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Fingerprint Pattern
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A fingerprint is an impression of the friction ridges on all parts of the finger. A friction ridge is a raised portion of the epidermis on the palmar (palm) or digits (fingers and toes) or plantar …

A fingerprint is an impression of the friction ridges on all parts of the finger. A friction ridge is a raised portion of the epidermis on the palmar (palm) or digits (fingers and toes) or plantar (sole) skin, consisting of one or more connected ridge units of friction ridge skin. These are sometimes known as "epidermal ridges" which are caused by the underlying interface between the dermal papillae of the dermis and the interpapillary (rete) pegs of the epidermis. These epidermal ridges serve to amplify vibrations triggered when fingertips brush across an uneven surface, better transmitting the signals to sensory nerves involved in fine texture perception. The ridges do not assist in gripping objects, sometimes in fact reducing grip to as much as 30% compared to completely smooth fingerpads.

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Transcript

  • 1. Fingerprint Patterns (Based on the Henry Classification System)
  • 2. What is a fingerprint?
    • A fingerprint is an impression of the friction ridges found on the inner surface of a finger or a thumb.
    • … The science of fingerprinting constitutes the only unchangeable and infallible means of positive identification known to man.
  • 3. Reasons why fingerprint s are used for identification purposes:
    • 1.)  Ridge patterns and the details in small areas of friction ridges are unique and never repeated.
    • 2.)  Friction ridges develop on the fetus in their definitive form before birth.
    • 3.)  Ridges are persistent throughout life except for permanent scarring.
    • 4.)  Friction ridge patterns vary within limits which allow for classification.
  • 4.
    • These premises are supported by scientific research in areas such as biology, embryology, anatomy and histology to name a few.
    • The fourth premise is not really a fact relating to identification.  Fingerprint classification assists to narrow the search but is not part of the actual identification process.  Its importance is clear though if you consider the huge task you would be faced with if, after taking thousands and thousands of fingerprints,  you had no method to file and retrieve them.
  • 5.
    • In order to gain a more indepth understanding of the principles of fingerprint identification ,  the identification specialist needs to have knowledge of the actual biological structure of friction skin and understand the stages of friction skin development on the fetus prior to birth and, the numerous factors that affect its growth.
  • 6. (TRIVIA) Also, did you know that...
    • Identical twins have the same DNA configuration but they do not have identical friction ridge configuration. 
  • 7. The ARCH
    • The Arch pattern is made up of ridges lying one above the other in a general arching formation.
  • 8. The TENTED ARCH
    • The tented arch pattern consists of at least one upthrusting ridge, which tends to bisect superior ridges at right angles, more or less.
  • 9. The LOOP (Ulnar or Radial)
    • The loop pattern consists of one or more free recurving ridges and one delta.
    • In order to distinguish between ulnar and radial loops you must:
    • 1)  know from which hand the loop pattern comes from and;
    • 2) place your hand palm side down over top of the impression and determine if the recurving ridges originate from the little finger side or the thumb side.
    • If the ridges flow in from the little finger side this would be an 'ulnar' loop.  If the ridges flow in from the thumb side this would be a 'radial' loop
  • 10. The WHORL
    • The whorl pattern consists of one or more free recurving ridges and two points of delta.  When the line of the fingerprint disc is placed on the two points of delta, it will bisect at least one of the ridges belonging to the core group .
  • 11. The TWINNED LOOP
    • In the twinned loop pattern, the recurving ridges present two loop formations, separate and apart.  There are two points of delta.  The flows for the deltas originate from the same side of the pattern.
  • 12. The CENTRAL POCKET LOOP
    • The central pocket loop pattern consists of one or more free recurving ridges and two points of delta.  When the line of the fingerprint disc is placed on the two points of delta, it will fail to bisect any of the ridges belonging to the core group.
  • 13. The LATERAL POCKET LOOP
    • In the lateral pocket loop pattern, the recurving ridges present two loop formations, separate and apart.  There are two points of delta.  The flows for the deltas originate from the same side of the pattern.
  • 14. The COMPOSITE
    • The composite pattern is composed of two or more different patterns, separate and apart exclusive of the arch.
  • 15. The ACCIDENTAL
    • The accidental pattern will contain two points of delta.  One delta will be related to a recurve and the other will be related to an upthrust.
  • 16. Reference :
    • Henry Classification System
    • Automated Fingerprint
    • Identification System (A.F.I.S.)
    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fingerprint
    • http://images.google.com.ph/images
    • http://ridgesandfurrows.homestead.com/fingerprint_patterns.html
  • 17. THANK YOU…
    • The END!