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  • 1. WAN Connection Types
    • Share bandwidth
    • Frame Relay and X.25
    • 56Kbps to 2.048Mps
    • Point-to-Point connection
    • No setup before transmission
    • Up to 45Mbs
    • Setup before transmission
    • Dial-up modems or ISDN
    • Low bandwidth
  • 2. High-Level Data-Link Control Protocol
    • HDLC specifies an encapsulation method for data on synchronous serial data links using frame characters and checksums.
    • Default encapsulation used by CISCO.
    • Everyone has its own proprietary HDLC.
    • If your are connecting a CISCO router with another type router, you must specify an encapsulation type (protocol).
  • 3. PPP
    • PPP is an Internet standard protocol to provide point-to-point, router-to-router, and host-to-host connections.
    • It supports network layer protocols
      • IP
      • Novell IPX
      • Apple Talk
    • It can be used over several different physical interfaces
      • Asynchronous serial
      • ISDN synchronous serial
      • High-speed Serial Interface
  • 4. Establishing PPP Communication
    • Communication process is established in three steps:
      • Link Establishment
      • Authentication
        • Password Authentication (PAP)
        • Challenge Authentication Protocol (CHAP)
      • Network Layer Protocol negotiation
  • 5. Link Establishment and LCP
    • Link Control Protocol (LCP) is responsible to configure and test the link.
    • LCP packets can contain many different pieces of information such as:
      • Authentication
      • Link Quality Monitoring and Magic Number
      • Compression
  • 6. Configuring PPP on Cisco Routers
  • 7. Frame Relay
    • Frame Relay provides connection-oriented, Data Link layer communication via virtual circuits.
    • ANSI defines Frame Relay as a connection between the data terminal equipment (DTE) and the data communication equipment (DCE) over high speed digital medium.
    • CSU/DSU is located at customer location and used for encoding, filtering, and translating communication to and from the digital line.
    CSU/DSU (channel service unit/ digital service unit)
  • 8. Frame Relay
    • Supports many protocols, IP, Novell IPX, Decnet, AppleTalk, ....
    • Efficient and fast (56Kps to 44.736Mbps) since it does not perform error checking.
    • Uses both permanent virtual circuits (PVC) and switched virtual circuits (SPC).
    • Virtual circuits are maintained by a software and multiplexed on onto physical channels.
  • 9. Data Link Connection Identifiers (DLCI)
    • Frame Relay virtual circuits are identified by DLCIs.
    • IP address need to be mapped DLCI
  • 10. How Frame Relay works
  • 11. Subinterfaces
    • You can have multiple virtual circuits on a single interface and treat each one as a separate interface.
    • R(config)>interface s0
    • R(config-if)>encapsulation frame-relay [ietf]
    • R(config-if)>int s0.16 point-to-point (or multipoint)
  • 12. Mapping Frame Relay
    • Manual Mapping
    • R(config)>interface s0
    • R(config-if)>encapsulation frame-relay
    • R(config-if)>int s0.16 multipoint
    • R(config-subif)>no inverse-arp
    • R(config-subif)>ip address
    • R(config-subif)>frame-relay map 16 ietf broadcast
    • R(config-subif)>frame-relay map 17 broadcast
    • R(config-subif)>frame-relay map 18
    • Using Reverse-ARP
    • R(config)>interface s0.16
    • R(config-subif)>encapsulation frame-relay ietf
    • R(config-subif)>ip address
  • 13. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
    • ISDN is a digital service designed to run over existing telephone networks.
    • ISDN supports both voice, video, and data
    • Call setup is faster than with a modem.
    • Data rates are faster than one modem connection.
  • 14. ISDN Components
  • 15. ISND Terminals
    • Terminal adapter: A converter device that allows non-ISDN devices to operate on an ISDN network.
    • Terminal Equipment 1 (TE1): A device that supports ISDN standards.
    • Terminal Equipment 2 (TE2): A non-ISDN device.
    • Network Termination 1 (NT1): A device that is attached to ISND BRI lines to provide power. It also terminates the 2-wire connection from CO and connects to the 4-wire customer network.
    • Network Termination 2 (NT2): A provider equipment.
  • 16. Reference Points
    • U
      • The U-interface is the actual two-wire cable which connects the customer’s equipment to the telecommunications provider
    • R
      • The R-interface is the wire or circuit that connects TE2 to the TA
    • S
      • The S-interface is a four-wire cable from TE1 or TA to the NT1 or NT2
    • T
      • The point between NT1 and NT2, which is also called the T-interface
    • S/T
  • 17. Connecting to the Provider
  • 18. ISDN Switch Types
    • Interfaces
      • Basic Rate Interface (BRI)
      • Primary Rate (Interface)
    • Potential Switch Types To Be Obtained from ISDN Providers
      • basic-5ess, basic-dms100, basic-ni,....
    • Service Profile Identifiers (SPIDs)
      • Reference number assigned to ISDN channels
        • Functions like a phone number
      • Frequently referred to as ISDN phone numbers
      • Most modern ISDN systems now have a feature called AutoSPID
  • 19. ISDN with CISCO Router