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The sutra of buddha's bequeathed teaching
The sutra of buddha's bequeathed teaching
The sutra of buddha's bequeathed teaching
The sutra of buddha's bequeathed teaching
The sutra of buddha's bequeathed teaching
The sutra of buddha's bequeathed teaching
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The sutra of buddha's bequeathed teaching


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佛門 遺教經

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  1. 1. -.-s-fr .s re *s The Sutra of Buddhas Bequeathed Teaching +fl<--_- H ff aE.t : #b *=lift E HFr€rSffi ff Translated into Chinese from Sanskrit by KUMARAJIVA FH +;#4it#fs : J#lr+*ts_L Translated into English from Chinese Version with Annotations by PROF. CHOU HSIANG.KUANG, PH. D.ilit t. b
  2. 2. 1fr € {x !e. X" ii THE SUTRA OF BUDDHAS it BEQUEATHED TEACHING Translated by ljh*=ffii*tffitiBEffi{+F+ The Tribitaha Dharma-Teacher, Kumaraiiaa, in the reign of the Emperor Yao of the latter Chin Dynasty. -.ffi E (1) TNTRODUCTION TO THE SUTRA )lu4 lCidF ?n{,..4i*fft , Itilt/;l{ilffi.frn " F&1*. Sakyamuni Buddha, when he first set in motion the wheel of Dharma, saved Ajnata--illE )trlffrrtfui." ifrWJIt$ WE.lL;ie " ,+ Kaundinya, and in his last sermon he saved Subhadra. Those who were to be saved he has#E€ti:ltH ig" i!14t " ,Bi+rlrE , tif JSf+ € saved, and now he lay among the twin Sal-trees,i|th+t&ittl*4 " under which Buddha was aboutto enter Nirva- na. The time was the middle of the night, calm and noiseless. For the sake of all the disciples he briefly spoke of the most important Dharma doctrines. Eiffi : 4iJ r,!ryf,EiJ-ijiriilr , ,!4hz*dlhh=+- , (Atr Notes: Kumarajiva came to China in the 3rduqc*u+) , $LJ,$,jiu! , dl#bq€frEFaffi,;+{#{s, dL year of Hung-shihs reign of the Latter Chin dynasty (401 A.D.) and died at Chang-an in the 15th year of Hung-shihs reign of the same#ri*gilXe f lzql&f#t*/-, I*,€ffii9ji4l U->Z+i,tlX1r,;n) o #,2ffifttr{ ( l:ljf€) A A+ " ftiifli2i44&H# ;l dynasty (413 A.D.). He was commanded by the Tartar Chief to translate sacred Buddhist texts obtained from India. He was one of the greatest
  3. 3. THE SUTRA OF BEOUEATHED TEACHING 2 fi, lL 4,- .ti rfi) of the Indian Buddhist missionaries to come to t-F!;ifr: ltrrEilEHgiff fi F:,{=;ft ( Hpt#i,;;fr China. His father seems to have been an Indian j, i t* 2 ftWh: )fi /< i;t 4H it and his mother a princess of Kiue-tse State of# 2 ifr iir. , il Hfl ;{"li HS,1: "Jb China. His philosophy was based on the Threef;,nal2EiPaill-$ , 1rIiL4ilE ftffiJtriind# " II1ilt;:#frftti Sastras (Pranyamulasastratika, Dvadasanikaya Ni t and Sata Sastra) and he also paid respect to6[:itffi+ *Aff:3.9l2&.1tti4titff- mtLtt{1:lrt Nagarjunas teachings. He denied the noumenalD./ A $. $- IE{lti;# -trIfsffi [ F#rirFiifr J " worlC, the reality of all phenomenal existence, and defined noumenal world in negative terms. Its aim does not seem to have been nihilistic; it was rather to establish the ultimate reality which is beyond human conception and expression and which in our terminology may be termed spiritual reality. ri$tF!ti ;z Sakyamuni Buddha was called the Buddha ffiIE+trZ$-"gffiIfr .E Ei+ffi X€f-f because he was the Enlightened one ("i3uddha"), the new leader of the greatest office in the spiritual hierarchy of mankind. The date of his z ;€;a# :ffi il€ 4: ll,rt i.IT.fi"+ ( fil 7c rl -t; O trl + ) Zq birth is still controversial, but according to the Records of Buddhism and Taoism of the Book FZ-9 , EW, Bf1+.iA-ff ).4[t)t:jI!t":i "f4"[?f of the Wei Dynasty he was born one night in =+ifrfi+ifftrBIEfTfr{ll"HlfuW1l!;Entrfirdi;r+: the month of April in the ninth year of Chuang Wangs reign of the Chou dynasty (704 B.C.); on (yL{ff6{t#ig4i-t) ll-- F4t+giLN&- 41Afi5;;t| " that very night, stars had disappeared but the sky was still looking bright. At the age of 30, he realized full enlightenment, and so he became Buddha. From that time until his death or Parinirvana, at the age of 80, he preached his teaching that was appropriate. Sakya is the family name of Buddha, said to ffi l-{sillj # C[;iirh:ffiils]iffiH 2+# {tr+-# be derived from Saka, meaning venerable but
  4. 4. 3 ffiit#*s 3 3 THE SUTRA OF BEQUEATHED TEACHING 3#zffi lffitrJ , +tr#A l-ffiffiJ , [{ffiJ * ## interpreted in Chinese it is explained as powerful, also charitable; while Muni is interpreted as onef6 f E* J -&. f H,* ) 2-B. " who dwells in seclusion. The rvord"Buddha"-by the uay-is a title and means the "Knoner" or the fully "Enlightened One." ffii84tr{#+tr+ffi: .-Eln4-HreH iEl There are ten titles of a Buddha: Tathagata (he who comes as do all other Buddhas) i ArhatiEfFfn V4hw41tr fi E#ff xEfrHfi+ -kEffi (uorthy of worship)i Samyak-Sambuddha (the universal knowledge of a Buddha) ; Vidyacharana--bt. tFHdEfit*n HX tm )Ln{ffi +EtEg Sampana (Knowledge-conduct-perfect)i Sugata (well departed); Lokavid (knower of the world; Anuttara (the peerless nobleman) I Sasta Deva- Ivlanusyanam (teacher of devas and men); Buddha; and Buddha-Lokanatha ( the World-honoured One). ffiztu*#ffi{#* (+EzEw) " {#[et$ie#F Buddha called the whole system of his teachings as Dharma, the Law of the Universe. On his death-ffi : fAFfffiE, Hfr,^fifr.&. E[&S€Ff,t " J EtifrE bed Buddha said: "The teachings I have given you EHffiffiE$fi . llffi4fr4r Et : trl*{ff46.ffif9-,H:# : *6 will be your teacher when I am gone." Preaching his Dharme is called setting in motion the W#ffi+&Wf;**, :€ffi*U Eq?rffi+gBrfilr^-l o wheel of Dharma. The Assistance in carrying out Chih Kuan or Cessation and contemplation states that the word "wheel" implies two meanings: (1) it is able to crush all evil and opposition and (2) it is able to turn or roll along the Dharma-wheel, i.e., to preach Buddhas teachings. FH{ffircnfHfrE# ; etfry{-+f<T , €Juitffa , € Ff What we call the Eight Aspects of the Buddhas lifethe Sraddhotpada Sutra gives us: tilE , @sfrr* @p4lB 83fr8 ftd+*E+fi ellig# (1) descend into and abode in the Tusita heaven; (2) entry into his mothers womb; (3) abode
  5. 5. -t- (fi & {r- !* 4 THE SUTRA OF BEQUEATHED TEACHING 4 there, while visibly preaching to the devas; (4) birth from mothers side in Lumbini, (5) leaving home at 25 as a hermit; (6) after six years suffering attaining enlightenment; (7) rolling the Dharma-Wheel; and (8) at 80 entering Nirvana. t4j,6" , ElJr_Ii4rr*i&4 tu.iljU " The word, "saye" means to cross over the Samsara or Ocean of NIortality by a ferry-boat, i.e., the Buddha Dharma- Eful ttfifrYE ffi-*r,nffifr i# Iinj#ffilF4n#€ l- Ajnata-Kaundinya, one of the first five disciplesilz- &."tWfr{-[#2EW* " rF&fU,W (;Fn*H) of Buddha, was said to be the first to realize the Buddhatruth. Subhadra, the last convert of the, ffiffifft,&.:.t{WlkzAi: ! ffic-E.-*+"bri , L51Hr*ffi Buddha, was a Brahmin 120 years old; later on he heard the Eightfold Noble Path, and becamePllr"il:, nqfi{4ffinjEE& , i8fu.W&" Arhat. ig# Etjffi H2 ff: " ffi ilx:trtN€ +tttu iEtr D){E Jfr Nirvana, means blown out, or extinguished. With Buddhists and Jains absolute extinction of*,5HH!. i€#fg= : trt€#€64. A*fifEft. ltil,E individual existence is the goal. The NirvanaZ1HJ " FlFlefrgffi: [-{ffi[eE#B, {61TZ.tBf, ,iil.z Sutra claims for Nirvana the ancient ideas of permanence, bliss, personality and purity in theiif.rftH & trhnE eBff*J o transcendental realm. The Dirghagama states that when the Lord Buddha was about to enter Nirvana, all trees blossomed and looked fully white, just as white cranes gathered there. i1#hst*.ftn : [-5]t+rl , iHFE],,FZrt4iH ,ffif,* The second part of the Nirvana Sutra states that the Buddha entered the fourth Dhyana heavenff;4"1 o of form in the middle of the night, calm and noiseless. )fgj/1X#t1 : filtFl#,ffiffiis , {tS$ffi : Effilfi$ . The Genealogical Table of Sakyamuni states: "fijnata-Kaundinya, O brother, ye ought to see the4 if . Z# . ri.{# . FL# , E.EUEft# . *44+* /,9{B five Skandhas: the suffering of birth, the suffering of decay, the suffering of illness, the suffering of death,€# ft#** " ffilHin , -+JJft&.,*;fuErY.j*ff1 the suffering of separation from objects we love,, -ft. . - ,8 . -=-8.. 89.8. , &$&tr , EEtr# " Ffi the suffering of not obtaining what we desire, the
  6. 6. t*, & tk lv THE SUTRA OE BEQUEATHED TEACHING 5,ti|;+E , l f &.: €7ts " #trx+.tu I e) Fek E€ suffering of being in the company of our enemies, and the suffering of losing happiness and glories.,nr*,Lt , il . ili:r , fR, f*, f e,) ffir/+:., tfiiffioir?i-t$ " Ye Ajnata-Kaundinya, all the living sentient beings, whether they have forms or not, whetherf?inlffi4{i,fi fr fri"ffiE1# *E-D,?FfttE=41 #tfr# they have one leg, two legs, three legs, four legs or /*-A. ilri..&? -#t+t&L,i)kw " aFl1.AiEE #-F even many legs, they are bound to have these^H, , sufferings with them. All the sufferings are basedii5irdi hu;irF"EXi:/,-.j6ir4i4n , rk),t64n#fE ,WrtE EilF on egaentity. If any living sentient being who ttzFffiiiE# "ffilR4s , &,e,*n# , JwlR has the least idea of ego-entity, has further toffil+J,miE face such sufferings. The desire, hate and stupidity , jffi)xri. ij{;lji€ , {t41ltrit$4fr,H=ffi=#rE. EltlL& are being produced from the root of ego-entity . i,ljij,Fi . -#i,rl il48 " #tF*nV1+;fi-X 8"liil:1rn 14- and they are the causes of all sufferings. It is just like when you sow a seed in the field and it4<4]"fr4.8k " Vwffi-& 8tr118 , rststr# , !*.€F.tr will sprout later on. The living sentient beings, therefore, are under the fate of transmigration in . irfrE-Lirirrt , EjiEE {Flfiin Ik#*nE 7 J the three states of mortal existence, i.e., the realms of desire, of form and beyond form. If you can extinguish the idea of ego-entity and the desire, hate and stupidity, then all the sufferings would break off. Due to realization of the Eight-fold Noble Path, the sufferings were cut off, just like a man who brought water to pour on fire. Ye Ajnata-Kaundinya, you ought to know the root of sufferings, must cut off the causes of all sufferings, should realize the way out of sufferings, and cultivate Dharma in order to attain Nirvana. Ye Ajnata-Kaundinya, I (Buddha) have come to know the root of sufferingls, have broken off the causes of sufferings, realized the way out of sufferings, and cultivated the Dharma in order to attain Nirvana. I, therefore, attained
  7. 7. (ff, & {t !* THE SUTRA OF BEQUEATHED TEACHING 6 the Anuttara Samyat Sambodhi-Consummation of Incomparable Enlightenment. O Brother! Now ye ought to know the root of sufferings, the causes of sufferings, the way out of sufferings, and cultivation of Dharma. If the man who does not know these Four Noble Truths, we then will come to understand that the man will never attain salvation. The Four Noble Truths are the true facts, the suffering is true suffering, its cause is true cause, its ending is true ending, the way thereto is true way. Ye Ajnata-Kaundinya, do you understand it?" ffilHinF : trtf 4i , &,efiitfr+, A 8,fflE , trl(&frq Ajnata - Kaundinya said: " World- honoured One, I understand it, I know it now." As he realized these Four Noble Truths, he is called Ajnata-Kaundinya. = l+fi -s+A€ . H |I.Eir.f| (2) TO KEEP TIIE COMMANDMENTS [li+]h.E : b&ffi&. H&Eb&WfiEfE Ye Bhikshus! After my annihilation you must revere, value and respect, the Pratimoksa.*9- , {nH$B , A/4+H.; H*rrtbFljtrit+t They are like finding a light in the darkness, like a poor man securing the precious treasure.Efr E*.I+E isEfb&,. f+isfr# T.;BIIFH. You ought to know, therefore, they are indeed your Guru, there shall be no difierence in theseH.D fiEm€ -##/.RWfr4E+." *lrlfqiqH than when I myself lived in this world. Those who would keep pure commandments should not k#WF. EHtE# lnWXfi " 64+WffiH buy, sell, or trade. They should not covet fields and buildings, nor accumulate servante or femalezF{E:hffiI#," trffi:tb* fifHEll $ilW,Effi slaves or animals. From all planting and all sorts, W*&ffi, ElWHa+ , WFlTM.o EIHW€ , of wealth ought they to keep away like one
  8. 8. 11i 1l It, & {* nE THE SUTRA OF BEQUEATHED TEACHING 7 " 64#*4ES iBft{Fft " Hffqlt# -ffi would move afar off a fiery-pit. You should not ffiisB cut trees and grasses, plow the soil, hoe the f#ffifiA, #ltrfF,f. ETMIEo*g fi ffi,L. r lands, mix medicines, to prophesy good or evil from a mans physiognoml , to look up the position of constellations, cast horoscopes by the , tts4$,f*- , 6ffi#ffi " fLFUWf+fi waxing and the waning of the moon, not reckon ^ilF.*nE. days of good fortune, as all these things are ZtH " ffiftrr/Btr+1fkZ#- t.AtfrR&fEf_q. . El improper for the Bhikshus to do. Restrain the body, eat at proper time and conduct your life 4&.t?fi" 4+AabtffFft. , Fdtffi#€#, " ft{,.ttL z in purity and chastity. You ought not to concern yourselves with the worldly afrairs and be away Hflififi n+wi#. #/fiEf.?,#fr" EFU€EA- from unexpected blame and praise. You should *E " #itrisfi ;ft#L)r1#g6;He." ft.y)HfiL not concern 1ourselves in reciting incantations, nor use the elixir of life, nor bind yourselves to : ffiRffi-7-Wr)r1#.ZFfilLffi" prominent persons in friendship. nor become familiar and have indecent behaviour with them so that you may be able to boast of iL You ought to, with fixed mind, in right contempla- tion, seek for salvation. You should not conceal your faults :rnd defects, nor give rise to heresy, nor lead people astray. Of the four offerings for a monk, you know the limits, you understand what is enough. When you have received a small provision, you must not store it up. Here, therefore, I shall speak briefly about the phenomena of heeping the commandments. The commandrnents are the basis of the decision of liberation. Therefore they are called the Pratimoksa. If you rely on the cause of the commandments, you will attain many stages of Chan and Ting and shall have wisdom of
  9. 9. (X" & {r. !* 8 THE SUTRA OF BEQUEATHED TEACHING 8 the extinction from sufrering. For this reason, Bhikshus, you should always keep the com- mandments pure and must not break and destroy them. The man who can keep these command- ments pure, indeed will be of good conduct in the world. If there are no pure commandments, no meritorious virtues can arise at all. You ought to know for this reason that the meritorious virtues of the place of perfect solid is acquired throughout the commandments. Notes: Bhikshu, is a religious mendicant, one who has left home, and has been fully ordained) ztr-tL" EJ+ffia-j:. fifft4fs#Fl : []tE€,6-Eq* by 250 commandments. According to the Note of Vimalakirti Sutra, the word "Bhikshu" contains:e iE ?- €e bfitFffi er+ +I Irt@4Ettti J U# a four meanings; (1) one who merely depends on rEfiEiEx rt#ffi tiU fi4,Eft , &,ffiffifrFFlft " + *Ffi 22 alms for a livingi Q) one who destroys the passions and delusions; (3) one who could fully*f*4.FJ : keep the commandments; and (4) one who shall be able to overawe lMara and his minions. Pratimoksa is deliverance, emancipation; prati (towards), implies the getting rid of evils one by e ft -E + - +U *,Q tu E tr + *LX *,e {.8 ill one. There are different Pratimoksas for the t seven classes of Buddhas disciples: (1) Bhikshu- monk; (2) Bhikshuni-nun; (3) Siksamana, a llfifbxtr4F+fi* novice who observes the six commandments; (4) Sramanera, and (5) Sramanerika - male and female observers of the minor comrhandments; (6) Upasaka-male observers of the five com- -ltt[j* , EE#+tffi4ffi+,+ (4ffi , l#24*-.]"1 mandments; and (7) Upasika-female ditto. Gurudev or great teacher is one who is able ffi {#Zrytkffil*waffiZE, ff -F-,8, 2,* lrtig#* to teach the Sravaka (a hearer who understands
  10. 10. (h 6 4x .+s THE SUTRA OF BEQUEATHED TEACHING 9 -b) , I.E:,11.Z(l/ffi1F,21+ " the four doctrines rids himself of the unreality of the phenomena and enters Nirvana) what thing he should do and what he should not do. Keeping the commandments is one of the six Paramitas, i.e., the six infinite means of crossing *eKtr€s)ffi #@fiHiE€3€H, il& o the sea of mortality. The six Paramitas are: (1) l*#f{f*:f-i,E : trfH#++e,* ,tr?An#W*" J Dana, charity, including the bestowing of the truth on others; (2) Sila, keeping the conl- krfi g*HR . 4 . F . E . 4 . li,gFf.dlrulfffi mandments; (3) Ksanta, patience under insult; 2"1W# " (4) zeal and progress; (5) Dhyana, meditation; and (6) Prajna, wisdom, the power to discern reality. The Introduction of the Saddharrna pundarika Sutra states that one who makes unadulterated progress by keeping the command- ments is just like one who protects the bright pearls with full vigour. The fiery-pit is one of the Five Desires which is caused by the objects of the five senses-things seen, heard, smelt, tasted, or touched. One who controls the three poisons. namely,. greed, anger and stupidity, and does not do any evils, has fixed the mind, in right contemplation, to seek for salvation. !t-Ei4]#H : &* Et€ . FR . N-&* The four offerings for a monk are: clothing " victuals, beddins and medicine. Chan is dhyana, probably a transliterationl Ting is an interpretation of Samadhi. The Saddharma-Pundarika Sutra states that one who enters deeper Chan and Ting, will have vision of Buddhas in the ten directions of space. l-fitrJ #ip?ffiffiffi " TEJ *ft,t rt-86fttrtr What is said of "many stages of Chan and
  11. 11. r&€Jt*s l0 IO THE SUTRA OF BEQUEATHED TEACHING 102;E . tr#FgEl : ltnEEiK^frHit, 4-F.+fiffi " J # Ting" indicates the four Dhyanas on the form-fiH:E +H EqmF Ai€MF, Effi ffi€4i-?AffiE., Aft.&N realms and the eight concentrations, i.e., four on the form-realms and four on the formless-realms.ZgriY.t t*-Men2ry6,t " The Nirvana Sutra states that there are i4#ffis : A#* : &#. Z#. frg . ft,# . € eight aspects of sufferings; the suffering of birth,tljtrE# . *,]<4+# . /"qfgg# ,*fiffi# " J the suffering of old age, the suffering of illness, the suffering of death, the suffering of separation from beloved ones, the suffering of yearning, the sufferings of being in the company of our enemies, and the suffering from the five "khandhas" or senses. E*,*: B[*4t. *{fii. *H . fiffi. fiE€ " + The five commandments ( against killing, stealing, adultery, lying and intoxicating liquors)#6IEHF#2F^1H, Bp.6rg+#2# " ffFHt.F, : €) and the ten good virtues (defined as the non-*{ee {ft lfrex{J if @ Fffi 6) rw aa# tr (€)ffi ffi 0! Ae o! committal of the ten evils namely, killing, stealing,EE#o)fiE E&. . adultery, lying, double-tongue, coarse language, O - j€ .,*[ffiB=a€ , ffifrmZffi)i#. {fr*Zffiffi filthy language, covetousness, anger and perverted" views) are the good conducts in the mundane world; while the three vehicles of learning- discipline, meditation and wisdom-are the good conducts in the supra-mundane world. (3) TO CONTROL TrIE = f;{ ,|. M tNr) Ye Bhikshus! If already you are able to keep trit$lbE EBE{+nt,, HffUEfR n+ffi. the commandments, you must control the fivei4Arfi& " #frn&.*Z)y#trffiZ 6+ffi roots, i.e., the five organs of senses. Their five desires ought not to enter through your self-indul- gence. It is just like a cowherd, taking a stick and watching the cows, does not allowing them -Sft-jt.}PfiPff " rtn&&#. fifFffifE fLk to run to another mans field which is ripe for
  12. 12. I 11 l*, {x lg 1l II THE SUTRA OF BEQUEATHED TEACHING 11 "ty the harvest. So, if you indulge the five organs RJu €#tr€ Zr.4Z^W.lfitrrff#ffttjmf lffi of senses, not only will their desires not be stopped within the limited boundary, but, like I tliLilulW" 6+#1ft;E " l?+!(!iL "&lF6 ^n failing to control a bad horse by holding the +ffi.id. rtbfi,ffi#^ , ,L.ffiJt:i " E-6tiii$Hi+iftlj reins. soon it will make a man fall into a pit. Likewise, you will be subject to suffering through ,1. ! ,L.Z oJ€ ,Er1#ff; :[l:i;fi /"Qffi " ltxt4 many Yugas if you were oppressed by it. The i& ,,F.Emiil ! ffi{nEA +fl%*F FJr4S+gjF* evils of that brigand (the five organs of senses) extends through many lives and creates very .EiHr-:S: rfuWEL" t9frntr4.*tf6 I{IR++ great harm for which you have to be eareful yoursell. The rvise men, therefore, control them and are not attached to them. These desires ffi+6*ff should be kept like thieves in prison, who " #itifb,[.,-E :tA*--*: " fttJZl&, , are not allowed to run wild. Even those who ;,li.Ytfr^, iilSifrf{E fjiitit,D o entertain them, which may be extinguished before long. As for these five organs of sense, the mind acts as their master. So you must always control your mind well. Being rnuch more than a poisonous snake, flerce beasts and fettered thieves, the mind ought to tre feared dissatisfac- tion. It is indescrible that how terrible it is like a big fire beyond control. It is like, for instance, a man who, carrying a vessel of honey, goes jumping and dancing along his path looking only at the vessel of honey, and fails to notice a deep pit. Or, again, it is like a mad elephant without a goad, or like a monkey who, getting up a tree, is prancing and jumping, and cannot, except with difriculty, be stopped and controlled. You must haste;r to deflect these desires and should not allow them to run wild. If you are
  13. 13. T2 {*, t {*. !.v. t2 12 THE SUTRA OF BEQUEATHED TEACHING 12 indulgent to this very mind, you would lose the good of being a man. If you limit these desires in.one place, there is nought you cannot accomplish. For this reason, Ye Bhikshus you ought to acquire progress skilfully and diligently, and subdue your minds. *ffi: h.&8pHF.4€-. fi.4. Effizt&" Notes: The five organs of the senses are: eyes, ears, nose, tongue and body, they being the roots of knowing. +R]tfe btllRlL-E, #&R++*, E6ffiR# .4 Cow is used as an illustration of the Five Roots and cowherd as Bhikshu while taking stick9t(R , EIrirrHrEeH+F. illustrates the keeping of commandments and harvest for all the goodness of meritoriousv irtues such as contemplation, wisdom, etc. t-, , qft=#pi , flprufilE ffi_flE . g&E u, . The word pit here is used as an illustration of the three evil directions of reincarnation: (1) Naraka-gati, or that of the hells; (2) Preta-gati, of hungry ghosts; and (3) Tirygyoni-gati, of animals. -i1l , ffi-ilz+.ft*o =++6-tr,E-ift;S€ Yuga, an dg€, 1000th part of a Kalpa.dfo According to Lun Yu, a period of thirty years. 3[,. EF A (4) ON TEMPERANCE IN EATING Ye Bhikshus! In receiving all food and drink trtk+ttE, y#ffiA., HfnflR* , ,tfFlt you ought to accept them as though you are taking medicine. You should not increase andw, n*wmfw4s{h uwffiiE. fiK#+ decrease the things which you like or dislike; food should support just your bodies and avoid 4EE+* , 6+F8.6. }hEZFTff " *AHE starvation and thirst. As the bee in seeking flowers, takes only the taste of them, but does
  14. 14. tt, & ti 9,Y. t3 13 THE SUTRA OF BEQUEATHED TEACHING 13:.E+fifnffi?sD , ,F+lfihrL)i+ixh not harm their fragrance and color, so also " Bhikshus, do ye accept just enough of peoples ofrerings to avoid self-distress. Dont have many demands and thereby break their good hearts. A man of wisdom, for example, having judged the amount of the capacity of his oxs strength, does not wear out its strength by overloading. 8..fi ffi EE (5) AI)MONISHTNG 0N SLIIPING trlt+JtE EAUSJl,L,Itr4l ##, Jts+^ri+ Ye Bhikshus : With diligence of mind cultivate and practice the Good Dharma by day." 4x&&&finEl*. " +&;fffg , !,I HiiT,il,. Dont waste your time. In the earll evening nor even late at night, do not cease your cultivation. W +* +-?Et{, ^r,*Ffr4++h !** f,J,RffiDJffiflRtr Even in the mid-night you must examine yourself,*fiLx ffi;hEfd , +ii Fl IE , hffi.tlll(tr " #fF waning and waxing on the task better by reciting the Sutras. You will gain nothing by passing$tEfr , .#t{-"]+t^ , -#)i#^ AIJffiflR 6Hr* your whole life in vain by sleeping. You ought to think of the fire of the inconstant burningH ? fJi 1i$=-€[,g , FEA,.lfr,l,. , Ir${nR{rr , ;tsii. ,frG upon the world, and you must save yourself at earliest time, and must not sleep. The brigand ,#D)t:ilt2f"J FlffiFkz flEqrflf rfi TJEIE of all Klesa (pain, affiiction and distress) is always stalking and killing people much more[R ; 6iIff aR EJffiI{ifA "[fR4;LZR. A;ft#ffi than one would try to kill the enemy. How canFtrff- . l{f{n$#tfla , fiEihtj/rrFiX€fit}LFc you sleep without arousing and cautioning yourself? The Klesa is a poisonous snake sleepingHHt$f4[, Jtll}Ylt+ " trr; fiplffr{.1" *;ifi t)t t* " J1U in your mind. It is like a black cobra sleeping in your room. It can be quickly got rid of withH1fr"2.^, FU€ *iF " XiJSi[7i ril;fr € HJmtH the spear of keeping the commandments. Onlyg.tu ! when that dormant snake has fled can you sleep peacefully. If you sleep without the snake
  15. 15. -14 (ff, &- {* A. t4 14 THE SUTRA OF BEQUEATHED TEACHING 14 being gone, you are a shameless person. The consciousness of ashamedness, among all glorious adornments, is the best. The consciousness of ashamedness is like an iron goad which can control mans unrighteousness. Ye Bhikshus, you must always be conscientious on ashamedness and do not ignore it for a moment. If you leave ofr the consciousncss of ashamedness, you will lose all meritious virtues. One who has consci- ousness of ashamedness, will have good conduct. One who has no consciousness of ashmedness, will not be difrerent from birds and beasts. Sil: EBA6=I€ : EttEts.R . ++. HF " 4E Notes: The three division of the day is morning, noon and evening and of the night isHA6=tr : Ets*n&. f & , th& o early night, midnight and late night. MFN/H.#, E fr!*={&. }1tr,8$* zffiFIH, E There are two ways of gaining nothing, the one is good and the other bad. Here is the bad way4lAffiHE+HVt-+. ; I€t$*]Zft Ffi&, nsiE#ffi n : f of gaining nothing. A man who passes his wholeft F,fe*€€HZ A . J GFryrHL+HtrfH, firFntr life in vain through sleeping. The good way tm gains nothing as the Maha Parinirvana Sutrae^24*.) states one who has nothing to obtain is called a man of wisdom (the immaterial universal reality behind all phenomena). EW,4^, ft#rI$ ft,.fffgiE : [^BE-s , Inconstant or impermanent, is the first of Trividya. The Impermanent Sutra states thatzi&ft#6j " there is no single thing which is not swallowed by the impermanent. J<fr241&i€E: !"&*E#* z a&{eii;ffi !,xF,ts The Gatha of Early-Night says: "Ye au-#fttr, &miFffiiE, tt&ff**U, aiol#ffiHE ? FIfr. dience, hear the Gatha of early-night! The Klesa is deep without bottom, the ocean of mortalityHEttri€ , ffi,L.,n*lrmHi o tras no border, there is no boat to take us to
  16. 16. lllII 15 tt, 6 {* !.E l5 15 THE SUTRA OF BEQUEATHED TEACHING 15 cross over the distress. Then how can you be happy with a sleepz Go ahead with diligence and braveness, with determination of your mind in meditation! ,ffiffi+-#,1.2.. " Ashamedness is one of the eleven good mental conditions. t.*HE# (6) ADllrONrSHrNc ON ANGER AND RAGE [it+]b-6., ]iH /v*ffiffi-ftu+, H Elffi,L Ye, Bhikshus! If there were a man who came and mutilated your body and cut your , Jfit+HF.jR " fH# n nffikff o frffifi,1. , limbs away at eyery joint, you must not hate and be angry with him, but rather keep your FU H{biE XAiEt " K,Z.FfE. t+fr.EftFIt mind in one point. And you ought to guard 6frYE.-" frYTrK# , ltEIf,RH)1X " EXT your mouth, so that no evil words come out of it. If you pave a way to hateful thoughts there is a hindrance on your own ray and you would lose the benefit of meritorious virtues. Patience #,tt!, " fIrD)ftM? [E#Zg- Ftj{iffiff#WF. is a virtue which the ke€ping of every com- tta1il , +ElLkfr /FF=n ",H*{rHE-,L.Et{1ft mandment or anS other austerity cannot equal. He who can practice patience can truly be X H"#Fr#, ff44+ ). " *l9tl{Bt ffiiEflE# called the great man of strength. He who cannot endure the poison of evil abuses, as if it were ambrosia to be drunk, cannot be called a Buddhist or a man of nisdom. How is this? trXfi:trtr&L mE[E* #4q &, ! *frs Because the harm of anger and rage shatter,s TiF;jrt.l" ffi-ffi,tgx )tffit,E+h" all good Dharma and spoil your good fame and name, so that, in present or future generations, people will not like to behold them. You should know that the angry mind is worse than a fierce fire. You ought always to guard and watch
  17. 17. F-16 (*, & #. !"E t6 16 THE SUTRA OF BEQUEATHED TEACHING 16 yourselves and do not let them obtain entrance. No brigand could steal your merit and virtue than anger and rage. Those householders, dressed in white clothes, who haye desires but do not practice the Buddha-Dharm&, are not in a position to control themselves; but anger is excusable in them. Those who have left home and are practising Buddha-Dharma without any desires, but are still subject to anger and rage, are unexcusable indeed. For example, the light- ning and a clap of thunder cannot appear in the bracing cloud. Fiil : WLfr+ffiiNHE,L. 8f{jSlll :#i,,ltjfiEffii Notes: When a person has no anger, even ^ft#effi ffif$a* : ["f#F : &ft]ftrtr rc.n &ltlr ] 1&. when his body is being mutilated, it shows that his hody and mind are pure. The Vajracchedika- prajna-paramita Sutra states that when the Rajah of Kalinga mutilated the Buddhas body, he was+H . #*{H, r,GAHE,IE " Hfffiff&fE . s,.AtF . i*fte at that time free from the idea of an ego-entity, affi.ffi#*tH,64flF{Eo.J personality, a being, and a separated individuality. Wherefore? Because rvhen his limbs were cut off piece by piece, had he been bound by the distinctions aforesaid, feelings of anger and rage would have been aroused within him. The Buddha remembers that, long ago, sometime during his last past five hundred mortal lives, he was an ascetic practising patience. Even then he was free from those distinctions of separated selfhood. 27"#,: [,WA*€)t , Hffi#dE".l o Lactzu says that the conqueror is powerful; the master of himself is strong. fffi€-#d4<nZ# -al6## F ftr E E{E Ambrosia is the nectar of immortality. Four H-ffi oI€Zf$fqr.* kinds of ambrosia are mentioned-green, yellow,
  18. 18. t7 It, rt {r !-- l? 17 THE SUTRA OF BEQUEATHED TEACHING 17 red and white- all coming from Edible tree and known as Sonta. E&- , ltd^ZUffi " The white clothing is said to be that of Brahmins and the common people in India. (7) ADMONTSHTNG ON t.frfitrtE SELF-INI)ULGENCE trit$lb-E : HH FEFN -ffififrfr+ #ffi& Ye Bhikshus! To feel with hands upon your head you ought to think of yourself like this:A f,++rH?# , D)Z,HiIi " HtrLfrnft., #,fg{6E "I have already given up all fine ornaments. I, H#*.MZ. jgJ€{f$E f"l/FftfA1&.Di*ri lnl wear plain coloured clothing and have an alms- bowl to beg my living." If arrogance and prideR HX i62)r. Rf{+}lftfrk HWX hnifi ef arise, you should immediately extinguish them. The growth of arrogance and pride is not7 suitable eyen for the white clothed common people, much less for those who have left home and entered the way of Dharma in order to aehieve deliverance, sutrdue their social position and practice begging. Eiffi : fr+BJLIT =+6 : E8trfi41EftC]]#U{.fid}Jft . Notes: There are two kinds of deliverance (Moksa). One is the original freedom and the other deliverance acquired by the ending of all hindrances (to salvation). 11z,ffit =FFIvt112- F,NLbEfr+W&tr-I-T2WITE Begging is one of the twelve means relating to release from ties to clothing, food, and dwelling for a Buddhist monk. r.d ffi fi (8) ADMONISHING ON }LATTERI Ye Bhikshus! A mind full of flattery is Fifr{*lbE : i?tffiZL. 4LEtH# -i*fitfi contrary to the way of Buddha-Dharma. Therefore
  19. 19. 18 ffi L {x !E l8 18 THE SUTRA OF BEQUEATHED TEACHING 18ffiHE+,i,. Hfi;?ffi {g€ft?E, AiEZA you ought in simplicity and sincerity to correct such a mind. You should know that flattery is a thing of cheating. and lying. It has no proper place for a man who has entered the way of Dharma. For this reason, you all must have a correct mind and base yourselves on simplicitY. Il", D ffi (9) LESSENING OF DESIRES trif+lb-E : Hfr*&L|r., t-lattJfi., E Ye Bhikshus! you ought to know that a man of many desires, by reason of his desireffiz/r?t " D&Z/v, ffiXffiffi , F|JffitlL,€. " Effi for profit, has much sufrering too. The man who FIWD&E2H#Tb1H,? D&Z has less of desires, neither securing anythingD&, ftJE46E nor wishing anything, therefore, does not have/ F|Jffi;fiffiDJ* H , /F&6ffi#TRFT#. t] such a distress. But if you wish to lessen your desires, you ought to practice it. Even much,)>ff# ,D.FU!E* , ,ftffEft , ffi$H#. Hffi more than this, is the result of meritorious virtues of your practicing the lessening of6E HDffiX FUE-jtr4 : ft.f-Dd," desires. One who has less desires need not by flattery sway anothers mind, nor is he pulling along with all the roots (faculty of sense). One who practises the lessening of desires, has a eontented mind, and has no cause for sorrow and fear. The things he gets are enough and there is never an insufficiency at all. One who has little desire, would attain Nirvana. This is what is called "the lessening of desires." Noteg: There are twenty-two roots: eye, ear, Eft : 4i[Ei{ . q t& . H& . 6..fR .9tR ;6tRe1 nose, tongue, body, mind, female organ, male organ, life, suffering, pleasure, sorrow, joy, ,gf& . A& . _E+E . 6tfq .:t,d{ . #& . EfR . iA&
  20. 20. 19 tt .4-1- i)|, 1r! 4r t1-: .:r: t9 te THE SUTRA OF BEQUEATHED TEACHING 19. ii,,{fl . f"xLdl . ;r:,{:l{ ,!1f ii:Lll k!*ulii*u1jl ( trLl abandoning, faith, zeal, memory, meditation, wisdom, the power for learning, (the Four Noble*,;I;) . tliil,f:ti , 11.1$.ili{iiJi.-- l--fl{ " Truths), the power of having learned (them), and the power of perfect knowledge (of them). O. *n ,€ (10) TrrE SATTSFACTTON Ye Bhikshus! If you wish to leave ofi all [ikT.}br: : ]titll$t,i]i+|iijffiiT]n.[. " Jtt sufferings, you ought to see what satisfactionF.2* , g[ j*;!it{!,*l!:i2rti . *n112n illf:ir/.itlr is. The means of satisfaction is the basis of obtaining the rich joy, peace and solidity. A man of satisfaction, even though he lies on the ground, still is in the mood of peaee and happiness. One who is not satisfied, even if he6fi18.6, fifffitr?fltftr.1" , Fltrp&2tltlliyr$ : were in the heavenly abode, still would not accord in his desire. One who is not satisfied,*L&*nE " even though he be rich, is poor. One who is satisfied, even though he be poor, is rich. One who is not satisfied is pulled by the five desires and, therefore, is pitied by the man who is satisfied. This is what is called "Satis- faction." -.8 # (11) rHE SECLUSTON I lt j$ ]t 6:. 6ft :l< lr"trii Jtt+ F" E * "dt Ftll:l i i tlrij Ye Bhikshus! If you wish quietude, inaction, peace and joy, you should always be away from tErffiTElE " ffiif&Z ffiFF:;rT Kili)rVttrt- " )t confusion and noise, and live alone in a quiet retreat. One who lives in a quiet retreat will be respected by the Sovereign Sakra and Devas of all heavens. This is why you should leave ofi
  21. 21. Oi, 6lk 39- -_ 20 THE SUTRA OF BEQUEATHED TEACHING 20Z,tE." Effiff$* ififi*# " ElnE*i*W 6 your own and other communities to live alone in seclusion, to think the way out of sufferings.iiEH H : ftf,fr:piL" If you rejoice in company, have the sufferings of company, just as when many birds flock upon the big tree, it is in danger of rotting and falling. Attachment to the mundane world drowns one in human sufrering, just as an old elephant, sinking in the mud, cannot get Fiffi : ,ffi{.+ , 1,16t1X21.U El-f -- .^ himself out. This is what is called "Seclusion." Notes: Sovereign Sakra is the Lord of Thirty- t;, three Heavens. ift +frhft.W*f., &FrLvnHtzx ffi&Wz "Devas of all heavens" means the six devalokas,VVE1A rrifrF. i.e., the heavens with sense organs above, Sumeru, between the Brahmalokas and the earth; the division of the eighteen Brahmalokas into four dhyana heavens: and the four heavens without form, immaterial, consisting only of mind in ,-, ir< H : t-;Zlixf i,! ll fF 1g;ii ,iii {rfit ithl et D i contemplation. i|j li "Your own corrmunity" indicates your own o teachers and class-fellows, while " the other community" means those who are outside the fold of your teachers and class-fellows. :i iir;l ii;tE tl1l1.lii"i,ll,i# "To live alone in seclusion" means one who lives at Aranya. (T2) TIIE UNADULTERATED PROGRESS I.ffi E Ye Bhikshus! If you strive energetically for [it4$]t-fr. . EWFfrlJ FUF.IS#B " ]L#r the unadulterated progress, there is nothing -Ef1 that is difficult. Ye, therefore, must strive it S.ig Sif,t.,1-L;F,{n,JzJtF ifr Ftlfr2+6 energetically for the unadulterated progress.
  22. 22. aF-2l ltr ,!.v 4i !- 21 2I THE SUTNA OF BEOUEATHED TEACHING 21#2,L,gng(VvflF, I:1rtsfflt< , HE?ft For example, a constant trickle of water will bore a hole in a rock. If the mind of an Acarin4$X, X#trt{+ : E&tliII. " ^#rn,El. (performing the duties of a disciple) becomes in many ways lazy and inattentive frequently, it is just like making a fire by friction and resting before it is hot. Though you want to have fire, you cannot get it. This is what is called "the unadulterated progress." (13) TO APPREHEND AND HOLD IN THOUGHT ns**;.#l**r,r.*{r,r Ye Bhikshus! Seek a good friend (one, who is well known and intimate), seek a good assistant, there is nothing like you to apprehendit€,-iitHffiA&,1., . h5<i,t:# t1tJX;#9J l:!, " 1; and hold in your wandering thought. If one apprehends and holds wandering thought, allid,E&dE fiFAliff(ffiF, 6ffiFfig " H,ln#,.ffi, the brigands of Klesas are unable to enter in him. You, therefore, ought to keep your mind P=f FUfrtIfrfl- : FN,6.;"iit: " concentrated. If one loses his concentration of mind, he will lose all rneritorious virtues. If your power of mental concentration is strong and solid, even though you are caught by the five desires, they will be unable to harm you; as if you have worn an armour to go to the battle-field, there will be no fear at all. This is what is called "Apprehending and holding of thought." Effi: E/ii,|{i#p}f ZEFlrS4r;di " iJ,#,iSr}rit Notes: The man who helps me to gain theiii-F,,[,t] : [#4nffi* , *"1lrE]fti " Fnil1li* 1rj{i fd.l4 way for attaining Bodhisattavahood, is called Good Fridnd. The Saddharma-Pundarika Sutra states:, 1{i;,1ffi t ffi--.gj-- t}i?.,L " "A good friend is a great cause, rvhereby men are
  23. 23. Ii YI t, & {x .+- 22 llY, 22 THE SUTRA OF BEQUEATHED TEACHING 22 converted and led to see the Buddha and aroused to perfect Enlightement." 89.ffiF E (14) DHYANA AND SAMADHI o triir+lh51 : +?{ffi,1.-X "1FU&t Lt:ft Ye Bhikshus! If you can keep one-pointed mind, your mind is then fixed in abstraction. As your mind is in a fixed abstraction, you can H#ft. " +34+ft# ,L.FU6ff Hln[#zkZ* understand the characteristics of things in birth and death in the mundane world. Ye brethren, #ifitrffi , -if#^7)rffi trA#7kfri #16tffift- you should always practice and cultivate the various stages of Samadhi (a fixed abstraction) +Tiffift : -e6Bft." diligently and progressively. One who attains Sarnadhi, his mind will not cheer up. Just as a man, whose house with little water is carefully conserved, can also regulate the reservoir well, so also are the disciples of the Buddha. For the sake of obtaining the water of wisdom, you should practise the Dhyana (meditation) and fixing of the abstraction (samadhi), and should not let it leak away. This is what is iiffi : lti[;[fi/tjiiiifr11; : [,tH:+,$, ;fr$,h!u called "Samadhi." Notes: The Manjusri-Panha Sutra states: "The , l).?*ujt , itijl,C.l/ir.j o essence of the mind is pure in origin, but the faults have made man to be dirty; we will use the water [rHf$rf 2;(i , If tJ,$=B+.Lfi. , [ffif:triZ#.+, f;-: th of wisdom to cleanse the mind free from stains." Chan is Dhyana, a transliteration; Ting is an f| jE I : i&. {h 2 ;;i5 i€ * # A +}t n $i # F- interpretation of Samadhi. Chan is an element in , L. - l,t " i.,!l Ting, which cover the whole grourd of meditation, ;i [i€ff.1r*"-1 -#f fuT:$=B*f&inT : concentration and abstraction, reaching to the ultimate beyond emotion. Wordsworth in his poem
  24. 24. qt ffi & 4x ,+E 23 23 THE SUTRA OF BEQUEATHEIJ TEACHING 23 tf+*trf;4 4r "Tintern Abbey" describes Samadhi as follows: ^)k "...... . ..That blessed mood, ^+Affi,ir-il; ,L.IB6E7t6i9r1g In which the burthen of the mystery, In which the heavy and the weary weight #lStrY3{niriffi Of all this unintelligible world. ,L.-Et5Fi$iff FLEJJ , Is lightened:-that serene and blessed mood ,d.hlitlH,Hfi EI1 ; In which the affections gently lead us on, kHrtA,$)tiLt Until, the breath of this corpcreal frame {l1qfrSlttn l<Fr." And even the nrotion of our human blood Almost suspended, we are laid asleep Jftw^w{*#rF. In body, and become a living soul: ,1.frHffi&liHffi:ffi; While with an eye made ouiet by the power ,L.HETfr&Wfr} , Of harnony, and the deep power of joy, 6EFnH6E4.6t " We see into the life of things." (fF,EH# ) (15) THE PRAJNA -8,.€l H Ye Bhikshus! If you have Prajna, then you will have freedom from greed. You should #t4tr# F|JffiA* HEI€ Fite+lbE, always look into yourself and do not let yourself have any fault. Thereby then, you will obtain + T+Hit. EFUt{**tr EVfu+WW" H6 salvation within my teachings of Dharma. If F€# you do not do so, you are already neither a ffi# E#F#A , V)FA&, NFIT&E ! follower of Dharma nor the common people. # FrJftE{atrt Vlht4.+fBtb /FEffBBRTFt There would be no name to call you in a suitable way. The true Prajna is a strong and firm ship FXffitb , -gJmhzil#-e, ftrFffi&l2t#& which will carry you across the ocean of old oS€, decay and death. Again, it is a great brilliant light in deep darkness of ignorance. It #2W, AE€FJHR, ffiEffi-AA&: ftAE#" is a fine medicine for all who are sick. It is a sharp ar which cuts the tree of Klesa (delusion,
  25. 25. 24 THE SUTRA OF BEQUEATHED TEACHING 2424 ffi,&4x!; trials of the passions and of ignorance, which disturb and distress the mind). For this reason, you must struggle for hearing the word and become wise in it, so that you can benefit yourself and improved. If a man who has the clarity of Prajna, though he has the physical eyes to view things, he is a man of view of non-ignorance. This is what is called "Prajna-" Fi# : iH#,*r{AJlIfi LriT# , fi_,}f,zI&,tkE , ffi; Notes: Prajna means Wisdom of the highest and clearest kind, it is the last of the Six para-{s lIr,r,i6;2* " mitas which are the Bodhisattvas iCeals of practice. There are three modes of attaining moral W:HtrHZi|ifi=: Of;ilh1 i7,Flif;1titfl€a e1;r){ wisdom: (1) to attain wisdom from hearingl, (Z)nlt, t, httirt€H, C i,iril,ij,,p ]S{$+$ffi o to attain wisdorn from reflection, and (3) to attain wisdom from practice. (of abstracted meditation). There are ten views mentioned in the Yo- ffif,.rrr;iu),t,ii-l- , Flj.t;i,)tl:Jjr$,ijlJ.L , JRftljij ll , Eil gasastra, the last is the view of non-ignorance, tttj FL|L . namely, the right viev. (16) UNSOPHISTICATED ARGUMENT A.Tffiffi Ye Bhikshus! If you enter into many kinds trtk+tu,E: ffif€ffi--# s,L,FUffL, &EIE_fr of sophisticated arguments, then your rnind will be disturbed and distressed, and though youX , &*4.+fl4. Ettlh-fr. , H,ef$HEffiL,t.,ffiffi " have left home, still you will not attain salvation. #tr,&e lffix# pEH#ffiEkffiZ,B, 1 ftf,.T Ye Bhikshus! You ought immediately to renounce the wandering thought and sophisticated argu- &L-- . u rE{dffi ^ ments. If you want to obtain the bliss of calm annihilation, you need only extinguish the illness of sophisticated arguments. This is what is called "unsophisticated arguments."
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