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Wan
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Wan

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  • 1. WAN Connection Types <ul><li>Share bandwidth </li></ul><ul><li>Frame Relay and X.25 </li></ul><ul><li>56Kbps to 2.048Mps </li></ul><ul><li>Point-to-Point connection </li></ul><ul><li>No setup before transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 45Mbs </li></ul><ul><li>Setup before transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Dial-up modems or ISDN </li></ul><ul><li>Low bandwidth </li></ul>
  • 2. High-Level Data-Link Control Protocol <ul><li>HDLC specifies an encapsulation method for data on synchronous serial data links using frame characters and checksums. </li></ul><ul><li>Default encapsulation used by CISCO. </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone has its own proprietary HDLC. </li></ul><ul><li>If your are connecting a CISCO router with another type router, you must specify an encapsulation type (protocol). </li></ul>
  • 3. PPP <ul><li>PPP is an Internet standard protocol to provide point-to-point, router-to-router, and host-to-host connections. </li></ul><ul><li>It supports network layer protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Novell IPX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apple Talk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It can be used over several different physical interfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asynchronous serial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISDN synchronous serial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-speed Serial Interface </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. Establishing PPP Communication <ul><li>Communication process is established in three steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Link Establishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Password Authentication (PAP) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Challenge Authentication Protocol (CHAP) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Layer Protocol negotiation </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. Link Establishment and LCP <ul><li>Link Control Protocol (LCP) is responsible to configure and test the link. </li></ul><ul><li>LCP packets can contain many different pieces of information such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Link Quality Monitoring and Magic Number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compression </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. Configuring PPP on Cisco Routers
  • 7. Frame Relay <ul><li>Frame Relay provides connection-oriented, Data Link layer communication via virtual circuits. </li></ul><ul><li>ANSI defines Frame Relay as a connection between the data terminal equipment (DTE) and the data communication equipment (DCE) over high speed digital medium. </li></ul><ul><li>CSU/DSU is located at customer location and used for encoding, filtering, and translating communication to and from the digital line. </li></ul>CSU/DSU (channel service unit/ digital service unit)
  • 8. Frame Relay <ul><li>Supports many protocols, IP, Novell IPX, Decnet, AppleTalk, .... </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient and fast (56Kps to 44.736Mbps) since it does not perform error checking. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses both permanent virtual circuits (PVC) and switched virtual circuits (SPC). </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual circuits are maintained by a software and multiplexed on onto physical channels. </li></ul>
  • 9. Data Link Connection Identifiers (DLCI) <ul><li>Frame Relay virtual circuits are identified by DLCIs. </li></ul><ul><li>IP address need to be mapped DLCI </li></ul>
  • 10. How Frame Relay works
  • 11. Subinterfaces <ul><li>You can have multiple virtual circuits on a single interface and treat each one as a separate interface. </li></ul><ul><li>R(config)>interface s0 </li></ul><ul><li>R(config-if)>encapsulation frame-relay [ietf] </li></ul><ul><li>R(config-if)>int s0.16 point-to-point (or multipoint) </li></ul>
  • 12. Mapping Frame Relay <ul><li>Manual Mapping </li></ul><ul><li>R(config)>interface s0 </li></ul><ul><li>R(config-if)>encapsulation frame-relay </li></ul><ul><li>R(config-if)>int s0.16 multipoint </li></ul><ul><li>R(config-subif)>no inverse-arp </li></ul><ul><li>R(config-subif)>ip address 172.16.30.1 255.255.255.0 </li></ul><ul><li>R(config-subif)>frame-relay map 172.16.30.17 16 ietf broadcast </li></ul><ul><li>R(config-subif)>frame-relay map 172.16.30.18 17 broadcast </li></ul><ul><li>R(config-subif)>frame-relay map 172.16.30.19 18 </li></ul><ul><li>Using Reverse-ARP </li></ul><ul><li>R(config)>interface s0.16 </li></ul><ul><li>R(config-subif)>encapsulation frame-relay ietf </li></ul><ul><li>R(config-subif)>ip address 172.16.30.1 255.255.255.0 </li></ul>
  • 13. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) <ul><li>ISDN is a digital service designed to run over existing telephone networks. </li></ul><ul><li>ISDN supports both voice, video, and data </li></ul><ul><li>Call setup is faster than with a modem. </li></ul><ul><li>Data rates are faster than one modem connection. </li></ul>
  • 14. ISDN Components
  • 15. ISND Terminals <ul><li>Terminal adapter: A converter device that allows non-ISDN devices to operate on an ISDN network. </li></ul><ul><li>Terminal Equipment 1 (TE1): A device that supports ISDN standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Terminal Equipment 2 (TE2): A non-ISDN device. </li></ul><ul><li>Network Termination 1 (NT1): A device that is attached to ISND BRI lines to provide power. It also terminates the 2-wire connection from CO and connects to the 4-wire customer network. </li></ul><ul><li>Network Termination 2 (NT2): A provider equipment. </li></ul>
  • 16. Reference Points <ul><li>U </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The U-interface is the actual two-wire cable which connects the customer’s equipment to the telecommunications provider </li></ul></ul><ul><li>R </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The R-interface is the wire or circuit that connects TE2 to the TA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>S </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The S-interface is a four-wire cable from TE1 or TA to the NT1 or NT2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>T </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The point between NT1 and NT2, which is also called the T-interface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>S/T </li></ul>
  • 17. Connecting to the Provider
  • 18. ISDN Switch Types <ul><li>Interfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic Rate Interface (BRI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary Rate (Interface) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential Switch Types To Be Obtained from ISDN Providers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>basic-5ess, basic-dms100, basic-ni,.... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Service Profile Identifiers (SPIDs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference number assigned to ISDN channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Functions like a phone number </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequently referred to as ISDN phone numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most modern ISDN systems now have a feature called AutoSPID </li></ul></ul>
  • 19. ISDN with CISCO Router

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