TLE for college teachers

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presentation made on 05012012 at nalgonda for english lecturers of local colleges.

presentation made on 05012012 at nalgonda for english lecturers of local colleges.

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  • Welcome to this workshop. I am RAJU from Government Degree College, Gajwel – your facilitator for this session. This 90 minute presentation aims at giving you an idea of what goes into the teaching-learning process, both inside the classroom and beyond the classroom. It touches upon the curricular and co-curricular activities that make the process of teaching-learning more effective. This presentation also aims at giving you an idea of factors relating to student evaluation.
  • Let’s begin with an icebreaker. Call out the letters L E A R N by turns and form five groups. All Ls together, all Es in one place and likewise. Each group - sit in a circle or in a compact group. Discuss with the members of your group “why do we teach” and shortlist three important reasons. Nominate a spokesperson for your group and make one-minute presentations on your group’s views. Avoid repeating what the previous groups have already listed.
  • Here is a summary of most of what you have said and what the nobler objectives of education should be. Learning to know, learning to learn, learning to live and learning to be, perhaps, summarize the entire essence of the purpose of all teaching-learning. How many of you have taken to teaching by choice and how many by chance? How many of you enjoy teaching and how many of you think you are doing a job? How many of you think you are helping students earn a degree and how many of you believe you are building the nation?
  • Let’s take a closer look at some of these basic concepts. Education, as is defined here, is formatively affecting one’s mind, body or character. Can you think of some examples from our classroom and outside situations how education impacts our students’ minds, bodies and character? The second part of the definition refers to the formal and deliberate process of imparting our knowledge, skills and values to our students. Regarding knowledge and skills, perhaps we are all convinced about the need and significance, but do you think we should impart our values to our students. If yes, which ones? Who decides whether they are good or bad, useful or useless to our students? This presentation does not have time for a detailed discussion on this but I would like you to start thinking on these lines.
  • Teaching-Learning process is the next important concept that we need to understand clearly. Teaching-Learning is a comprehensive and all-encompassing term. It includes everything that happens in the sphere of educatoin, starting with the needs analysis and statement of expected outcomes, goes on to a detailed description of objectives for the course, then deals with the choice of educational experiences, teaching-learning content, appropriate materials, effective methodology of delivery and goes on to evaluation and beyond. It may also include thrust areas, value additions etc. Take a few minutes and discuss with your partner which aspects of curriculum does the teacher have a command over and which ones he does not.
  • Teaching-Learning should foresee the practical scope for giving students opportunities to know more, comprehend better, acquire both physical and mental skills. It should not just stop there. It should also aim at strengthening the application skills of the learners. This is particularly important because our system usually stops with the imparting of information. Information literacy is a student’s ability to distinguish, classify and tell apart what is what and what belongs where. This ability to discriminate is a basic educational objective.
  • Expanding the horizons of imagination, inculcating a creative bent of mind and building the right aptitude and attitude are the responsibility of teachers, irrespective of the subject they teach, especially the humanities teachers. Language teachers have a very significant responsibility to build right aptitudes and mold positive attitudes. Imagination and creativity need be infused into the young minds of our students at every opportunity.
  • Teaching activities are mostly teacher centric. The activities are spread throughout the academic year. We should begin with an entry level assessment to identify the special thrust areas around which our efforts should be built. Then we should make appropriate modifications to our curricular plans to bridge the perceived gaps. The rest of our efforts should be woven around the expected behavior changes using the right methods and using effective teaching aids. Students should get whatever value additions are possible. Then there should be a very carefully designed evaluation of the outcomes.
  • Use of appropriately designed teaching aids makes the teaching-learning process highly effective. Each teacher may make a wise choice of the aids depending on factors such as availability of infrastructure, cost effectiveness, reusability, student achievement levels etc. The web is a very rich resource for ready-to-use teaching aids. However, be warned that it is a dense jungle where you may easily get lost, if you do not predetermine your exact needs. Activity: Which ones do you prefer and why?
  • These additional Teaching-Learning activities are student-centric. Here are some five possible kinds of co-curricular activities to help teaching-learning happen more effectively. Each group - discuss one kind of activities, consolidate your views and present your suggestions to the class on how you can plan these in your subject.
  • These are the various types of evaluation. Each serves a different purpose. Which ones do you use and for what purpose? For instance, what type of evaluation is the entry level assessment? What type is the annual/final university examination? Which term best defines the ‘continuous’ assessment spread throughout the year? What factors do you take into account to evaluate a student qualitatively?
  • These four factors should be kept in mind while designing your evaluation tools. Validity refers to whether a test measures what it is supposed to measure. Reliability deals with the trustworthiness of the test results. Washback means the effect of testing on teaching and learning. Negative effects include teaching only to the test and memorizing possible test questions. Positive effects, if the test is valid, include focusing teaching upon what is important. Practicality is a matter of the extent to which the demands of the particular test can be met within the limits of existing resources including time, staff and test administration.
  • Keep these guidelines in mind when you administer any kind of evaluation. A good evaluation includes questions of various kinds – questions that promote both high order thinking and low order thinking. Questions may test the factual, inferential or experiential knowledge of students. Language teachers should include questions on vocabulary. Where is this workshop happening? What is the most important objective of this workshop? Can you define a ‘workshop’? How have you benefited from this workshop so far? These are four different kinds of questions. There should be at least a few questions included to test the student’s application, creativity and imagination in the target subject. Keep your students’ entry level behavior and expected exit level behavior in mind while designing evaluation. The answer sheet is a mirror report of the student’s mind.


  • 2.
    • Call out L - E - A - R - N
    • Form five groups and sit in circles
    • Discuss “Why Do We Teach?”
    • Nominate Group Spokespersons
    • Make short presentations
    mnRAJU Icebreaker
  • 3.
    • Higher objectives of education
      • Learning to Know/Do
      • Learning to Learn
      • Learning to Live
      • Learning to Be
    • Obligation to nation, college & students
    • Professional satisfaction and growth
    mnRAJU Why Do We Teach?
  • 4. mnRAJU EDUCATION “ Education in the largest sense is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character or physical ability of an individual. In its technical sense, education is the process by which society deliberately transmits  its accumulated knowledge, skills and values from one generation to another.” - Wikipedia
  • 5. mnRAJU Teaching-Learning
  • 6. Expected TL Outcomes
    • Knowledge
    • Skills
    • Application
    • Information Literacy
  • 7. Expected TL Outcomes
    • Imagination
    • Creativity
    • Aptitude
    • Attitude
  • 8.
    • Entry level assessment
    • Identifying thrust areas
    • Bridging gaps
    • Teaching methods & aids
    • Value additions
    • Evaluation
    mnRAJU TL Activities
  • 9. mnRAJU
      • Realia
      • Models
      • Photographs, Charts
      • Transparencies
      • Slideshows
      • Video Clips, Multimedia
    TL Aids
  • 10.
    • Assignments (+ ICT based)
    • Seminars & presentations
    • Field trips, projects & case studies
    • Teaching sessions, invited lectures
    • Group discussion, quiz, debate
    mnRAJU Teaching-Learning ++
  • 11.
    • Diagnostic
    • Formative
    • Summative
    • Quantitative
    • Qualitative
    Evaluation Types
  • 12.
    • Validity
    • Reliability
    • Washback
    • Practicality
    mnRAJU Effective Evaluation
  • 13.
    • Include variety – HOT/LOT/FIVE
    • Avoid routine questions
    • Test application of learning
    • Encourage imagination
    • Encourage creativity
    • Promote further learning
    mnRAJU Effective Evaluation Tips
  • 14. mnRAJU Send your comments to [email_address] This slideshow is available at