Effective Classroom Management


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a slideshow for college teachers on how they can make their classrooms more interactive and more effective.

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  • Welcome to this induction programme for the recently promoted lecturers. I am RAJU, retired lecturer – your facilitator for this session. This 90 minute presentation aims at giving you an idea of what goes into the teaching-learning process, both inside the classroom and beyond the classroom. It touches upon the curricular and co-curricular activities that make the process of teaching-learning more effective. This presentation also aims at giving you an idea of factors relating to student evaluation.
  • Let’s begin with an icebreaker. Call out the letters L E A R N by turns and form five groups. All Ls together, all Es in one place and likewise. Each group - sit in a circle or in a compact group. Discuss with the members of your group “why do we teach” and shortlist three important reasons. Nominate a spokesperson for your group and make one-minute presentations on your group’s views. Avoid repeating what the previous groups have already listed.
  • Teaching-Learning should foresee the practical scope for giving students opportunities to know more, comprehend better, acquire both physical and mental skills. It should not just stop there. It should also aim at strengthening the application skills of the learners. This is particularly important because our system usually stops with the imparting of information. Information literacy is a student’s ability to distinguish, classify and tell apart what is what and what belongs where. This ability to discriminate is a basic educational objective.
  • Expanding the horizons of imagination, inculcating a creative bent of mind and building the right aptitude and attitude are the responsibility of teachers, irrespective of the subject they teach, especially the humanities teachers. Teachers have a very significant responsibility to build right aptitudes and mold positive attitudes. Imagination and creativity need yo be infused into the young minds of our students at every opportunity.
  • Teaching-Learning process is the next important concept that we need to understand clearly. Teaching-Learning is a comprehensive and all-encompassing term. It includes everything that happens in the sphere of educatoin, starting with the needs analysis and statement of expected outcomes, goes on to a detailed description of objectives for the course, then deals with the choice of educational experiences, teaching-learning content, appropriate materials, effective methodology of delivery and goes on to evaluation and beyond. It may also include thrust areas, value additions etc. Take a few minutes and discuss with your partner which aspects of curriculum does the teacher have a command over and which ones he does not.
  • Let’s begin with an icebreaker. Call out the letters L E A R N by turns and form five groups. All Ls together, all Es in one place and likewise. Each group - sit in a circle or in a compact group. Discuss with the members of your group “why do we teach” and shortlist three important reasons. Nominate a spokesperson for your group and make one-minute presentations on your group’s views. Avoid repeating what the previous groups have already listed.
  • What is it? How is it done? Have you ever used it?
  • By splitting the students up into small groups, you will instantly increase communication, interaction and engagement because they will have to work with each other to complete the task. Once they have finished their group work, they may feel more comfortable sharing with the entire class because the spotlight will be distributed to three or four of them, instead of resting solely on the shoulders of one student.
  • Keep these guidelines in mind when you administer any kind of evaluation. A good evaluation includes questions of various kinds – questions that promote both high order thinking and low order thinking. Questions may test the factual, inferential or experiential knowledge of students. Language teachers should include questions on vocabulary and subject teachers should test the knowledge of basic concepts and definitions. Where is this induction training happening? What is the most important objective of this induction? Can you define ‘induction’? How have you benefited from this induction so fare? These are four different kinds of questions. There should be at least a few questions included to test the student’s application, creativity and imagination in the target subject. Keep your students’ entry level behavior and expected exit level behavior in mind while designing evaluation. The answer sheet is a mirror report of the student’s mind.
  • These four factors should be kept in mind while designing your evaluation tools. Validity refers to whether a test measures what it is supposed to measure. Reliability deals with the trustworthiness of the test results. Washback means the effect of testing on teaching and learning. Negative effects include teaching only to the test and memorizing possible test questions. Positive effects, if the test is valid, include focusing teaching upon what is important. Practicality is a matter of the extent to which the demands of the particular test can be met within the limits of existing resources including time, staff and test administration.
  • Use of appropriately designed teaching aids makes the teaching-learning process highly effective. Each teacher may make a wise choice of the aids depending on factors such as availability of infrastructure, cost effectiveness, reusability, student achievement levels etc. The web is a very rich resource for ready-to-use teaching aids. However, be warned that it is a dense jungle where you may easily get lost, if you do not predetermine your exact needs. Activity: Which ones do you prefer and why?
  • Effective Classroom Management

    2. 2. Icebreaker1 Name & Qualifications2 Best Teaching Experience • Speak to an3 Favorite Subjects/Topics unknown or less known4 Achievements & Awards colleague5 • Use ONLY English • Do not write mnRAJU
    3. 3. Why Do We Teach? Knowledge Skills Application Information Literacy mnRAJU
    4. 4. Why Do We Teach? Higher objectives of education  Learning to Learn  Learning to Live  Learning to be Better Obligation to nation, college & students Professional satisfaction and growth mnRAJU
    5. 5. Nobler Outcomes  Imagination  Creativity  Aptitude  Attitude mnRAJU
    6. 6. 4 Types of Teachers A mediocre teacher tells. A good teacher explains. A superior teacher demonstrates.A Great teacher inspires. mnRAJU
    7. 7. A Great Teacher is mnRAJU
    8. 8. Activity - 1 RecollectWho was your best teacher at school/college? How did he/she inspire you? Write Share mnRAJU
    9. 9. Teaching – Learning Involves mnRAJU
    10. 10. Activity - 2 Call out L - E - A - R – N Form five groups & sit in circles Discuss “What can a teacher change and what he cannot?” Spokespersons make short presentations mnRAJU
    11. 11. A Great Teacher uses Effective ClassroomManagementTechniques mnRAJU
    12. 12. TTT vs STTDecrease Teacher Centred Teaching TimeIncrease Student CentredLearning Time mnRAJU
    13. 13. Instruction Patterns1. Teacher Talk2. Choral Response3. Close-ended Teacher Questioning4. Open-ended Teacher Questioning5. Full Class Interaction6. Student Initiated Questioning7. Group Work8. Pair Work (Collaboration)9. Individual Work10. Self Access mnRAJU
    14. 14. Modes of Instruction Mode Participants Live Onlineone-to-one teacher-student conversation online chat student-teacher explanation e-mail student-student clarification discussionone-to-many teacher-students lecture streaming audio student-students demonstration streaming video bulletin board mailing listmany-to-many students-students debate audio-conference GD video-conference forum blog mnRAJU
    15. 15. Interactive classes use1. Pair work2. Group work3. Good instructions4. Eliciting5. Thought provoking questions6. Activities, Games & Technology mnRAJU
    16. 16. mnRAJU
    17. 17. Pair Work Recall the Icebreaker Think of advantages of pairwork Form pairs Share your ideas with partner Share with class mnRAJU
    18. 18. Pair Work - Advantages Greater opportunity for Application Learners gain confidence/overcome fear Real time feedback/response Peer learning Cooperation – a life skill mnRAJU
    19. 19. Pair Work - Review THINK – make notes form PAIRS SHARE with Partner SHARE with Class mnRAJU
    20. 20. mnRAJU
    21. 21. Group Work Recall Activity -2 Form groups Discuss advantages of groupwork Arrive at consensus Share with class mnRAJU
    22. 22. Group Work - Advantages  More student participation time  More listening time  More fun  Exchange of ideas  Seeing others’ points of view  Improved social skills  Improved problem solving skills mnRAJU
    23. 23. Group Work - Review Explain the activity Arrange the groups Set time limit Give example/demonstration Move & Monitor Follow up Discuss the activity mnRAJU
    24. 24. mnRAJU
    25. 25. Good Instructions are . . . Short Simple Precise Easy to follow Repeated Demonstrated mnRAJU
    26. 26. Activity - 3Follow the instructions in the handout. mnRAJU
    27. 27. mnRAJU
    28. 28. Ask,Don’t Tell mnRAJU
    29. 29. Activity - 4Elicit a specific response mnRAJU
    30. 30. mnRAJU
    31. 31. Question TypesYes/No InformationClose-ended Open-endedTeacher initiated Student initiatedFactual Inferential/ ExperientialLOT HOTRhetorical/ Thought-provokingLeading mnRAJU
    32. 32. Responding to Questions Let students think and formulate Do not interrupt Show interest in answers Involve other students Ask follow-up questions Do not discourage students mnRAJU
    33. 33. Evaluation Include variety – HOT/LOT/FIVE Avoid routine questions Test application of learning Encourage imagination Encourage creativity Promote further learning mnRAJU
    34. 34. Effective Evaluation Validity Reliability Washback Practicality mnRAJU
    35. 35. mnRAJU
    36. 36. Visual Aids Realia Models Photographs, Charts Transparencies Slideshows Video Clips, Multimedia mnRAJU
    37. 37. Go Modern“Don’t limit a child to your own learning, for he was born in another time.” - Rabindranath Tagore It’s not about the tech. It is about the teach. mnRAJU
    38. 38. Current Technologies Internet Mobile Technologies Video Transmission Social Networking Blogs, podcasts, YouTube etc mnRAJU
    39. 39. Teach the Basic Tools mnRAJU
    40. 40. Edutainment Use podcasts, videos, audios, animation (www.goanimate.com) Use wikipedia etc Create your own website mnRAJU
    41. 41. Emerging Technologies Internet2 (100 times faster) Wi-fi, Bluetooth, 802.11(versatile plug-ins) The Tablet PC Nanotechnology Thought-controlled Computing mnRAJU
    42. 42. How does it affect you? Accept Challenges Exploit Opportunities Don’t Stop Learning mnRAJU
    44. 44. This slideshow is available at www.slideshare.net/lionnagarajuwww.authorstream.com/tag/lionnagaraju Send your comments to lionnagaraju@gmail.com mnRAJU