs build trust & foster collaboration
    • Describes how leaders can initiate, develop, and carry out significant changes in organizations
    Focus of Transformational Leaders Overall Scope
  • An example of Transformational Leadership
    • Model the Way
      • Exemplary leaders set examples by their own behavior
    • Inspire a Shared Vision
      • Effective leaders inspire visions that challenge others
    • Challenge the Process
      • Leaders are willing to innovate, grow, take risks
    • Enable Others to Act
      • Leaders create environments where people can feel good about their work & how it contributes to greater community
    • Encourage the Heart
      • Leaders use authentic celebrations & rituals to show appreciation & encouragement to others
    Kouzes & Pozner (1987, 2002)
  • Wait, maybe it’s not about the leader at all – it’s about the team that’s being led
  • Team Leadership
    • Team Leadership is about performing functions
  • Wait – we’ve gotten too far from the focus on the leader and the complexity of the kinds of people we really are
  • Psychodynamic Approach
    • Function of leader – To become aware of his or her own personality type and the personalities of followers
    • Underlying assumptions
      • Personality characteristics of individuals are deeply ingrained and virtually impossible to change in any significant way
      • People have motives & feelings that are unconscious
      • Person’s behavior results from observable actions, responses AND from emotional effects of past experience
  • Eric Berne and Transactional Analysis
    • Four dimensions important in assessing personality:
      • Where a person derives energy –
        • internally or externally
      • Way in which a person gathers information –
        • precise, sequential way or more intuitive & random way
      • Way in which a person makes decisions –
        • rationally & factually or in a subjective, personal way
      • How the person is oriented to the world --
        • planning & organized or , more spontaneous & pliant
    Carl Jung & Personality Types
  • Carl Jung and Personality Types Psychological Preferences and Leadership
  • Sixteen Types and Leadership Psychological Types and Leadership
  • Maybe it’s all about gender – do men or women make better leaders?
    • Overall, multiple meta-analyses show that men and women were equally effective , but with some differences:
      • women and men were more effective in leadership roles congruent with their gender
      • women were less effective to the extent that leader role was masculinized
      • women were
        • less effective than men in military positions
        • more effective than men in education, government, and social service organizations
        • substantially more effective than men in middle management positions; interpersonal skills highly valued
        • less effective than men when they
          • supervised a higher proportion of male subordinates
          • greater proportion of male raters assessed the leaders’ performance
    Meta-analysis of Gender and Leadership Effectiveness (Eagly et al, 1995)
  • What about culture? Does that make a difference?
  • Dimensions of Culture
    • House et al’s (2004) research on the relationship between culture and leadership resulted in the GLOBE research program
      • Initiated in 1991 – this program involved more than 160 investigators
      • Used quantitative methods to study the responses of 17,000 managers in more than 950 organizations, 62 different cultures
      • Developed a classification of cultural dimensions – identified nine cultural dimensions
    Research
  • Dimensions of Culture
    • GLOBE research program – nine cultural dimensions
      • Uncertainty Avoidance:
        • extent to which a society, organization, or group relies on established social norms, rituals, and procedures to avoid uncertainty
      • Power Distance:
        • degree to which members of a group expect and agree that power should be shared unequally
      • Institutional Collectivism:
        • degree to which an organization or society encourages institutional or societal collective action.
    Research
  • Dimensions of Culture
    • GLOBE research program – nine cultural dimensions
      • In-Group Collectivism:
        • degree to which people express pride, loyalty, and cohesiveness in their organizations or families
      • Gender Egalitarianism:
        • degree to which an organization or society minimizes gender role differences and promotes gender equality
      • Assertiveness:
        • degree to which people in a culture are determined, assertive, confrontational, and aggressive in their social relationships
    Research
  • Dimensions of Culture
    • GLOBE research program – nine cultural dimensions
      • Future Orientation:
        • extent to which people engage in future-oriented behaviors such as planning, investing in the future, and delaying gratification
      • Performance Orientation:
        • extent to which an organization or society encourages and rewards group members for improved performance and excellence
      • Humane Orientation:
        • degree to which a culture encourages and rewards people for being fair, altruistic, generous, caring, and kind to others.
    Research
    • GLOBE researchers divided the data from 62 countries into regional clusters
      • Clusters provide a convenient way to
        • Analyze similarities & differences between cultural groups
        • Make meaningful generalizations about culture & leadership
      • Clusters were found to be unique
      • Regional clusters represent 10 distinct groups
    Clusters of World Cultures
  • Clusters of World Cultures
    • Characteristics include -
    • Anglo – competitive and result-oriented
    • Confucian Asia – result-driven, encourage group working together over individual goals
    • Eastern Europe – forceful, supportive of co-workers, treat women with equality
    • Germanic Europe – value competition & aggressiveness and are more result-oriented
    • Latin America – loyal & devoted to their families and similar groups
    Characteristics of Clusters Observations
    • Characteristics include -
    • Latin Europe – value individual autonomy
    • Middle East – devoted & loyal to their own people, women afforded less status
    • Nordic Europe – high priority on long-term success, women treated with greater equality
    • Southern Asia – strong family & deep concern for their communities
    • Sub-Sahara Africa – concerned & sensitive to others, demonstrate strong family loyalty
    Characteristics of Clusters Observations
  • Developing Leadership with Strategic Thinking Balancing Rigor and Relevance
  • FALL Winter SPRING Self Personal Readiness (Once) Team Team Dynamic (Three times) Your Leadership Peer & Self Rating (Three times) Global Mindset Self (Once)
    • For Team Dynamics we repeat the same team measures 3 times
    • Authentic Leadership Model:
    • Self-Awareness
    • Transparency
    • Balanced Processing
    • Moral/Ethical Behavior
    • Full Range Leadership (Transformational - TF):
    • Four Is:
      • I ndividualized Consideration
      • I ntellectual Stimulation
      • I dealized Influence
      • I nspirational Motivation
    • Contingent Reward (Transactional - TA)
  • Transactional Contingent Reward “ Utilities” Self-Awareness Transparency Balanced Processing Moral/Ethical Behavior Transformational “ Walls” Authentic “ Foundation” Strategic “ Crown”
  • Clapp-Smith Model
    • Focus on state-like attributes (not traits)
    • Leverage experience (trigger moments)
    • Increase self-awareness
    • Develop reflective learning capabilities (e.g., journaling, after action reviews, etc.)
    • Provide challenge, feedback and support
  • FALL WINTER SPRING
  • A leader trained in an evidence-based system of development …
    • Knows his or her strengths and is always self-aware
    • Continuously reflects by thinking about how he or she thinks
    • Has a clear self concept and goal orientation
    • Is motivated to learn and motivated to lead
    • Maintains and appreciates perspective and is morally grounded
    • Is adaptable , tolerant of ambiguity and is self efficacious in the face of adversity
    • Is socially and culturally aware
    • Balances individual and team effectiveness
    • Becomes an authentic leader: self aware, balanced processing, moral perspective, transparent
    • Demonstrates psychological capital: self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resiliency
  • So what have we learned?