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Contributers to Greenhouse Effect
_______________________________________________________
FOR IMMEDIAT E RELEASE
_________...
Hy perPhy sics (©C.R. Nav e, 201 2) is a continually dev eloping base of instructional material in phy sics.
It is not fre...
The greenhouse effect refers to circumstances where the short wav elengths of v isible light from the sun
pass through a t...
Shorter wav elengths of ultrav iolet light are largely blocked by glass since they hav e greater quantum
energies which ha...
The Mauna Loa monitoring station reports the carbon diox ide lev el in the atmosphere today as about
380 parts per million...
These are sketches of the graphs produced in the IPCC 2007 report of the increase in key greenhouse
gases. They make clear...
This graphic of the global air temperature was posted by Phil Jones on behalf of the Climatic Research
Unit, UK. The key r...
This graphic of the global air temperature was posted by Phil Jones on behalf of the Climatic Research
Unit, UK. The key r...
Because the potential consequences of global warming in terms of loss of snow cov er, sea lev el rise,
change in weather p...
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Transcript of "Contributers to greenhouse effect"

  1. 1. Heider Jeffer is a PhD student mathematician & theoretical physicist Site about science, art, music, movies, health, fun, beauty & other interests All Hieder Social Networks At: Heider writing appeared At: • Stanford Center For Professional Development • U.S. Air Force engineers & scientists Heider Publications AT: open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com
  2. 2. Heider Web At: Heider codes At: Visit Heider At: • Avicenna youtube channel science, musics & films,Stanford & MIT lecture videos...etc! • Richard Feynman and Art. about arts ..etc! • Heider Online library Read Heider's online books for free! • Heider Cinema : watch online for free, Films, Documentaries , Tv Shows! • Heider Avicenna about vegan recipes and cooking...etc! Heider Social Box At: open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com
  3. 3. RSS Random Archive Ask me anything Submit Mobile Effector Theme by Pixel Union open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com
  4. 4. open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com
  5. 5. open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com
  6. 6. open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com
  7. 7. open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com
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  9. 9. Contributers to Greenhouse Effect _______________________________________________________ FOR IMMEDIAT E RELEASE ________________________________________________________ Please respect the Copyright & Code Honor open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com
  10. 10. Hy perPhy sics (©C.R. Nav e, 201 2) is a continually dev eloping base of instructional material in phy sics. It is not freeware or shareware. It must not be copied or mirrored without authorization. The author is open to proposals for its use for non-profit instructional purposes. The ov erall intent has been to dev elop a wide ranging ex ploration env ironment which could be of use to students and teachers. ________________________________________________________ Start: Those gas molecules in the Earth’s atmosphere with three or more atoms are called “greenhouse gases” because they can capture outgoing infrared energy from the Earth, thereby warming the planet. The greenhouse gases include water v apor with three atoms (H2O), ozone (O3), carbon diox ide (CO2), and methane (CH4). Also, trace quantities of chloro-fluoro-carbons (CFC’s) can hav e a disproportionately large effect. To attempt to quantify the effects of greenhouse gases on the global temperature, climatologists use the “radiativ e forcing” of the current atmospheric content of these gases. T herm ody nam ics Greenhouse Effect open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com
  11. 11. The greenhouse effect refers to circumstances where the short wav elengths of v isible light from the sun pass through a transparent medium and are absorbed, but the longer wav elengths of the infrared reradiation from the heated objects are unable to pass through that medium. The trapping of the long wav elength radiation leads to more heating and a higher resultant temperature. Besides the heating of an automobile by sunlight through the windshield and the namesake ex ample of heating the greenhouse by sunlight passing through sealed, transparent windows, the greenhouse effect has been widely used to describe the trapping of ex cess heat by the rising concentration of carbon diox ide in the atmosphere. The carbon diox ide strongly absorbs infrared and does not allow as much of it to escape into space. A major part of the efficiency of the heating of an actual greenhouse is the trapping of the air so that the energy is not lost by conv ection. Keeping the hot air from escaping out the top is part of the practical “greenhouse effect”, but it is common usage to refer to the infrared trapping as the “greenhouse effect” in atmospheric applications where the air trapping is not applicable. Greenhouse Effect Ex am ple Bright sunlight will effectiv ely warm y our car on a cold, clear day by the greenhouse effect. The longer infrared wav elengths radiated by sun-warmed objects do not pass readily through the glass. The entrapment of this energy warms the interior of the v ehicle. The trapping of the hot air so that it cannot rise and lose the energy by conv ection also play s a major role. open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com
  12. 12. Shorter wav elengths of ultrav iolet light are largely blocked by glass since they hav e greater quantum energies which hav e absorption mechanisms in the glass. Ev en though y ou may be uncomfortably warm with bright sunlight streaming through, y ou will not be sunburned. Increase in Greenhouse Gases The increase in the concentration of carbon diox ide, one of the three major atmospheric contributers to the greenhouse effect has been carefully documented at the Mauna Loa Observ atory in Hawaii. The 1 990 rate of increase was about 0.4% per y ear. The interesting cy clic v ariations represent the reduction in carbon diox ide by photosy nthesis during the growing season in the northern hemisphere. Current analy sis suggests that the combustion of fossil fuels is a major contributer to the increase in the carbon diox ide concentration, such contributions being 2 to 5 times the effect of deforestation (Kraushaar & Ristinen). Increase in Atm ospheric Carbon Diox ide open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com
  13. 13. The Mauna Loa monitoring station reports the carbon diox ide lev el in the atmosphere today as about 380 parts per million compared to 31 5 ppm in 1 958 when modern measurements were initiated. Measurements of air bubbles trapped in the Greenland ice sheet indicate concentrations of 27 0 ppm in preindustrial times. open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com
  14. 14. These are sketches of the graphs produced in the IPCC 2007 report of the increase in key greenhouse gases. They make clear that most of the increase of the last thousand y ears has occurred in the past 200 y ears. The radiativ e forcing of these gases is related to their concentration . Global Warm ing An issue of major concern is the possible effect of the burning of fossil fuels and other contributers to the increase of carbon diox ide in the atmosphere. The action of carbon diox ide and other greenhouse gases in trapping infrared radiation is called the greenhouse effect. It may measurably increase the ov erall av erage temperature of the Earth, which could hav e disastrous consequences. Sometimes the effects of the greenhouse effect are stated in terms of the albedo of the Earth, the ov erall av erage reflection coefficient. open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com
  15. 15. This graphic of the global air temperature was posted by Phil Jones on behalf of the Climatic Research Unit, UK. The key reference used was Brohan, et al. Another depiction of the mean temperatures in the northern hemisphere was drawn from NOAA. open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com
  16. 16. This graphic of the global air temperature was posted by Phil Jones on behalf of the Climatic Research Unit, UK. The key reference used was Brohan, et al. Another depiction of the mean temperatures in the northern hemisphere was drawn from NOAA. open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com
  17. 17. Because the potential consequences of global warming in terms of loss of snow cov er, sea lev el rise, change in weather patterns, etc are so great, it is a major societal concern. On the other hand, proposed measures to reduce human contributions to greenhouse gases can also hav e great consequences. The large potential impact combined with the ambiguities of the science has giv en rise to many passionate ex tremes. Stephen Schneider of Stanford seems to me to be one of the more balanced v oices. His website is a good source for relev ant data. He discusses the problems in the contex t of the Earth’s energy balance and the changes in the concentrations of greenhouse gases. Increase in greenhouse. 2 w eeks ago Share 0 Comments 6 Recent comments open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com
  18. 18. 0 comments Start the discussion… Newest Community Be the first to comment. ALSO ON HEIDER JEFFER Heider Jeffer 2011/07/05- DUB ARISE V 1.0 Jah A 1 comment • a month ago 1 comment • a month ago Heider Jeffer — Hello World Subscribe ← Previous open in browser PRO version • Heider Jeffer — Bob Marley :D Add Disqus to your site Next → Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.com
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