Supporting Mobile Learners: An
Action Research Approach




Krassie Petrova & Chun Li
25th June 2010
eLearning Research Gr...
Research Motivation


•   My experiences as an EAS student.
•   Vocabulary learning: memorize new words iteratively and pr...
Research Questions




                     3
Research Methodology
Action Research

According to Cohen, Manion and
Morrison (2007), action research is a
“powerful tool ...
Research Cycles and
Duration




                      5
Research Setting



                   Research Setting Model

                       Pedagogy layer

                    ...
Sample of Academic
Vocabulary Test
The pedagogical material delivered to
students was based on the AWL
(Academic Word List...
Educational Theories
Behaviourism
Constructivism
Socio-culturalism




                       8
Nokia PC Suite




                 9
mLearning flow in
Research Cycle One




                     10
Data Analysis Framework




                          11
Data Collection in
Research Cycle One




                     12
Research Findings in
Research Cycle One




        Average awaiting time for                                             ...
Data Analysis in Research
Cycle One




                            14
Data Analysis
in Research
Cycle One




                15
Data Analysis in Research
Cycle One




                            16
Data Analysis in Research
Cycle One




                            17
Research Cycle Two




                     18
mLearning Flow in
Research Cycle Two




                     19
mLearning Text Messages




                          20
Data Collection in
Research Cycle Two




                     21
Research Findings in
Research Cycle Two




                       22
Research Findings in
Research Cycle Two



     Number of SMS received by the researcher
     in research cycle two




  ...
Data Analysis in Research
Cycle Two




                            24
Data Analysis in Research
Cycle Two




                            25
Answers to the Research
Questions
Question one: to what extent does       Question two: what are the underlying
mobile tec...
Further research:
Research Cycle Three




                       27
Conclusion
The findings of the two research cycles   “Learning is good – it feels good.
demonstrate that an SMS-based     ...
Acknowledgements


• AUT Language School, EAS teaching group
  and EAS students

• AUTEC

• eLRG




                     ...
References
Arhar, J. M., Holly, M. L., &Kasten, W. C. (2001). Action research for teachers : Traveling the yellow brick ro...
Thank You




            31
Discussion




             32
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  1. 1. Supporting Mobile Learners: An Action Research Approach Krassie Petrova & Chun Li 25th June 2010 eLearning Research Group 1
  2. 2. Research Motivation • My experiences as an EAS student. • Vocabulary learning: memorize new words iteratively and practice them regularly. • Time and location limitations. • Mobile technologies, such as mobile phone texting (SMS) , promote learning to be ubiquitous. • According to Stroombergen (2008), “From 2007 to 2008, export education industry generated around $2.3 billion of foreign exchange…, contributed to New Zealand’s GDP is estimated at approximately $2.1 billion…, and supported over 32,000 full time equivalent jobs” (p.1). 2
  3. 3. Research Questions 3
  4. 4. Research Methodology Action Research According to Cohen, Manion and Morrison (2007), action research is a “powerful tool for change and improvement” (p.226) with an “impressive” (p.226) scope which includes almost all research settings and involves people. In addition, Yasmeen (2008) claims action research is the most appropriate strategy in educational context research. 4
  5. 5. Research Cycles and Duration 5
  6. 6. Research Setting Research Setting Model Pedagogy layer Education theory layer Technology layer 6
  7. 7. Sample of Academic Vocabulary Test The pedagogical material delivered to students was based on the AWL (Academic Word List), as compiled by AverilCoxhead at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand (Coxhead, 2000). According to Coxhead (2000), the words selected in the AWL are those ones that “appear with high frequency” in English-language academic articles, covering disciplines including: “arts (including history, psychology, sociology, etc.), commerce (including economics, marketing, management, etc.), law and the sciences (including biology, computer science, mathematics, etc.)”(p. 220). 7
  8. 8. Educational Theories Behaviourism Constructivism Socio-culturalism 8
  9. 9. Nokia PC Suite 9
  10. 10. mLearning flow in Research Cycle One 10
  11. 11. Data Analysis Framework 11
  12. 12. Data Collection in Research Cycle One 12
  13. 13. Research Findings in Research Cycle One Average awaiting time for Average grade of word participants’ responses tests Number of short messages received in research cycle one 13
  14. 14. Data Analysis in Research Cycle One 14
  15. 15. Data Analysis in Research Cycle One 15
  16. 16. Data Analysis in Research Cycle One 16
  17. 17. Data Analysis in Research Cycle One 17
  18. 18. Research Cycle Two 18
  19. 19. mLearning Flow in Research Cycle Two 19
  20. 20. mLearning Text Messages 20
  21. 21. Data Collection in Research Cycle Two 21
  22. 22. Research Findings in Research Cycle Two 22
  23. 23. Research Findings in Research Cycle Two Number of SMS received by the researcher in research cycle two Average grades of students’ word tests in research cycle two 23
  24. 24. Data Analysis in Research Cycle Two 24
  25. 25. Data Analysis in Research Cycle Two 25
  26. 26. Answers to the Research Questions Question one: to what extent does Question two: what are the underlying mobile technology enhance learning success factors or obstacles to activities and improve student integrating mobile technology into learning? learning activities? Answer: student learning was Answer: the more technologically enhanced by adding flexibility (Song, experienced the students were, the 2008), and providing a stronger more enthusiastic they became about motivation for learning. The results mLearning. Student-centred design suggest that mLearning did contribute played a critical role in the success of to improving learning. the second cycle. However, this required significant effort on the part of the lecturer/researcher as there was no “ready made” material available. 26
  27. 27. Further research: Research Cycle Three 27
  28. 28. Conclusion The findings of the two research cycles “Learning is good – it feels good. demonstrate that an SMS-based It is right, it is natural, vocabulary learning method was able It can be enjoyable, to enhance ESL students’ learning by adding flexibility and providing a And it is what we do here. stronger motivation for study. The It is a natural act – like eating, sleeping, or breathing.” results suggest that mLearning contributed to improved learning. --------Martin Haberman Experience with mobile technology (as cited in Arhar, Holly &Kasten, 2001, p. 11) promoted students’ enthusiasm for mLearning. Student-centred design played an important role in the success of the second research cycle. However, the lack of relevant and proper resources for mLearning highlighted a need for new and modified pedagogical materials. 28
  29. 29. Acknowledgements • AUT Language School, EAS teaching group and EAS students • AUTEC • eLRG 29
  30. 30. References Arhar, J. M., Holly, M. L., &Kasten, W. C. (2001). Action research for teachers : Traveling the yellow brick road. Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Merrill. Carter, P. (2007). Liberating usability testing. Interactions, 14(2), 18-22. Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. R. B. (2007). Research methods in education: Routledge. Coxhead, A. (2000). A new academic word list. TESOL Quarterly, 34(2), 213-238. Petrova, K. (2006). Mobile commerce applications and adoption. In M. Khosrow-Pour (Ed.),Encyclopedia of e-Commerce, e-Government and Mobile Commerce (pp. 771-776): Idea Group Reference. Petrova, K. (2007b). Mobile learning as a mobile business application. International Journal of Innovation and Learning (IJIL) 2007, 4(1), 1-13. Petrova, K. (2007c). Scenarios for SMS based mobile learning. In D. Taniar (Ed.),Encyclopaediaof Mobile Computing and Commerce (Vol. 1.1). New York, USA: Information Science Reference. Petrova, K. (2007a). Student revising for a test using SMS. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 6th Annual International Conference on Mobile Learning, Melbourne, Australia. 218-222. Petrova, K., & Li, C. (2009). Focus and setting in mobile learning research: A review of the literature. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 11th International Business Information Management Conference (IBIMA) on Innovation and Knowledge Management in Twin Track Economies, Cairo, Egypt. 1456-1463. Stroombergen, A. (2008). Export education worth supporting. Opinions on Education(123). Yasmeen, G., &Yasmeen, G. (2008). Action research: An approach for the teachers in higher education. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 7(4). 30
  31. 31. Thank You 31
  32. 32. Discussion 32

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