LogFS Introduction            Basics of Garbage Collection             Garbage Collection in LogFS         J¨rn Engel, Dir...
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Why Garbage Collection?                            LogFS Introduction    Simple Garbage Collection                   Basic...
Why Garbage Collection?                             LogFS Introduction    Simple Garbage Collection                    Bas...
Why Garbage Collection?                             LogFS Introduction    Simple Garbage Collection                    Bas...
Why Garbage Collection?                                         LogFS Introduction    Simple Garbage Collection           ...
Why Garbage Collection?                                         LogFS Introduction    Simple Garbage Collection           ...
Why Garbage Collection?                                 LogFS Introduction    Simple Garbage Collection                   ...
Why Garbage Collection?                                 LogFS Introduction    Simple Garbage Collection                   ...
Why Garbage Collection?                                 LogFS Introduction    Simple Garbage Collection                   ...
Why Garbage Collection?                             LogFS Introduction    Simple Garbage Collection                    Bas...
Why Garbage Collection?                                      LogFS Introduction                    Simple Garbage Collecti...
Why Garbage Collection?                               LogFS Introduction    Simple Garbage Collection                     ...
Why Garbage Collection?                               LogFS Introduction    Simple Garbage Collection                     ...
Why Garbage Collection?                             LogFS Introduction    Simple Garbage Collection                    Bas...
Why Garbage Collection?                                  LogFS Introduction               Simple Garbage Collection       ...
Why Garbage Collection?                             LogFS Introduction    Simple Garbage Collection                    Bas...
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Why Garbage Collection?                             LogFS Introduction    Simple Garbage Collection                    Bas...
Why Garbage Collection?                               LogFS Introduction    Simple Garbage Collection                     ...
Why Garbage Collection?                              LogFS Introduction    Simple Garbage Collection                     B...
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20090420 ref gc

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20090420 ref gc

  1. 1. LogFS Introduction Basics of Garbage Collection Garbage Collection in LogFS J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Lazybastard.org, IBM & University of Osnabr¨ck u January 16, 2007J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  2. 2. Flash properties LogFS Introduction LogFS Format Basics of Garbage Collection Wandering TreeFlash properties For all flashes: Medium split into eraseblocks (16-128 KiB) Eraseblocks can be written in any order Eraseblocks must be erased before being written Eraseblocks can be partially written For some flashes: Eraseblock split into pages (8-2048 Bytes) Partial pages cannot get written Writes within eraseblocks must happen in order J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  3. 3. Flash properties LogFS Introduction LogFS Format Basics of Garbage Collection Wandering TreeLogFS device abstraction For all media: Medium split into segments Segments can be written in any order Segments must be erased before being written Segments can be partially written For all media: Eraseblock split into blocks Partial blocks cannot get written Writes within segments must happen in order J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  4. 4. Flash properties LogFS Introduction LogFS Format Basics of Garbage Collection Wandering TreeMapping flash to LogFS One or more eraseblocks form a segment One or more flash pages form a block J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  5. 5. Flash properties LogFS Introduction LogFS Format Basics of Garbage Collection Wandering TreeThree storage areas Superblock (1 Segment) Journal (2-8 Segments) Object store Superblock Journal 0 Journal 1 Object Store 0 Object Store N J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  6. 6. Flash properties LogFS Introduction LogFS Format Basics of Garbage Collection Wandering TreeObject store Object store split into segments Segments split into blocks Last block of each segment contains summary Superblock Journal 0 Journal 1 Object Store 0 Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Sum Object Store N J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  7. 7. Flash properties LogFS Introduction LogFS Format Basics of Garbage Collection Wandering TreeSegment summary Summary contains for each block: Inode number (ino) Logical position in a file (pos) Physical offset of the block (ofs) Plus some segment-global information: Erase count Write time ... J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  8. 8. Flash properties LogFS Introduction LogFS Format Basics of Garbage Collection Wandering TreeBlock verification No bitfields to track block usage A block is used iff an inode points to it Summary contains (ino,pos) pair as a back pointer J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  9. 9. Flash properties LogFS Introduction LogFS Format Basics of Garbage Collection Wandering TreeFile format Regular Unix format with inode, indirect blocks and data blocks: Inode Regular file/directory/... Nx indirect blocks Level N 2x indirect blocks 2x indirect blocks Level 2 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks Level 1 Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Level 0 J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  10. 10. Flash properties LogFS Introduction LogFS Format Basics of Garbage Collection Wandering TreeInode file No reserved areas for inodes Inodes stored in inode file (ifile) Ifile’s inode stored in journal J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  11. 11. Flash properties LogFS Introduction LogFS Format Basics of Garbage Collection Wandering TreeInode file Inode Inode file Nx indirect blocks Level N 2x indirect blocks 2x indirect blocks Level 2 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks Level 1 Inode Inode Inode Inode Inode Inode Inode Inode Inode Inode Inode Level 0 Regular file/directory/... Nx indirect blocks Level N 2x indirect blocks 2x indirect blocks Level 2 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks Level 1 Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Level 0 J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  12. 12. Flash properties LogFS Introduction LogFS Format Basics of Garbage Collection Wandering TreeWrites Flash must be erased before being written Eraseblocks too large to be practical Writes cannot happen in-place Solution: Wandering tree J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  13. 13. Flash properties LogFS Introduction LogFS Format Basics of Garbage Collection Wandering TreeWrites The red block is overwritten with new data ... Inode Regular file/directory/... Nx indirect blocks Level N 2x indirect blocks 2x indirect blocks Level 2 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks Level 1 Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Level 0 J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  14. 14. Flash properties LogFS Introduction LogFS Format Basics of Garbage Collection Wandering TreeWrites ... and has to be written to a different location. Inode Regular file/directory/... Nx indirect blocks Level N 2x indirect blocks 2x indirect blocks Level 2 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks Level 1 Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Level 0 J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  15. 15. Flash properties LogFS Introduction LogFS Format Basics of Garbage Collection Wandering TreeWrites Since the indirect block still points to the old location ... Inode Regular file/directory/... Nx indirect blocks Level N 2x indirect blocks 2x indirect blocks Level 2 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks Level 1 Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Level 0 J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  16. 16. Flash properties LogFS Introduction LogFS Format Basics of Garbage Collection Wandering TreeWrites ... it has to be changed as well ... Inode Regular file/directory/... Nx indirect blocks Level N 2x indirect blocks 2x indirect blocks Level 2 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks Level 1 Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Level 0 J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  17. 17. Flash properties LogFS Introduction LogFS Format Basics of Garbage Collection Wandering TreeWrites ... along with all other indirect blocks further up. Inode Regular file/directory/... Nx indirect blocks Nx indirect blocks Level N 2x indirect blocks 2x indirect blocks 2x indirect blocks Level 2 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks Level 1 Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Level 0 J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  18. 18. Why Garbage Collection? LogFS Introduction Simple Garbage Collection Basics of Garbage Collection Garbage Collection with a Wandering Tree LevelsWhy Garbage Collection? Writes happen out-of-place Blocks obsoleted by writes Near-empty segments are useless J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  19. 19. Why Garbage Collection? LogFS Introduction Simple Garbage Collection Basics of Garbage Collection Garbage Collection with a Wandering Tree LevelsWhy Garbage Collection? A single valid block in a segment prevents reuse Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Sum J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  20. 20. Why Garbage Collection? LogFS Introduction Simple Garbage Collection Basics of Garbage Collection Garbage Collection with a Wandering Tree LevelsSimple Garbage Collection GC has to move each valid block away ... Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Sum Data Sum J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  21. 21. Why Garbage Collection? LogFS Introduction Simple Garbage Collection Basics of Garbage Collection Garbage Collection with a Wandering Tree LevelsSimple Garbage Collection ... thereby obsoleting the old block ... Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Sum Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Sum Data Sum J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  22. 22. Why Garbage Collection? LogFS Introduction Simple Garbage Collection Basics of Garbage Collection Garbage Collection with a Wandering Tree LevelsSimple Garbage Collection ... so it can be deleted. Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Sum Data Sum J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  23. 23. Why Garbage Collection? LogFS Introduction Simple Garbage Collection Basics of Garbage Collection Garbage Collection with a Wandering Tree LevelsSimple Garbage Collection GC should free more segments than it uses. A B C Sum A B C Sum D E F Sum D E F Sum A’ B’ C’ D’ E’ F’ Sum J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  24. 24. Why Garbage Collection? LogFS Introduction Simple Garbage Collection Basics of Garbage Collection Garbage Collection with a Wandering Tree LevelsSimple Garbage Collection GC must free more segments than it uses! A B C Sum A B C Sum D E F Sum D E F Sum A’ B’ C’ D’ E’ F’ Sum J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  25. 25. Why Garbage Collection? LogFS Introduction Simple Garbage Collection Basics of Garbage Collection Garbage Collection with a Wandering Tree LevelsSimple Garbage Collection GC MUST free more segments than it uses!!! GC MUST free more segments than it uses!!! GC MUST free more segments than it uses!!! A B C Sum A B C Sum D E F Sum D E F Sum A’ B’ C’ D’ E’ F’ Sum J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  26. 26. Why Garbage Collection? LogFS Introduction Simple Garbage Collection Basics of Garbage Collection Garbage Collection with a Wandering Tree LevelsGarbage Collection with a Wandering Tree Wandering tree? J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  27. 27. Why Garbage Collection? LogFS Introduction Simple Garbage Collection Basics of Garbage Collection Garbage Collection with a Wandering Tree LevelsGarbage Collection with a Wandering Tree Didn’t we have a wandering tree? Inode Regular file/directory/... Nx indirect blocks Nx indirect blocks Level N 2x indirect blocks 2x indirect blocks 2x indirect blocks Level 2 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks Level 1 Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Level 0 J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  28. 28. Why Garbage Collection? LogFS Introduction Simple Garbage Collection Basics of Garbage Collection Garbage Collection with a Wandering Tree LevelsGarbage Collection with a Wandering Tree Oh dear! A1 Sum A1 Sum A2 Sum A2 Sum A3 Sum A3 Sum A0 B0 C0 Sum A0 B0 C0 Sum A0’ A1’ A2’ A3’ Sum J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  29. 29. Why Garbage Collection? LogFS Introduction Simple Garbage Collection Basics of Garbage Collection Garbage Collection with a Wandering Tree LevelsGarbage Collection with a Wandering Tree Mustn’t GC free more segments than it uses? A1 Sum A1 Sum A2 Sum A2 Sum A3 Sum A3 Sum A0 B0 C0 Sum A0 B0 C0 Sum A0’ A1’ A2’ A3’ B0’ B1’ B2’Sum B3’ C0’ C1’ C2’ C3’ Sum J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  30. 30. Why Garbage Collection? LogFS Introduction Simple Garbage Collection Basics of Garbage Collection Garbage Collection with a Wandering Tree LevelsGarbage Collection with a Wandering Tree Ooooh! J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  31. 31. Why Garbage Collection? LogFS Introduction Simple Garbage Collection Basics of Garbage Collection Garbage Collection with a Wandering Tree LevelsIntroducing Levels Definition: Two nodes are on the same level, if their distance from the root node is identical Inode Regular file/directory/... Nx indirect blocks Level N 2x indirect blocks 2x indirect blocks Level 2 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks 1x indirect blocks Level 1 Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Level 0 J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  32. 32. Why Garbage Collection? LogFS Introduction Simple Garbage Collection Basics of Garbage Collection Garbage Collection with a Wandering Tree LevelsGarbage Collection with Levels Blocks on the same level are written to the same segments Blocks on different levels are written to different segments J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  33. 33. Why Garbage Collection? LogFS Introduction Simple Garbage Collection Basics of Garbage Collection Garbage Collection with a Wandering Tree LevelsGarbage Collection with Levels A1 Sum A1 Sum A2 Sum A2 Sum A3 Sum A3 Sum A0 B0 C0 Sum A0 B0 C0 Sum A0’ B0’ C0’ Sum A1’ B1’ C1’ Sum A2’ B2’ C2’ Sum A3’ B3’ C3’ Sum J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  34. 34. Why Garbage Collection? LogFS Introduction Simple Garbage Collection Basics of Garbage Collection Garbage Collection with a Wandering Tree LevelsGarbage Collection with Levels Aaaah! J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  35. 35. Why Garbage Collection? LogFS Introduction Simple Garbage Collection Basics of Garbage Collection Garbage Collection with a Wandering Tree LevelsThanks! Arnd Bergmann Martin Schwidefsky Dirk Bolte Robert Mertens You, the audience J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS
  36. 36. Why Garbage Collection? LogFS Introduction Simple Garbage Collection Basics of Garbage Collection Garbage Collection with a Wandering Tree LevelsWrapup Questions? Suggestions? Sponsors? J¨rn Engel, Dirk Bolte & Robert Mertens o Garbage Collection in LogFS

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