The Implications of OpenStreetMap                            Yuwei Lin  Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 |...
Outline●   Introduction●   Politics of Maps●   Cartography 2.0●   Highlights of OpenStreetMap Projects●   Implications of ...
Introduction●   Who am I    ●   Sociologist in Science and Technology    ●   Lecturer in the School of Media, Music and Pe...
Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
The Beauty of Maps                                    Psalter Map (1260)Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 |...
Desceliers World Map (1550)   Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
The Beauty of Maps 3Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
BBC4s The Beauty of Mapshttp://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcfour/beautyofmaps/index.sht        Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 Jan...
Politics of Maps●   What information was recorded on a map?●   Who made/drew the map?●   Whom was the map made for?●   Map...
Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
Map of Taiwan being highly political                                                China Map with TaiwanChina Map without...
換個角度看台灣●   地圖上的視角本來就多元●   地圖是一種權力的表徵,反映繪圖者所欲凸顯的觀點●   台灣大學地理環境資源學系教授賴進貴 : 每張地圖都有    自己故事。每一張地圖都有它的目的,就像我們是看場    合來決定要穿西裝、牛仔...
台北人心中的台灣地圖Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
高雄人心中的台灣地圖Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
Cartography ( 地圖學 )●   Map ( 地圖 ) – 是地理學的語言,其研究內容涵蓋地理資料的收集、處理、分    析、展示 ( 專家的角度 , 專家的語言 )●   Geographical Information ( 地理...
Cartography 2.0Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
Cartography 2.0●   Open Source technologies + free / open access    mapping data and geographical information●   User-gene...
OpenStreetMap Community History●   2004 July, founded by Steve Coast●   2006 April, a foundation was established to encour...
Highlights from 2010●   Haiti and “Crisis mapping” ( 災後重建地圖學 )●   Disability – mapping for the blind●   Cycling Maps (Open...
Crisis MappingMapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
Crisis Mapping                                         ●   Ushahidi.com is a free and                                     ...
WikiProject HaitiMapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
OSM for the Blind●   http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/OSM_for_the_bli●   http://www.blind.accessiblemaps.org/           ...
Open Data & MapsMapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
Technical implications●   Open source – both the map and software are never finished    products; they are perpetual beta ...
Cultural Implications●   POI (Points of interests)●   You can define what is important (to be    included in the maps) and...
Economic Implications●   Cheaper/Gratis maps●   Maps are free to be used → no need of    acquiring permission●   Lots of d...
Locative Media●   http://www.maxamundo.com/cms/index.php●   Geo-referenced information, geo retailing,    location-based  ...
Educational Implications●   鄉土教學              (Knowing your neighbourhood, Community engagement)●   e.g., map the school, ...
Educational Implications●   鼓勵孩子探索人與環境的關係●   Preserving local cultures (documenting local names,    indigenous names)●   C...
Social Implications●   Building communities (a global OSM and many local    communities)●   Establishing identities (OSMer...
A Map Inspired by Free Software●   Freedom                                     ●    Diversity●   Openness                 ...
Conclusion●   Its your Map. Get involved!           Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://...
Point/Place of Interests (POI)●   POIs are places where youd like to visit. Along with other information (e.g.,    descrip...
What POIs can you create?●   Favourite places – Share your favourite spots (restaurants, parks, pubs,    shopping, cafe, t...
What can you use POIs for?If you are a business owner -●   Sales & merchandising targets – provide specific easy-to-downlo...
Requirements for Mapping●   GPS (Global Positioning System, 全球衛星定位系統 ) -    用來紀錄實察點和實察路線的經緯度坐標 , 方便之後匯入    OpenStreetMap 中...
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The Implications of OpenStreetMap

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I presented these slides at the 4th mapping party in Taiwan on 2 January 2011. For more details about the event please see http://www.openfoundry.org/tw/workshop/details/125

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The Implications of OpenStreetMap

  1. 1. The Implications of OpenStreetMap Yuwei Lin Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  2. 2. Outline● Introduction● Politics of Maps● Cartography 2.0● Highlights of OpenStreetMap Projects● Implications of OpenStreetMap: the cultural, economic, educational, political, technical, and social● Conclusions Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  3. 3. Introduction● Who am I ● Sociologist in Science and Technology ● Lecturer in the School of Media, Music and Performance, Uni of Salford, UK ● Free/Open Source Software ● Web 2.0 & User-Participatory Culture● What is STS ( 科技與社會研究 )?● 科學知識與科技產品如何被製造和建構出來● 科學知識與科技生產者與使用者權力階層關係與互動● 科技文化 , 科技生活化與在地化 , 日常生活科技 , 技術系統的社會與歷史 研究、在地技術● 專家與在地 / 常民知識 (local knowledge), 科技公民參與● 科技政策 Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  4. 4. Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  5. 5. The Beauty of Maps Psalter Map (1260)Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  6. 6. Desceliers World Map (1550) Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  7. 7. The Beauty of Maps 3Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  8. 8. BBC4s The Beauty of Mapshttp://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcfour/beautyofmaps/index.sht Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  9. 9. Politics of Maps● What information was recorded on a map?● Who made/drew the map?● Whom was the map made for?● Maps produced by the rich, the powerful, and to demonstrate certain views from certain dominant cultures (e.g., religions, empires)● In the Taiwanese context, as a colony of various different powers (e.g., Spain, Holland, China, Japan, perhaps also the US), the maps were made by these empires. Majority of current maps are made from the Chinese perspective. Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  10. 10. Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  11. 11. Map of Taiwan being highly political China Map with TaiwanChina Map without Taiwan Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  12. 12. 換個角度看台灣● 地圖上的視角本來就多元● 地圖是一種權力的表徵,反映繪圖者所欲凸顯的觀點● 台灣大學地理環境資源學系教授賴進貴 : 每張地圖都有 自己故事。每一張地圖都有它的目的,就像我們是看場 合來決定要穿西裝、牛仔褲或拖鞋,同理,地圖的製作 也根據特定的目的來做選擇。● 前教育部長杜正勝所提出的「台灣中心」新地圖論 : 地 圖橫著看躺著看都可以。看世界不能只有一個角度。在 這個向逆時針方向轉動九十度的新地圖中,台灣就不再 是中國大陸的東南一隅,而是位於中國上方的中心點。 Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  13. 13. 台北人心中的台灣地圖Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  14. 14. 高雄人心中的台灣地圖Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  15. 15. Cartography ( 地圖學 )● Map ( 地圖 ) – 是地理學的語言,其研究內容涵蓋地理資料的收集、處理、分 析、展示 ( 專家的角度 , 專家的語言 )● Geographical Information ( 地理資訊 ): 一般指在某一特定時間及空間範圍 內,依某種地理特性量度或計數所獲得的資料,又稱為地理資料 ( geographical data )。傳統上可以將地理資料分為兩大類,分別是一手資 料與二手資料。 (http://gisedu.tw/node/694) ● 一手資料:自行從做實驗分析、實地野外考察、訪談、調查計測或問卷調查等,以取 得原始的直接資料,稱為「一手資料」 ( 或稱為第一手資料 ) ,然後將這些野外取得的 資料攜回室內加以分析統計,整理成為可以使用的數據和資料。 ● 二手資料:從各種研究期刊、論文、統計年報、方誌和地圖等,擷取、引用他人的研 究成果,以整理、分析這些間接資料,稱為「二手資料」 ( 或稱為第二手資料 ) 。● More information: http://gisedu.tw● GIS ( 空間資訊學 )● 地理資訊系統:軟硬體、數值地圖資料、專業知識 Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  16. 16. Cartography 2.0Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  17. 17. Cartography 2.0● Open Source technologies + free / open access mapping data and geographical information● User-generated and user-participatory● Freedom to distribute, copy, modify, read, and re- distribute the mapping data and technologies● Customisable and extensible● Ideally, everyone can make maps for their own needs! ( 地圖學生活化 , 科技公民參與 , 常民 / 在地知 識成為地圖學的一部分 ) Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  18. 18. OpenStreetMap Community History● 2004 July, founded by Steve Coast● 2006 April, a foundation was established to encourage the growth, development and distribution of free geospatial data and provide geospatial data for anybody to use and share.● 2006 December, Yahoo confirmed that OpenStreetMap could use its aerial photography as a backdrop for map production.● 2007 July, the 1st The State of the Map conference was held● Number of users to date 341630 http://www.openstreetmap.org/stats/data_stats.html http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Stats● http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/History Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  19. 19. Highlights from 2010● Haiti and “Crisis mapping” ( 災後重建地圖學 )● Disability – mapping for the blind● Cycling Maps (Open Cycle Map, Cambridge) – perspective different from drivers ones (or walkers maps, mountaineers maps) ( 汽機車駕駛人的主流 價值 , 有車階級 )● Overlaying data onto maps (e.g., tree data, open public information, poll results, crime data)● Diversity ( 多元價值與多元文化的呈現 ) Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  20. 20. Crisis MappingMapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  21. 21. Crisis Mapping ● Ushahidi.com is a free and open-source platform. Its initial creation in Kenya was to collect reports of violence in late 2007 and early 2008 in the wake of contested elections in Kenya. ● The platform allows people to easily submit reports via the web, email and SMS. It then plots the reports on a map. ● http://www.ushahidi.com/ ● http://www.guardian.co.uk/new s/datablog/2009/jun/19/kenya- researchMapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  22. 22. WikiProject HaitiMapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  23. 23. OSM for the Blind● http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/OSM_for_the_bli● http://www.blind.accessiblemaps.org/ Software and maps for the blind is usually expensive and also outdated. The blind community can help themselves update the maps. Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  24. 24. Open Data & MapsMapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  25. 25. Technical implications● Open source – both the map and software are never finished products; they are perpetual beta (always under testing and improvement)● Fix the problems as you spot them.● User friendly tools such as Potlatch, the web-based map rendering interface is important for less tech-savvy people● Transparency● User-led innovation● Democratic design, public engagement and participation● Customisation Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  26. 26. Cultural Implications● POI (Points of interests)● You can define what is important (to be included in the maps) and how to name a place (the name tells a lot! e.g., 自由廣場 or 中正紀 念堂 ) → Your voice counts.● Is Taiwan part of China?● Encouraging local cultures and creativity● Visualise and/or organise your own content on a map using free / open content Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  27. 27. Economic Implications● Cheaper/Gratis maps● Maps are free to be used → no need of acquiring permission● Lots of different business models built on OSM: e.g., Bing, AOL, Ito, CloudMade● New business models built on open content, open data and open source technologies Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  28. 28. Locative Media● http://www.maxamundo.com/cms/index.php● Geo-referenced information, geo retailing, location-based Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  29. 29. Educational Implications● 鄉土教學 (Knowing your neighbourhood, Community engagement)● e.g., map the school, map the students homes, map local monuments and POIs (e.g., public telephone boxes)● Start early to learn how to produce a map from scratch (if you start late, everything is mapped)● Relevant to the students → Can do at home after training & Self motivating● Good preparation prior to class important – so many details need attention (e.g., health & safety regarding field trips 戶外教學 , school computers need updating, installing Firefox, GPS did not work, performance problems with the OSM site, Login Process to Mapzen ) Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  30. 30. Educational Implications● 鼓勵孩子探索人與環境的關係● Preserving local cultures (documenting local names, indigenous names)● Collaboration (peer production 同儕創作 ), not just competition● Acknowledgement, no plagiarism (unlike 山寨文化 )● No pirate software – use free software● Technologies are not black boxes; they can be opened up and reconfigured.● http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Education Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  31. 31. Social Implications● Building communities (a global OSM and many local communities)● Establishing identities (OSMers and local communities)● Mapping parties (how to best organise mapping parties)● Social gatherings● Mutual learning and knowledge exchange (glo-cal)● Memory sharing (memory of a place, of a story) Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  32. 32. A Map Inspired by Free Software● Freedom ● Diversity● Openness ● Democracy● Networking ● Equality● Collaboration ● MutualityOpenStreetMap 開啟鄉土地圖學 , 公民地圖學 ,開放地圖學的時代 , 使繪製地圖方式更多元,因應各地的文化與需要發展不同的 ( 再 ) 使用 , 開發 ,繪製的方式,是既本土又全球的自由軟體 Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  33. 33. Conclusion● Its your Map. Get involved! Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  34. 34. Point/Place of Interests (POI)● POIs are places where youd like to visit. Along with other information (e.g., description, address), each POI has a named set of coordinates which refer to a specific point on the earth – made up of an intersection between a latitude number and longitude number.● Why are POIs important? ● POIs help you to record, present and locate information on a map ● POIs represent your interests, your preferences, your memories, your identities● Why creating your own POIs? ● POIs information missing, incorrect or out-of-date ● Most POI data generic ● To ensure accuracy and adequate representation of the locations of stuffs (things, monuments, attractions, restaurants, services...)● How to record POIs? ● Standards and agreements on terms → Compatibility● Privacy issue - where youve been, what youve created, what youre interested... Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  35. 35. What POIs can you create?● Favourite places – Share your favourite spots (restaurants, parks, pubs, shopping, cafe, tourists attractions,…almost anything!)● Bank/Cash machines – Ever have trouble finding a bank/cash machine that is from your bank?● Post Offices● Gas/Petrol Stations – Have a credit card with one of the gas stations you use? On the road, you often have no idea where your preferred gas station chain is located.● Car Park – with opening times and fares (if street parking, rules)● Wedding – Getting married? Create a POI Group with the church, reception hall, hotel for guests, park photo location, tuxedo rental place, spa, hairstylist, and the store you registered at. Make it available for all your guests so no one is late!● Traffic and Construction – When driving, get a heads up on locations of speed and red lightKaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org avoid Mapping Party, cameras. Find out construction zones and
  36. 36. What can you use POIs for?If you are a business owner -● Sales & merchandising targets – provide specific easy-to-download sales locations for your reps to visit and comment on● Availability – set targets for your reps to expand product availability● Tourism – promote tourist locations and expand the health of your partners and economy● Real Estate – help your clients locate properties with ease● Business Visitors – set out a trade or facilities visit to key company or competitive locations● Geo-retailing (Anonymous Direct Marketing (ADM))For everyday use● Going on vacation? Browse through POIs for some great ideas!● Events – Look up the locations of the places where events are held. Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
  37. 37. Requirements for Mapping● GPS (Global Positioning System, 全球衛星定位系統 ) - 用來紀錄實察點和實察路線的經緯度坐標 , 方便之後匯入 OpenStreetMap 中展示。● GPS-enabled devices e.g., GARMIN, TOMTOM, PIONEER AVIC, MIO, NAVMAN, MAGELLAN, Google Earth, GPS Exchange, LG Electronics, Blaupunkt, More under development● Digital camera ( 數位相機 ) - 用來紀錄各實察點的地理景 觀。● Audio mapping● Smart phones Mapping Party, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2 January 2011 | Yuwei Lin | http://www.ylin.org
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