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  • 1. se + = tr !.y lhc Sutra, of l,orty-tw,o Secti orrs --.> ;H flim;fi rF, -t*tF=iDI"l 1iff ffi Translated into Chinese from Sanskrit by I KASYAPA MATANGA I and GOBHARANA tll,i,-i?+i: 4 ,tl ttrnp], I: l Translatecl into English from the Chinese VersionI by UPASAKA CHU CHAN TJOHN BLOFELDJ
  • 2. 3l 3l w+= + {s THE SUTRA OF FORTY.TWO SECTIONS SPOKEN BY THE BUDDHA Jointly translated in the Later Han Dynasty by &tF$Htrffi trrtffilEl;+ the monks Kasyapa Matanga and Gobharana from Central India. When the World-Honoured had become Enligh- : ft.4rdiEE "fFELEif{ tened, he reflected thus:-"To abandon desire and rest in perfect quiefude is the greatest of victories. Hf,?ftffiiiit EFAiir,r " ffJtiltii;€ K;r1-tffrB To remain in a state of complete abstraction is to" r ijdsjiii rll +.{i P-q ;n;i*+id lfiliiF44n1+f, A overcome the ways of all the evil ones." In the Royal Deer Park, he e>qpounded the Doctrine of theFn/"1;6R .lEFiIVfi Fti-ift;frFft- ;F{4:tlfi la Four Noble Truths, converting Kaundinya and four others, and thus manifesting the fmit of the44Y*h --FHl* ; h1:6i.;i; nf;ltgg41 Way. There were freqently monks who voiced their doulits and asked the Buddha to resolve them, so the World-flonoured taught and commanded them, until, one by one, they became Enlightened and, bringing their hands together in respectful agreernent, prepared to follow the sacred commands. 1. The Buddha said: "Those who, taking leave of ffi_H HX;HR their families and adopting the homeless life, know the nature of their minds and reach to what is Ill,-3 : fiffitjl.ixzi f,,;1L;32( ft+.lSFE fundamental, thus breaking away,(from the pheno- menal and attatning to) the unphenomenal, are AA lIDr) "56=Hfr.1^f itEftffii$,€
  • 3. gl + :- j+ .!..; 32 THE SUTRA OF 42 SECTIONS[qtriE41 fiFoIf;EiE. called Sramanas. They constantly observe the two hundred and fifty precepts, entering into and [lffii€-E fr?lf"ftftl?EBU#.fr (+6lf- abiding in per{ect quietude. By working their way through the four stages of progress, they becomefifio Arhans, who possess the powers of levitation and 4ffiFEfre I FqNeZi #f&ffifii+ -Lt^X transformation, as well as the ability to prolong their lives for many aeons and to reside or move r ffifirjffii{ o about anywhere in heaven or earth. Below them come the Anagamins who, at the end of a long JffiffiYc# : Wic€)6 --g.-ffi e[eFFI life, ascend in spirit to the nineteen heavens andfiEtri a become Arhats- Then come the Sakridagamins who must ascend one step and be reborn once 1ffit*Yfttr trHftetE# trvt,+- f€#[o] more before becoming Arhans. There are also the Srota-apanas who cannot become Arhans wft|lt6Eix. o they have passed through nine more rorurds of birth and death. One who has put a.n end to his F:dKwA finusw#if 6tE-ffi2J " longings and desires is like a man *ho, having no further use for his limbs (lit. havine cut off his limbs), never uses them again." ffi=H H[6tfiE-# 2. The Sramana who, fu2ying left home, puts : Etrt7iVfl# W"$,*4. #EL lfrE an end to his desires and drives arnay his lcrngings, knowing the source of his own mind, penetrates to the profound principles of Buddhahood. He awakasm ; i${#iRrtr IEISFE ; frtrErr++ NffiFfrla to the non-phanomenal, clinging to nothing within and seekins for nothing from without. His mind is not shackled with dogmas, nor is he enmeshed by6ffiiifi{trIf HHF AZR l-itrl J o katma. Pon,lering nothing and doing nothing, practising noltring and nranifssting nothing, without passirrg through all the successive stages, he (nevertheless) r-eaches the loftiest of all. This is what is nreant by "The Way."
  • 4. THE SUTRA OF 42 SECTIONS , Li +: + 3.E 3. The Buddha said: "He who has shorn his locks H=fr *{etA and beard to become a Sramana and has accepted lh? z f*twffiX,ffiFl4f1 P€E# the Doctrine of the Way, abandons everything of worldly value and is satisfied by the food he*EAM iaxwF-- E +*€ &lT-ffi tE obtains by begging, eating but once a day. If there o is a tree under which to rest, he desires nothingnH*.EAffiffi#€,WMfr! else. Longings and desires are what make men stupid and darken their minds. 4. Ihe Buddha said: "There are ten things by HWg- #HJTEE which beings do gocd and ten by which they do lfr-€ : tr*.HUtsF# rfv^t+F& " evil. What are they? Three are performed with the body, four with the mouth and three with the [fdj9#€+ ? H= tr E[ ,H2o H-=A z mind. The (evils) performed with the body are+t. K. Eo aV1r#: ffifi #n ffr;f *E killing, stealing and unchaste deeds; those with the mouth are duplicity, slandering, lying and idle" fr::,#-: ffi #ffi " talk; those with the mind are covetousness, Efrno.*4 6)lFg)ts &+Mfi " €L4# angler and foolishness. These ten are not in keeping with the holy Way and are called the ten evil practices. Putting a stop to all of them is called performing the ten virtuous practices." 5. The Buddha said: "If a man has all kinds of ffiE:H $s!E€# faults and does not regret them, in the space of a bfri* : fAE^*iE mT Hffi EHBSL" single heartbeat retribution will suddenly fall upon him and, as water returning to the sea, will gENfrLH {nzkFt?i6i MfiWH " #AA:E H Sradually become deeper and wider. (But), if a man has faults and, becoming aware of them,W*EF, fku4ft+a 5FHiHffi ; Isffi&ffWE changes for the better, retribution will melt away into nothingness of its own accord, as the danEerEffi4J O of a fever gradually abates once perspiration has set in. H^H rHF...[n 6. The Buddha said: "If an evil man, on
  • 5. us+-+!# THE SUTRA OF 42 SECTIONS ffiE : trsE,lEij+ , fi-tKtrEAL# " it H+,H. hearing of what is good, comes and creates a disturbance, you should hold your peace. You must Hffi$EH "tfr/KtH,.# ifri Hxl.:ZJ " not angrily upbraid him; then he w-ho has come to curse you will merely harm himself." H+H HiE59 7. The Buddha said: "lhere was one who heard that I uphold the Way and practise great lfrV , trAAEiJ€+iE tf<f#, filflffi benevolence and compassion. On this accunt, he 44. ftfi*t7F#i. ,ffifi " FdH : I*DJfF.{ftA + carne to scold me, but I remained silent and did not retort. When he had finished scolding me, I ,tTFfn rtHffi++J ? #ts : tffiA-l o said: Sir, if you treat another with courtesy and he does not accept it, does not the courtesy lfrE , f++,Hfr *+TNl +Hf.ffrE rebound to you? I{e replied that it does and I continued: Now you have just cursed me and I ffi+h*..Mw=-MH; HZWM *&ff4,# bE did not accept your curses, so the evii which you NRMJ O yourself did has now returrred and fallen upon you. For a sound accords with the noise that produced i, it and the reflection accords with the form. In the end there will be no escape, so take care lest you do what is evil." grrH EEHF I 8. The Buddha said: "An evil man may wish 1 to in"iure the Virtuous Ones and, raising his l#E, ftrAgH#, &iIP;Kffi@ @65 head, spit towards heaven, but the spittle, far from reaching heaven, will return and descend x #hegl iEl€EW." #EffiH E6EIE upon himself. An rnruly wind rnay raise the dust, . HTFEJFI ilEl.idEJ . but the dust does not go elsewhere; it remains to contaminate the wind. Virtue ca.nnot be destroyed, while evil inevitably destroys itself." ffi^H iE6€iE 9. The Buddha said: "Listen avidly to and lfrE z fffiH€itr rtrl#€ ; Tff#€ cherish the Way. The Way rvill certainly be hard to reach. Maintain your desire to accept it humbly, 4€#tJ o for the Way is mighty indeed."
  • 6. IfrE : H+fr gJ+=34t!-* [ftH.,,fEiE E}Effif;E WZWE {+mFEl<J r 135 THE SUTRA OF 42 SECTIONS 10. The Buddha said: "Observe those who bestow (knowledge of) the Way. To help them is a gfeat joy and many blessingS can thus beo obtained." A Sramana asked: "Is there any limit to such blessings?" The Iluddha replied: ,They. are l4FlF6Fl : rrlbmE#+J ? like the fire of a torch from which hrudreds and thousands of people light their owrr torches. The , lfrE EHfrn-tEZXW+6/.- &DJ|E (resulting) light eats up the darkness and thatNftW *€hF , tlfBfrsf*. ffiiis;a/--L " torch is the origin of it all. Such is the nature of those blessings." 11. The Buddha said: "To bestow food on a ffi+_H 15ffiffi hr:ndred bad men is not equal to bestowing food lfrE : I€FF. tr 6frnffi-.#A ; 111r o[re good one. Bestowing food on a thousand good men is not equal to bestowing food on one tr€X#,l+ ,6frnffit?frffi# ; who observes the five precepts. Bestowing food on ten thousand who observe the five precepts is not EEEfrffi#H ,6frNffi.1Afft8; equal to bestowing food on one Srota-apana. Bestowing food on a million Srota-apanas is not TffitrH,AFEIE T*Nffi"ffirEA I equal to bestowing food on one Sakrdagamin. f"fi +HtrWA ffiA I 4{r€E*FrJ Bestowing food on ten million Sakrdagamins is not equal to bestowing food on one Anagamin. r"fi*ffi FFINE, T{Nffi-FIffiH ; Bestowing food on a hundred miilion Anagamins is not equal to bestowing food on one Arhan. fiffifffi F IffiH 6frnflE-t#Xlfr ; Bestowing food on a thousand million Arhans is fditr {ff,F+fcilfr 4rts"FF-.=1t:-.8ffi ; not equal to bestowing food on one pratyeha Buddha. Bestowing food on ten thousand million trffi+ffi = ff#ifr , 6lnffi-ffift f*ff- Pratyeka Buddhas is not equal to bestowing food on one of the Buddhas of the Triple World.ffiWffi#,ZXJ o lestowinS food or1 a hwrdred thousand million Buddhas of the Triple World is bestowing food on one who ponders not equal to nothing, does
  • 7. lr nry"l "l I q -l =F.r.* 36 THE SUTRA OF 42 SECTIONS nothing, practices nothing and manifests nothing." H+=H S#UIE 12. The Buddha said: "There are twenty things which are hard for-human beings:- lffiE, [Atf:f#: "It is hard to practise charity when one is poor raffifrffinw "It is hard to study the Way when occtrpying a position of great authority. lXHFitrW "It is hard to surrender life at the approach of inevitable death. f#dntztLffi "It is hard to get an opportunity of reading r++btllfr#*ffi the sutlas. "It is hard to be tnrn directly into Bnddhist l-4.,f6,t#E# zurror:rrdings. "It is hardto bear lust and desire (without f K,&,K:&W, yielding to thenr ). "It is hard to see something attractive without [_E f]6*# desiring it. [&tr^[F.# "It is hard to bear insult without making an angry reply. rHryTWiW "It is hard to have power and not to pay regard to it. [fi6+.H,1.# "It is hard to come into contact with things and yet remain unaffected by them. t-H41ffi4*F "It is hard to study widely and investigate everything thoroughly. Thid{tH*F "[t is hard to overcome selfishness and sloth. t-6ffi-^F# "It is hard to avoid making light of not having studied (the Way) enough. T,i.fTF€# "It is hard to keep the mind evenly balanced. [T;ft€tfi# - "It is hard to refrain from defining things as beurg something or not being something.
  • 8. j { w+ 37 THE SUTRA OF 42 SECTIONS =+ lg t-€#fiffi# "It is hard to come into contact with clear perception (of the Way). [Ji.H+)E# "It is hard to perceive ones own nature and ( through such perception) to study the Way. l-ffi,fLE/# "It is hard to help others towards Enlightment according to their various needs. lfAfrTww "It is hard to see the end (of the Way) r#wfitew_l l o without being rnoved. "It is hard to discard successfully (the shackles that bind us to the wheel of life and death) as opportunities present themselves." H+=fr t"liH€ft 13. A Sramana asked the Buddha: .,By what method can we attain the knowledge of how to itflf6f# : fDjfip]trffi 4Etrrilffift g$f! put a stop to life (in the phenomenal sphere) and come in contacl uith the Way?" The Buddha €J? answered: "Ry purifying the mind and preserving the will (to struggle onwards) you can come in 4fr8 tris,1.+ff of€E€ " Ef,nBffi" contact with the Way just as, when a mirror is ffi*EEE ffiffiffi-r&H4+ffiftJ " wiped, the dust falls off and the brightness remains. By eliminating desires and seeking for nothing (else), you should be able to put a stop to life (in the phenomenal sphere)." ffi+w* #f"1#t 14. A Sramana asked the Buddha: .,What is gmdness and what is greatness?" The Buddha /4FlFnffi , [l{#€#?f-dARltJ 7 replied: "fo follow the Way and hold to what is true is good. When the will is in conformity with lNF : ffi)E+trX#d4$e**l o the Way, that is greatness." 15. A Sramana asked the Buddha: .,What is H+frfr ffif"l7]qE 9reat power and what is the acme of brilliance?" The Buddha answererd: .To be able to bear insult ttFlffif# , VFI*?rt7 FIXffiEE ? J (without retort) implies great power. He that
  • 9. u:J+="+lL 38 THE SUTRA OF 42 SECTIONS 1fr8 : 6t*,tqff #rtnftW f KE=&fi does not cherish cause fo:: resentment, but rem:rins calm and firn-r equally (wider all circumstances),#.#ff,ffi Nffi/t€. o,t),!iiA# FFffi]H.ffi E and who bears all things without indulging in abuse will certainly be honoured by men. The€FHE .^E-Xffi iJ:A+ a -Yfi YrH MH " acme of brilliance is reached uhen the mind isTn, ftATfn , *sA6[j]J +tl-uB trI;fitE ulterly purged of impurities and nolhing false or foul remains ( to besmirch ) its purity. When theref.o/ ll .l is nothing, fronr before the fornration of he:rvt n and earth rurtil now or in any of the ten quarters of the universe rnhich you have not seen, heard and understood; when you have attained to :t - lsrowledge of everything, that rrray be called brilliance." H+^H tggf+iH 16. Men who cherish longings and desires :r1-e those who have not perceir.ed the ray. Just :rs, ffr-,; , [/Hr€?r( -6]LtHh o {;fis:1$7f t if clear water be si:irred up with the hand, none of those looking into it will perceive their reflections,*+tr12 *.,Jtl4[ .4SEfJl+fiE " /..UfrM so men in whose rninds filth has been stirred r.r1r by longings and desires rvill not perceive the Way.Fffi ,,1ryl6Fl *t6ti,iE " tk+Wf1 H#X- Yor: Sramanas must abandon lorlgings zrnd desires.tfr." fet{xfl# :Enl-ERJ o When the filth of longings and desires has been entirely cleared away, then only will yt_ru be able to perceive the Way." H+r;H EE*FF-# 17. The Buddha said: "With th6ss v,,h6 h;1vs perceived the Wa1, it is thus. Jusl as, when one ffi;i , [Xtr)18# €${n*];ftl F€rF enters a dark house r,rith ;r torch, the darknqss is dissipated and only light remains, so, by studying4trEFid[ TnnAffiE. FiH.E;-* ftFXg[d m the Way and pe:cciving the truth, ignorar^ce is dissipated and insight remarns for ever."HE#t4?t.l o 18. The Buddha saicl: "[,I]. Jo.,rtn" inrplies EH*^H E4F#E thinking of that r,vhich is beyond thought, per{orming
  • 10. -frimTlI ( un+:-+!* THE SUTRA OF 42 SECTIONS lfrE : [gEfiffiAfi ftMftft E.S:; that which is beyond per{ormance, speaking of that which is beyond words and practising that a, i^Mwlb@#)nffi ts*i#+ !ff*iEHi which is beyond practice. lhose rvho can corne up , )FthFIr{nJ ; *24ffi. *ZJHH.J " to this, progress, uhile the stupid regress. fhe way which can be e4prissed in words stops short; there is nothing nhich can be grasped. If yeu are wrong by so much as the thousandth part of a hair, you will lose (the Way) in a flash." ffi+h# ,IFFftM 19. The Buddha said: "Regard heaven and earth and consider theil impermanence. Regard lfr=; : r&xfi[, atFH &BrF erFfil the world and consider its impermanence. Regard spiritual awakening as Bodhi. This sort of knowl- ffiffi€ EllgfE ; *nft*n#, a+iEE*i . edge leads to speedy Enlightenment." H=+H tfi**E 20. The Buddha said: "You shonld ponder- on the fact that, though each of the four elements o.l lfrE z fHAq+ Et &HH& tillstt which the body is made up has a name, they none of them (constitute any part of) the real self. In **ffit[.ffi4fnr.l4.J o fact, the self is non-existent, like a mirage." iH=+-H €#*6 21. The Buddha said: "There are people who, following the dictates of their feelings and desires, IfrE z F,ffi{Hffi -*tA#€ -&f,*&# seek to make a narne for themselves, but, by the hefi ! A1UffiA -rrf7F+its ffirIWila, ! # time that name r{:sounds, they are already dead. Those who hunger for a name that shall long be remembered in the worid and rvho do not study nnffi6 EEAEflA 62rhi*.fr,qzx, ffilr the Way strive vainly ancl strr.rggle for empty H&,J O forms. Just as burning incense, though others perceive its pleasant smell, is itself being burnt llP, so (desires) bring the danger of fire which can trurn up your bodies in .their train. 22. The Buddha said: "Wealth and beauty, to iF--+=E ffe#?t a man who will not relinquish them, are like a
  • 11. THE SUTRA OF 42 SECIIONS10 E9+--"gj{E 10 IffiE : trFf . &r{L /.ZFW ,EAn-llIJ knife covered rvith honey which, even before he has had the pleasure of eating the honey, cuts theH*; ,6tr..6.2:{ r zJrf,frr-(Z , HHttJfrZi&r. tongue of th.e child that licks it."jo 23. 1he Buddha said: "People who are tied to their wives, children and hornes are worse off than H=+=H t+Eri, prisoners. A prisoner will be released sooner or IfrE : f^#t{*+ # 1 E}rr+I* later, but wives and children have no thought of betaking themselves o1f. Why {ear io rid yourselves immediately of the longing ior physical beauty? +tr*Hffit+ZW ++JffiiAWf,Z# ;{fi€rt tr (Otheruise), )"ou are tanreiy submitLing to the , H,H,$8,6t 7 frFfift,aZ,E, ,1.6-H,ft WWfr jaws of a tiger and cieliberately allorving yourselves to drown in the quicksand into -,vhich you haveiM, tfrHr|.;XE4SrtbFi , HF-hEi€J o fallen, thus meriting the nanie <tf simple fellows. If you can reach the point ( of abancioning such H-+EH EffiFFiH things), you will rise frorn the dust and become Arhans." lffiE , [€h]t]E$.rtt tuZF}r(. Jtlt.!F 24. The Buddha said: "Or. all longings andN. XAE-+ I;!F=[F] , EXZ.lr jsifiEFiE desires, there is none stronger than sex. Sex as a desire has no eclu:il. ltely on the luriversal)#*.J o Oneness. No one under heaven is able to becone a H=+EH &.^Eh follower of the Way if he accepts dualism. 25. The Buddha said: ,Those who (permit lffiE , tr&tKZ^ , Ttin#;ln SlntlfiifJ themselves) longings and desires are like a nlan ,xHffi+Z,E,J o who walks in the teeth of the wind carrying a torch. Inevitably, his hands will be burnt. H=+tiH 7.F:ffilfr, - 26. to gods bestowed the jade girl upon me, The hoeing shake rny determination. I said: ,O skin xrl4tffiaitrf# ffi&i#-,*t. i#-;J , oag, full of every kind of filthl For what have you fHF:*#/ ! ffi4{mF?* !*6Iljj " come here? Go! I do not need you., Then payed me profound reverence the gods xilsfr& E HliE;r:r " lfrffif/+itt. El11:lrllYfc and, as they asked me to e>pound the Way, I enlightened them and lc.R "
  • 12. 11 :,1 + :- "+ !.i 4l ffi=++H trF?+iH , [Jif3r{-H , ttt4/r;k, $ifr:fiifi lll=;4 f!6ffiir: 6f;$/rF, 6€-fi|li$ fnltr^ 6ffi mffi the gods, hindered by floating scurn, nor rots uponF)i{|" fi6)ffifl Ellftttbzk iftft ?ff the way. I am prepared to undertake that such a piece of wood w-ill certainly reach the sea. If those who study the Way are not misled by their feelings and desires, nol disturbed by any scrt of depravity, {*g{EISf$ Fi*tib,l Z11}it54ll and,, if they earnestly advance towards the un- phenomenal, I anr prepared to undertake that they will certainly atl"ain to the Way." H=+AH tr,SFtrft 28. The Buddha said: "Be careful not to depend on your own intelligence-it is not to be $Vi , fi1nnErtrfi: i/r,Jt4 pjf,i ; [|F;a,rt trusted. Iake care not to come in contact with physical attractions-such contacts result in calami-$r_r @rgr, t1 f.I ! ljrlJ tl ; 1li i! ii li{: i+. rj, ) I } I F;1 i k7e. ties. Only when yon have reached the stage ofJ ll o Arhan can you depend on your own intelligence." 29. The lluddha said: "Take care to avoid looking on the beauLy of women and do not ffi=+^H rEHHfe converse with thern. If you do (have occasion to) lfrE , Flfthtfrkg,, TJFti*F;f " -tiwlf,t converse with them, control the thoughts which run through your minds. When I was a Sramana{ ffirE,1,.,fff, : trtFi|fl ,lH]rifrttt HfnS* and came in contact rvith the impure world, I was like the lotus rvhich remains unsullied by the mud , Zi€i,ER. fflX{#{nf* !<#AEWr , ,J,-*hn (from which it grows). Think of old w-omen as offf, ttr#fu+ ; +EW,L. ,H.iffiXhft:l o your nothers, of those older than yourselves as of yoru elder sisters, of those younger than yoursel- ves as of your younger sisters, and of very young ones as your daughters. Dwell on thoughts of
  • 13. ,W"lI f 12 u:r+=-{!#. 42 THE SUTRA OF 42 SECTIONS 12 Enlightenment and banish all evil ones." ffi=+H aTAiEEF 30. The Buddha said: "Those who follou. the Way are like straw which must be preserved from lfrE , trti1$i6A frnffi#H Xry.lrAW fire. A follower of the Way lvho experiences desire must put a distance between hinrself and (the iiJAtr.d( il,"#iLZ.J " object of his) desire." ffi=+-# ,LF6fF* 31. The Buddha said: "There was one who indulged his sexual passions unceasingly but who 4fr8 , s]: diHffiH lfraHZ [E^,l,8ffi,.6 wished, of his own accord, to put an end to his evil actions. I said to him: To put a slop to these Pf : t-#ffi4$ 6frnWL ! Lf[Ag thE# evil actions w-ill not be so good as to put a stop to JL , lfr#hlr,E ; 4[,L.6rh ffiliK;.:fFlftj 7 (the root of the evil) in your mind. The mind is like I(ung Tsao. If Kungfsao desists, his followers [frtr-rk4B will stop also. If rnental depraviLies continue, whaL [ffiAtltff is the use of putting an end to evil actions? I then repeated this verse for him: IJe-sire springs from HDJ,E.I&4. ; your thoughts. lho.rghl springs from discernment 1,L,6J,{.rffi ( of matter). Vhen the two minds are both stilled, there is neither forin nor action., I added )F&7)rllti " J that this verse rtuas first spoken by Kasyapa Iffi€ trrltfEEt!*try#J o Buddha." 32. The Buddha said: "The sorrows of men ffi=+=H #Etft;fi come from their longings and desires. Fear comes ffiE , lul lit4::ffHE 1E*"4:W HBtrt from these sorrows. If freedom from desire is attained, what (cause for) grief and fear rnill *, FI6 ? ,fn],iiri ? Jl remain? 33. The Buddha said: ,Those rvho follow the ffi=+=H AEEffiE Way are like one who has to fight ten thousand and who, putting on his armour, steps out affiE, f*triE#i P;4n-A94SAHI ; & gate. His thoughts may be timorous of the and his resolution weak, or he may (even) get sfiHFl , H&I*tq 4+E6lfriiB El+6HlffirL half-way
  • 14. 13 w+:+-3.s 43 43 THE SUTRA OF 42 SECTIONS 4a5ffiEfffi ; DP5gitr, JHHE&fSS,I. lffi#tr to the battle-ground and then turn round and flee. join battle and be slain. On the .f*gairir., he may ffiTEBfr#. (fuiffifH m4+ERJ " other hand, he may gain the victory and return. "I}1re Sramana who studies the Way must have a resolute mind and zealously build up his courage, fearing nothing that lies before him and destroying all the demons (of temptation that stand in his say), that he may obtain the fruit (of diligently studying) the Way." SH=+EH E+{+iH 34. One night, a Sram.anu was intoning "The Sutra of the Teachings Bequeathed by Kasyapa il i4f l&;fi )e*f#€&ffi , S,L7"F*,,EHd( Buddha." The sound of his voice was mournful, I iB. dtF62s : Ftktralr& g€fd*J ? for he thought repentantly of his back-slidings, born of desire. The Buddha asked him: "What did SIE : F€LH+J o you do before you became a monk?" "I used to lfrE z like playing the lute," he replied. "What happened,"I Ffrffi{nfd?J said the Buddha, "whetrr you loosened the strings?" SIH : [T184J o "They made no sound." "And when you pulled them taut?" "The sounds were brief." ,And how trftf;r4rtFlJ ? was it when they were neither taut nor loose?" stE : [HfrEieJ o "Then all the sorurds were normal" replied the Sramana. To this the Buddha said: ..It is the r##4+tr4nfdJ ? same with a Sramana studying the Way. If his $1H : trF&E*4J . mind is properly adjusted, he can attain to it, but if he forces himself tow.ards it, his mind will : I lfrE tr/4Fl4iEls*,,1.#=EEi6 itrEj4i become weary and, on account of the weariness of his mind, his thoughts will become irritable. With 4 ; ft:tr+?+ *glJBIE , XH#trHEI"J&lili I such irritable thoughts, his actions will retrogress and, with such retrogression, evil will enter his , HH&IH flEIJE* , FflrE[lE #Xrtn* mind. But if he studies quietly and happily, he uill 48ffiS3*ff6ft,tJ . not lose the Way."
  • 15. t4 ulJ + 1+ ls 44 THE SUTRA OF 42 SECTIONS 1.1 35. The Buddha said: "If a man smelts iron ffi=+frH ffi.$HAE trntil all impurities have been eliminated (before ;tfr-- , [fiAfft$ff *itP-FL*F; **gFffifl ; proceeding to) make implements with it, the isrplements will be of fine quality. If one whosiEZ.A , *L,fiik f:Eltir5-ir+4J o studies the Way first purges his heart of all foul influences, his actions will then become pure." 36. The Buddha said: "It is hard for one to H=+^H E$Sl€ffi leave the grosser forms of incarnation and be born /tfr; : [,tEfi:F,qrE4$f$AfE ; a human being. "It is hard for such a one to escape being a ren4+ffi^.,*kltHHE ; woman and be born a man. "It is hard for such a one to be born with all rw4.+Rry, xfRfitfE ; his organs in perfect condition. trxfFerF H+F!*F; "It is hard for such a one to be born in Chima. trCt4.+tr fdiffit!:FE ; "It is hard for such a one to be born directly into Buddhist surrorurdings. |,WIBffiffi :EiE#*F; "It is bard for such a one to come in contact with the Way. fffi4+s)tr, ${ffi,11.ff ; "It is hard for such a one to cultivate faith in his mind. trgjfqF1. &#f,?L*F ; "It is hard for such a one to attain to the vefr##&.L" Ml4ffiffifFi o Bodhiheart. "It is hard for such a one to attain to (the state where) nothing is practised and nofhing manifested." 37. The Buddha said: "A disciple living thou- ffi=++H e*iEiH sands of miles away from me will, if he constantiy lnerishes and ponders on my precepts, attain the lfrE ff#+BSE -W+ s-IHABIt "Y-.+ !ruit (of studying) the Way: but one who is in tmmediate contact with me, though he sees me HR. EA++i &EffiJilE T)lffig:fi WT4i
  • 16. 15 te + :- j4 !:i THE SUTRA OF 42 SECTIONS iEJ o constantly, will ultimately fail to do so if he does not follow my precepts." H=*rH *,:elH;fi. 38. The Buddha said to a Sramana: ,,How ?#ts: [Sn lmg is the span of a mans life?" .,It is but a few Iffif,tDn: fAfi&#FfiJ days," was the answer. The Buddha said: .,you Hi "I#V: [T-.&*r6"J,rY6"WP1 z tr/ have not understood," and asked another Sramana, who replied: "It is (like) the time taken to eat (a ftr#fdJ ?ffs: I€E€FfiJ "lfrE: [?* silgle meal.") To this the Buddha replied in the same way and asked a third: "How long is the *sitrj "&Y6*tbYl : fAfttr#ffiJ ? #in span of a mans life?" "It is (like) the time taken fFfryffii " IffiE : fi+sft ! +*riE e ! J by a (single) breath," was the reply. ..Excellent," said the Buddha, "You understand the Way., ffi=+JLH #iFtrE 39. The Buddha said: "Those who study the Way of the Buddha should believe and follow all llFE , [€i#iE# lfrDiA:# ffffiE]lF " that is said by the Buddha. Just as, when you eat honey (you find that), every drop of it is sweet, #;frnft:ti., 4ts8il11 E#g4imi so is it with my words." HE+H i-tlE#L 40. The Buddha said: .A Sramana studying the Way should not be as an ox turning the mill-l lfrE z fii4tlfr:tr,WhnWF, h&Ett€, stone which, though it performs the necessary actions with its bo{V, does not concentrate on ,LrE64r ; ,Lil#tl, 4F]fllflttsJ ! them with its mind. it tiru Way is followed in theI mind, of what use are actions?"I HW+_H E,L.H6i 41. The Buddha said: ..Those who follow the Way are like an ox bearing a heavy load and lfr:i , f*f3i6# frntRF- "=ffWW+ walking throWh deep mud. It feels so weary thatI it does not dare to look to left or right and, only ,Etffi7fffiFr-frfftRffi; HElElBitr ZFJffi,H " Wf1 @ emergiqg from the mud, can it revive itself by resting. A Sramana should regard Hffi,,[r:ff(, ElABitr , E,D,ft€ EJft-E*J " feelings and desires more seriously than (th; ;; regaras) the mud. Only by controlling his mind and thinking of
  • 17. 16 r.] +: +- .{g 46 THE SUTRA OF 42 SECTIONS 16 the Way can he avoid sorrow." ffiw+=# iESfin 42. The Buddha said: "I look upon the state of kings and princes as upon the dust which blows affiE [EfflIEZ4i 4niEKE ; frE+T through a crack. I look upon ornaments of gold arrd jewels as upon rubble. I look upon garments 2H. frn E-W ; ttfuftil#ZE&. lnfiit ffi ; frEltfJF of the finest silk as upon worn-out rags. I look ; frn,F4ffii&t!, fin4.LiH ; frEtr{-€Fl upon a major chiliocosm as upon a small nut. I ln*;-"{f look upon the Anavatapta as upon oil for smearing frni1R*; frEffi_t.* frn*#ffi ; frEd$H {n the feet. (On the other hand), I look upon expedient methods (leading to the truth) as upon spending ERBII+ ; ilEilHt rtnlaffifi; frF,7tr# *n89ffi heaps of jewels. I look upon the supreme vehicle as upon a dream of abrurdant lvealth. I look upon the Buddhas Way as rlpon all the splendours 4L {Hnffifi o which confront the eye. I look upon dhyana meditation as upon the pillar of Mount Sumeru. I look upon Niruana as upon waking at daybreak from a nights sleep. I look upon heresy erected as I upon six dragons dancing. I look upon the universal, impartial attitude (of a Buddha) as upon theI Absolute Reality. I look upon conversion (to the IVay) as upon the changes undergone by a tree (due to the action of the) four seasons.