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  • 1. Introduction to: Free Software, Open Source, GNU/Linux
  • 2. About me
    • Name:
        • Ahmed Mekkawy AKA linuxawy
    • Blog:
        • http://www.linuxawy.org
    • Email:
        • [email_address]
    • Proffesional career:
        • SysAdmins Team Leader in eSpace (http://espace.com.eg).
    • FOSS world:
        • Member of Admins team of EGLUG
    • Background & Experience:
        • Graduated 2001 Faculty of Engineering, Alex University.
  • 3. About EGLUG
    • Egypt Gnu/Linux Users Group.
    • 4. We are an unofficial group of Egyptian volunteers gathered about believing in Free Software Philosophy and Open Source Model, and the love of Gnu/Linux OS.
    • 5. We aim to serve the Egyptian FOSS comnunity and promote using FOSS in Egypt.
    • 6. http://eglug.org
    • 7. #eglug @ irc.freenode.net
  • 8. GNU and Linux
  • 9. GNU's Not Unix
    • What FOSS Stands for?
    • 10. What's GNU?
    • 11. What's GNU/Linux?
    • 12. What's GNU/Hurd?
    • 13. Debian GNU/Hurd exists? not really, not yet
    • 14. What's GNU/Darwin?
    • 15. Is Darwin FOSS? yes.. GPL'd? nop, it's APSL'd
    • 16. GPL'd version of Darwin? yes, Open-Darwin, but ...
    • 17. What is this all about?
  • 18. FOSS Definition (4 Freedoms)
    • The freedom to run the program, for any purpose (freedom 0).
    • 19. The freedom to study how the program works, and adapt it to your needs (freedom 1). Access to the source code is a precondition for this.
    • 20. The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor (freedom 2).
    • 21. The freedom to improve the program, and release your improvements to the public, so that the whole community benefits (freedom 3). Access to the source code is a precondition for this.
  • 22. Free Software Philosophy
    • 1997 The Debian Free Software Guidelines (DFSG)
    • 23. 1998 Open Source Definition (4 Freedoms)
    • 24. General Public License (GPL)
    • 25. Free software is a matter of liberty, not price. To understand the concept, you should think of free as in "free speech" , not as in "free beer" .
    • 26. Open Source is a development methodology; Free Software is a social movement.
    • 27. Distributed development is one of the main key strengths in FOSS.
  • 28. Three definitions of Linux
    • Linux Kernel:
      • The very low-level software that manages your computer hardware and provides a library (POSIX) interface for user-level software. The Linux kernel runs on many platforms (Intel x86, IA-64, AMD64, Alpha, MIPS, HP PA-RISC, PowerPC, IBM S/390, SPARC, Motorola 680x0, etc.).
    • GNU/Linux OS:
      • The Linux kernel plus utility software to provide a useful working environment.
    • Linux Distribution:
      • The packaging of the Linux Kernel, the GNU/Linux OS and lots of other software to make Linux easy to install, configure, and use (at least for the target audience).
  • 29. Quote
    • You never change things by fighting the existing reality. To change something, build a new model that makes the existing model obsolete.
          • R. Buckminster Fuller
  • 30. GNU/Linux Histrorical Timeline
    • 1969: Unix is developed at AT&T
    • 31. 1983: The GNU Project launched by RMS
    • 32. 1991: Linux 0.01 ( 10k line of code, 1 user )
    • 33. 1994: Linux 1.0 ( 170k line of code, 100 thousand user)
    • 34. 1996: Linux 2.0 ( 400k line of code, 1.5 million user)
    • 35. 1998: Open Source Definition (4 Freedoms)
    • 36. 1998: Linux 2.1.11 ( 1.5M line of code, 7.5 million user)
    • 37. 1999: Linux 2.2: 12 million users
    • 38. 2008: A Promising Future
  • 39. Linux Evolution within First 8 years
  • 40. Quote
    • You can’t better the world by simply talking to it. Philosophy to be effective must be mechanically applied.
          • Buckminster Fuller
  • 41. GPL version 3
    • if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis or for a fee, you must:
      • pass on to the recipients the same freedoms that you received.
      • 42. make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code.
      • 43. show them these terms so they know their rights.
    • there is no warranty for the GPL'd free software, and modified versions has to be marked as changed , so that their problems will not be attributed erroneously to authors of previous versions.
  • 44. Why use Open Source & Linux?
    • Speed and Stability.
    • 45. Open Source tends to be high quality and economical.
    • 46. Security: very little security holes & quick fixes.
    • 47. No worms, spyware, crashes, and no more blue screen of death.
    • 48. True multiuser system (secure file permission, use can't affect other users or the OS, user must logon)
    • 49. Modularity (User isn't locked to one shell or GUI).
    • 50. Strong communities for development and support.
    • 51. Developers, Developers, Developers!
    • 52. Code, Code, Code!
  • 53. Open Source is not only in software
    • General Knowlege: Wikipedia.org
    • 54. Web Designing: OSWD.org (Open Source Web Design), OpenDesigns.org , OpenWebDesign.org
    • 55. Learning: ChemCollective.org, k12EdCom.org
    • 56. Hardware: opencores.org
    • 57. Others: OpenCola (Open Source Cola Formula), Open Data (Scintific data & others)
  • 58. Business in FOSS world
    • ” The Cathedral and the Bazar” (1997) by Eric Raymond.
    • 59. Free Software => Open Source => FOSS
    • 60. Cygnus (1989): First business model in FOSS, Technical support for GNU tools (merged with RedHat 1999)
    • 61. Netscape(1998): First big company turned into FOSS (netscape => mozilla). This was highly influenced by "the cathedral and the bazar" which they heared in the perl conference in 1997
  • 62. Quote
    • I guess you could call the belief in sharing of knowledge a philosophy, but I just think it’s a fact. It’s what differentiates science from alchemy or witchcraft. Anybody who doesn’t believe in it is just wearing some serious blinders.
          • Linus Torvalds
  • 63. Distributions
    • Debian: large (>1200 developers), community developed, strong policy, 15k packages, growing by 20% annualy. Largest (?)
    • 64. Ubuntu: aimed for desktop users, based on debian unstable.
    • 65. Red Hat: Early star, now aimed for enterprise.
    • 66. Fedora: Sponsored by redhat, community supported.
    • 67. Centos: The Free (from charge) alternative to RHEL.
    • 68. Mandriva: Popular redhat derivative.
    • 69. Suse: made by Novell, aimed for enterprise. Lately there's a joint development with microsoft.
    • 70. OpenSuse:Open source alternative of Suse, community supported
    • 71. Slackware: Very Unix-like, Old but popular
    • 72. Phaeronix: The egyptian distro.
    • 73. Arabian, Arabbix: Arabic distros, but discontinued.
  • 74. Single tree and mount points
    • Single tree system Vs. Multi-tree system.
    • 75. why mount?
    • 76. /mnt , /media
    • 77. Mount Points can be any empty directory.
    • 78. Mount exists in Window$.
    • 79. You can have any number of mount points.
  • 80. root root root
    • The root directory ( / ):
        • The root of your only tree.
        • 81. It must be assosiated to a partition.
    • The root user:
        • equals to the administrator in the Window$.
        • 82. Very dangerous to login with it (really, i'm not kedding with that).
        • 83. Should be disabled or use a really hard password.
    • The root home directory ( /root ):
        • The home directory of the root user (where he stores his files)
  • 84. GNU/Linux Directory structure
    • Everything is a file
    • 85. Main Directories and their intended use:
      • /etc : configuration files.
      • 86. /bin, /usr/bin (binaries) excutables.
      • 87. /sbin, /usr/sbin : (super user binaries) excutables for system-wide changes (e.g hardware configurations, shutdown, kernel-related, .. etc).
      • 88. /tmp : temporary.
      • 89. /home : subfolder for every account, account related files (desktop, account-related configurations.
      • 90. /root : the root user home directory.
      • 91. /mnt, /media : a place for mounting additonal devices.
      • 92. /dev : hardware devices (editable, with extreme caution)
      • 93. /proc : running processes (most of times are editable)
  • 94. Display Components
    • X Server (XFree, XORG).
    • 95. Desktop Enviroment (DE):
      • KDE, Gnome, XFCE, ... etc
    • Window Manager (WM)
      • Window Maker, Enlightment, IceWM, ... etc
    • Compositing Window Manager
      • Metacity, Beryl, Compiz, ... etc
  • 96. Installation Background
    • Partitioning.
    • 97. Hardware detection.
    • 98. Locales selection (Keyboard, time, location).
    • 99. Package selection.
    • 100. Bootloader.
  • 101. Partitioning
    • Recommended partitioning for home user:
        • Root ( / ), swap, home ( /home).
    • Recommended size of swap partition (1.5~2 * RAM size)
    • 102. File System types.
    • 103. What does journalized mean?
    • 104. ext3 for stability, ReiserFS for speed.
    • 105. ext2 is native and speedy. but not stable enough.
  • 106. Packaging
    • What's a software package?
    • 107. Dependencies.
    • 108. Source Code Vs. Binary Package.
    • 109. Mirrors
    • 110. Why not getting software from third parties?
    • 111. package managers (apt, yum, urpmi, smart, ... etc)
    • 112. GUI interfaces for the package managers (e.g synaptic)
    • 113. Installing a software package not from the mirrors.
    • 114. portage tree .. a mirror of source codes??
  • 115. Bootloader
  • 120. GNU/Linux OS layers
  • 126. CLI Vs. GUI
    • CLI is for experienced users only, GUI can be used by anyone.
    • 127. CLI more powerful, GUI more user friendly.
    • 128. Most server releases doesn't contain GUI interface.
    • 129. My advice is that you use GUI for normal and daily tasks (e.g browsing, ... etc.) and use CLI for every administration task you do.
  • 130.
    • Positives:
      • User friendly.
      • 131. Eye candy.
      • 132. Where normal users lives. as well as we live when we use our PC's as normal users (browsing, IM, Office, ... etc.)
      • 133. Suitable for non-critical tasks which we can afford it to be slower and less stable for being more easy to use.
    • Negatives:
      • Consumes too much of your resources.
      • 134. Cause it's a higher layer, this means that bugs have higher possibility to exist.
      • 135. Not good in administrative tasks, or at least most of them.
      • 136. Not everything can be done with CLI exists in GUI, it's just a graphical interface and doesn't allow you to use all the options available.
    GUI
  • 137. CLI
    • much more powerful than GUI
    • 138. After getting used to it, CLI will be far more EASY and FASTER to you than GUI in lots of tasks.
    • 139. Most administration tasks are made with CLI. Those who made with GUI are simply a graphical interface that runs CLI commands in the background.
    • 140. BASH = Bourne Again SHell. Note that there's more than one kind of shell (bash, sh, dash, ... etc)
    • 141. BASH is the current standard of linux, Unix, and MAC OSX shell.
    • 142. M$ Window$ is now emplimenting something called 'Window$ Power Shell' ... Will it be compatible with BASH commands? hope so.
  • 143. How to get help?
    • man pages.
    • 144. Distro documentation & forums
    • 145. http://www.google.com/linux
    • 146. http://www.eglug.org
    • 147. http://www.eglug.org/alex
    • 148. IRC: irc.freenode.net
    • 149. IRC: #eglug @ irc.freenode.net
  • 150. Conclusion In a world without walls, who needs windows?