Teaching Reading to College Students


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a slideshow designed to train english lecturers in the skills of teaching reading at the graduate level.

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Teaching Reading to College Students

  2. 2. m n RAJU <ul><li>What is Reading? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we read? </li></ul><ul><li>Habits of Good Readers </li></ul>
  3. 3. m n RAJU What is Reading? Reading is not a simple, passive process of linear reading of words and internalizing their meaning one at a time. Reading is a complex interaction between the text and the reader shaped by the reader’s prior knowledge and attitude, a process of language acquisition, communication and sharing information and ideas.
  4. 4. m n RAJU THE BOAT IN THE BASEMENT A woman was building a boat in her basement. When she had finished the the boot, she discovered that it was too big to go though the door. So he had to take the boat a part to get it out. She should of planned ahead. from: Goodman, K. (1996).  On Reading . Portsmouth, NH; Heinemann, pp. 38-41 Activity 1. Read the story quickly, only once. 2. Rewrite the story.
  5. 5. m n RAJU Why Do We Read? <ul><li>For information and awareness </li></ul><ul><li>For recreation and enrichment </li></ul><ul><li>To gain from others’ experience </li></ul><ul><li>For higher order thinking skills </li></ul><ul><li>To improve vocabulary & language </li></ul><ul><li>Reading & writing - mutually supportive </li></ul>
  6. 6. m n RAJU What Do We Read? <ul><li>Text books prescribed for study </li></ul><ul><li>Novels </li></ul><ul><li>Magazines </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>Pamphlets </li></ul><ul><li>Time-tables </li></ul><ul><li>Hotel menu cards </li></ul>
  7. 7. m n RAJU How Do We Read? <ul><li>A time-table / A tele directory </li></ul><ul><li>A hotel menu </li></ul><ul><li>A pamphlet </li></ul><ul><li>A newspaper </li></ul><ul><li>A novel </li></ul><ul><li>A magazine </li></ul><ul><li>A text book prescribed for study </li></ul>
  8. 8. m n RAJU Reading Questionnaire <ul><li>Do you like reading in English? </li></ul><ul><li>Why or why not? </li></ul><ul><li>How often do you read in English? </li></ul><ul><li>When and where do you read? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of books do you read in English? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you like to read about in English? </li></ul>
  9. 9. m n RAJU Your English Reading Habits <ul><li>Answer with ‘never’, ‘rarely’, ‘sometimes’, ‘frequently’, ‘always’ </li></ul><ul><li>When you read in English, do you read slowly? </li></ul><ul><li>When you read in English, do you read aloud? </li></ul><ul><li>When you read in English, do you translate into your mother tongue? </li></ul><ul><li>When you read in English, do you look up unfamiliar words? </li></ul>
  10. 10. m n RAJU <ul><li>What are your reading strengths? </li></ul><ul><li>What are you reading weaknesses? </li></ul><ul><li>What are your reading opportunities? </li></ul><ul><li>What reading ability do you like to improve? </li></ul>Activity
  11. 11. Why Do We Teach Reading m n RAJU To enhance learners’ confidence To pre-teach and warm up To choose appropriate texts To set the task before reading To help read in chunks To help read effectively & faster
  12. 12. m n RAJU Parts of a Good Reading Lesson <ul><li>Pre-reading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To activate background knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To prepare the reader </li></ul></ul><ul><li>While-reading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To hold interest, to aid comprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To guide through the text </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post-reading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To develop additional reading skills such as reacting, critical thinking, accepting/rejecting </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. m n RAJU Habits of A Good Reader <ul><ul><li>Reads with a purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chunks, skims, scans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarizes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses background knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predicts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes inferences & evaluations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. m n RAJU <ul><ul><ul><li>Why am I reading? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A clear reason for reading </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness of what to gain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helps determine the strategy </li></ul></ul></ul>Habits of Good Readers Reading with Purpose
  15. 15. m n RAJU <ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare a few questions to elicit from your students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for what purpose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>they want to read </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rabindranath Tagore’s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Song 36’. </li></ul></ul></ul>Habits of Good Readers Reading with Purpose Activity
  16. 16. m n RAJU <ul><li>Reading silently and quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Breaking habit of word-for-word reading </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing reading speed </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal reading vs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vertical reading </li></ul></ul>Habits of Good Readers Chunking
  17. 17. m n RAJU Habits of Good Readers Chunking Activity To read efficiently | you have to engage your brain | on what you are reading. | You cannot read well | if your mind wanders off | to other things. | If you are involved in a serious emotional problem | or going through a nerve shattering period of indecision, | it is quite possible | that you won’t be an efficient reader. | The reason is | one we have all heard a thousand times. | “I can’t keep my mind on my work.”
  18. 18. m n RAJU <ul><li>Forget details, focus on main idea </li></ul><ul><li>Quickly identify the main ideas </li></ul><ul><li>For overall comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Preview to get the gist </li></ul><ul><li>Attention to graphics, headings etc </li></ul><ul><li>Repeated ideas are normally important </li></ul>Habits of Good Readers Skimming
  19. 19. m n RAJU Habits of Good Readers Skimming Activity Take a quick look at the poem on the next slide. <ul><ul><li>What is this poem about? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the main idea in lines 5 & 6? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The poet wants to serve fruits. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The poet wants to serve people. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The poet wants his service to be fruitful. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The poet prays for fruits. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the author’s purpose? </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. m n RAJU This is my prayer to thee, my lord - strike, strike at the root of penury in my heart. Give me the strength lightly to bear my joys and sorrows. Give me the strength to make my love fruitful in service. Give me the strength never to disown the poor or bend my knees before insolent might. Give me the strength to raise my mind high above daily trifles. And give me the strength to surrender my strength to thy will with love.
  21. 21. m n RAJU <ul><li>To find a particular answer </li></ul><ul><li>To search for specific detail </li></ul><ul><li>To save a great deal of time </li></ul><ul><li>Read the questions first and locate answers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open ended questions (factual information) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes/No or True/False questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information transfer – filling in charts or graphs </li></ul></ul>Habits of Good Readers Scanning
  22. 22. m n RAJU Habits of Good Readers Scanning Activity <ul><li>First read these questions and then take a look at the contents page of your text book to find the answers: </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a lesson about making a good investment? </li></ul><ul><li>Pushpa is a fan of William Wordsworth. Which poem will interest her? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there an essay relating to India’s future? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Habits of Good Readers Reading for Gist m n RAJU Getting the main idea For overall understanding Without worrying much about detail
  24. 24. Habits of Good Readers Reading for Gist m n RAJU Activity Read the first sentence of each paragraph in the lesson “ I Have a Dream.” Notice how reading these sentences gives you a good idea about the meaning of the text.
  25. 25. m n RAJU <ul><ul><ul><li>Helping make sense of the text </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using what is already known </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connecting to the known </li></ul></ul></ul>Habits of Good Readers Using Background Knowledge
  26. 26. m n RAJU Habits of Good Readers Predicting <ul><ul><li>What do you think the text is going to be about? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What might come next? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Either pre-reading or while-reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Read the main and sub headings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Read the first sentence of each paragraph </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use the known to guess the unknown </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. m n RAJU <ul><li>What is not explicitly stated </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning of unknown words </li></ul>Habits of Good Readers Inferring
  28. 28. m n RAJU <ul><li>Do not believe everything you read </li></ul><ul><li>Question what you read </li></ul><ul><li>Interrogate the text </li></ul><ul><li>Become a critical, resistant reader </li></ul><ul><li>Compare with your beliefs & opinions </li></ul><ul><li>Personal reflection </li></ul>Habits of Good Readers Evaluating & Questioning
  29. 29. m n RAJU <ul><li>Distinguish the main from the supporting </li></ul><ul><li>State the main idea succinctly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Write a precis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggest a title </li></ul></ul>Habits of Good Readers Summarizing
  30. 30. m n RAJU <ul><li>What we k now </li></ul><ul><li>What we w ant to know </li></ul><ul><li>What we have l earned </li></ul>Habits of Good Readers Reading Tool – KWL Chart
  31. 31. m n RAJU Send your comments to [email_address] This slideshow is available at www.slideshare.net/lionnagaraju www.authorstream.com/tag/lionnagaraju