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Materials: Week 6 - Glass & Steel
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Materials: Week 6 - Glass & Steel


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  • 1. Interior + Environmental Design MATERIALS Glass & Steel
  • 2. GLASS & STEEL > OVERVIEW- glass & steel represent a manufactured form ofarchitecture- the aesthetic possibilities with glass & steel areimpressive, creating almost invisible structure, orgravity defying skyscrapers- nowadays glass alone has the potential to bestructural without the use of steel- glass & steel provides both practical & symbolicqualities of transparency, lightness & openness
  • 3. GLASS & STEEL > THROUGH THE AGES > CRYSTAL PALACE, LONDONAlthough it used an iron frame rather than steel, Paxton’s Crystal Palace was the world’s rstprefabricated glass building. It was constructed for The Great Exhibition which was held in London’sHyde Park in 1851. Crystal Palace, London, 1851 : Joseph Paxton
  • 4. GLASS & STEEL > THROUGH THE AGES > MAISON DE VERRE Literally translated, ‘the house of glass’ was constructed in 1931. Maison de Verre uses ideas borrowed from industrial design including glass bricks and opening windows and shutters. The house is de ned by light, which is transformed as it enters the building by the structure’s glass block bricks. La Maison de Verre, Paris, France, 1931 : Pierre Chareau
  • 5. GLASS & STEEL > THROUGH THE AGES > L INSTITUT DU MONDE ARABEThis building’s glazed elevation uses a decorative mechanised screen to modify the light coming intoit. The building brings together traditional methods of screening with sophisticated technology toproduce an elevation that adapts to varying external light levels to modify the interior environment. L’ Institut du Monde Arabe, Paris 1987 : Jean Nouvel Architects
  • 6. GLASS & STEEL > THROUGH THE AGES > LOUVRE PYRAMID, PARISThe Louvre was reinvented by the architecture of IM pei. He used a platonic shape – a pyramid made ofglass – to make a connection between the museum and La Defense which is an office development onthe edge of Paris. The pyramid is both architecturally and culturally signi cant to Paris. Louvre Pyramid, Paris, 1989 : I.M. Pei
  • 7. GLASS & STEEL > THROUGH THE AGES > SWISS RE, LONDONThis building, which uses glass as a skin and steel as a means to liberated form, is a paradigm of the21st century. It represents architecture of the future, incorporating aspects of environmental designwith structural elegance. Swiss Re, London, 2004 : Foster + Partners
  • 8. GLASS & STEEL > HOW IS GLASS MADE?Glass is made by melting together minerals at very high temperatures. Silica in the form of sand isthe main ingredient and this is combined with soda ash and limestone and melted in a furnace.Other materials can be added to produce different colours or properties.
  • 9. GLASS & STEEL > SPIRITUALITY & WEALTHGlass was initially used in places of worship where large glass windows would allow an interior to be ooded withlight to suggest qualities of the heavenly and the divine. In Elizabethan times glass was a rarity, and it s productionwas a craft so it s use in architecture was considered a symbol of wealth . Then in the Georgian era, windows inbuildings became larger to allow increased light and ventilation. Their increased size made them heavier anddifficult to open and this led to the introduction of the sliding sash window. Hardwick Hall, England, 1591 Robert Smythson , Glazing, Chartres Cathedral, France, 1150 Georgian Sash & Case Windows , ,
  • 10. GLASS & STEEL > PROTECTION & INDUSTRYDuring the Victorian era glass was used experimentally in horticulture and this led to the design for greenhousesacross Europe, with the pivotal being the Crystal Palace. Further experimentation is evident in the BarcelonaPavilion where glass was to used to create wall panel primarily to separate interior and exterior spaces rather thanbe load-bearing. Then new buildings in our became even taller and almost becoming inconceivable. One exampleis Chicago s Home Insurance Building which is widely believed to be the world s rst skyscraper . Crystal Palace, London, 1851 : Joseph Paxton, Barcelona Pavilion, 1929, Mies van der Rohe Home Insurance Building, Chicago, 1885
  • 11. GLASS & STEEL > MATERIAL ASSOCIATIONGlass and steel can be used to create impressive functional and engineered forms which can alsosuggest ideological issues. Glass has the potential to create building forms that can be immediatelyassociated with the properties of the materials itself – transparent, light, open and clear. Great Court, British Museum, London, 2000 : Norman Foster
  • 12. GLASS & STEEL > STRUCTURES & FINISHESThe combination of both glass and steel brings both strength and delicacy to architecture; a steelframe can appear quite slender when combined with the transparency of a glass wall. Transparencyis one of the most important properties when specifying glass, because it allows light into a space. Apple Store, New York : Bohlin Cywinski Jackson
  • 13. GLASS & STEEL > STRUCTURES & FINISHESGlass can be sandblasted, screen printed or have materials applied to its surface to modify its opacity,or it may have layers of timber or metal applied to it to alter its interaction with light. Manipulatingglass can change the experience of how light enters or exits a building, space or object. ‘Broken dreams’, Glass & Steel Wall lamps, 2010 : The Campana Brothers
  • 14. GLASS & STEEL > SURFACE TREATMENTSGlass surface treatments can bring many possibilities. Screen printing patterns on the surface cansuggest re ections. Glass can also be treated with chemicals so that it is self-cleaning. There are alsosurface treatments that will reduce heat loss in the winter and control solar gain in the summer.. The Kunsthaus Bregenz, Austria, 1997 : Peter Zumthor
  • 15. GLASS & STEEL > SUSTAINABILITY OF GLASSGlass can only really be considered a re-newable material in a recycled or re-used form, not when it isinitially manufactured. One of the many advantages of glass is that the material is theoretically‘in nitely recyclable’ with no loss of quality. Recycling glass uses less energy than when it ismanufactured from sand, lime and soda. Glass Cullet for Recycling Recycled Glass Bottles Used in Earthship Construction
  • 16. GLASS & STEEL > PALAIS DES CONGRES, CANADAGlass and steel can be used to create impressive functional and engineered forms which can alsosuggest ideological issues. Glass has the potential to create building forms that can be immediatelyassociated with the properties of the materials itself – transparent, light, open and clear. Palais des Congres, Montreal, Canada, 1983 : Victor Prus
  • 17. GLASS & STEEL > SPIRAL STAIR, HOTEL JOSEFThis stair was designed by renowned Czech architect Eva Jiřičná, who is known for merging light andglass into all her designs. Within the hotel lobby your eyes are drawn to the dominating feature ofthe room - an unexpected art installation - the magni cent glass and steel spiral staircase. Spiral Stair, Hotel Josef, Prague : Eva Jiricna Architects
  • 18. GLASS & STEEL > BUS SHELL-TER, CALIFORNIAThe glowing shell-like form of the Bus Shell-ter is visible from a distance of a quarter of a mile. It’s madefrom bent strips of uorescent plexi-glass attached to a steel frame in a shiplap pattern. Photovoltaiccells on the top of the shelter provide power for recessed uplights located in the pavement. Bus Shell-ter, California, USA : Studio Winterich
  • 19. GLASS & STEEL > SCULPTURE > DANNY LANE Lane’s sculptures exploit the strength of glass under compression and combine feats of design and engineering to produce work which is breathtaking in its apparent simplicity.Glass Balustrade, Glass Gallery V&A Museum : Danny Lane
  • 20. GLASS & STEEL > GLASS FLOORS Feeling of insecurity, unstableness, vulnerability……but great views.
  • 21. GLASS & STEEL > LEAF CHAPEL The Leaf Chapel,  is formed by two leaves – one glass, one steel – which have seemingly uttered to the ground. The glass leaf with its delicate lace pattern motif emulates a pergola and the structure holding it up resembles the veins of a leaf. Leaf Chapel : Klein Dytham Architecture
  • 22. GLASS & STEEL > LAMINATA HOUSE, NETHERLANDS The Laminata House walls are composed of individual layers of glass laminate each about 10mm thick. These blocks of vertically stacked sheets are made of 10,000 individually cut layers and are pasted into place with a silicone-based sealant. The width of the walls varies from 200mm to 2m. Laminata House, Netherlands : Kruunenberg van der Erve
  • 23. GLASS & STEEL > SWITCHABLE PRIVACY GLASS DOORSElectric glass is a high-tech solution for privacy and display installations. At the ip of a switch, theelectric glass will amazingly go from a transparent state to a frosted white translucent state. Switchable Privacy Glass
  • 24. GLASS & STEEL > RECYCLED GLASS BEER BOTTLE PIVOTING DOORS This unique door decorations are made from recycled beer bottles. Each door has an aluminium body and is made up of 1590 bottles. Bottles are held in place with some neoprene rings that are fixed between the aluminium frame. The shiny brown bottles create a warm amber glow against the cold of the polished concrete backdrop. Recycled Beer Bottle Doors : Johnsen Schmaling Architects
  • 25. GLASS & STEEL > RAINBOW CHURCH, SEOULRainbow Church is an installation that consists of a 9-metre window made of 500 crystal prisms,which create rainbows within the space as the light is refracted. Rainbow Church, Seoul, South Korea : Tokujin Yoshioka
  • 26. GLASS & STEEL > ‘THE SUN’ > GARDENS OF GLASS EXHIBITIONDale Chihuly was rst introduced to glass while studying interior design. He exhibited at Gardens ofGlass, which was an exhibition speci cally designed to respond to Kew’s living collections, landscape,architecture and vistas. The visitors experience altered from day to night and from season to season. The Sun at Kew Gardens, Gardens of Glass Exhibition, 2005 : Dale Chihuly
  • 27. GLASS & STEEL > PROFILIT GLASS WALLSThe Pilkington Pro lit™ translucent linear channel glass system consists of unique, self-supportingcast glass channels and an extruded metal perimeter frame. The end result is a wall that obscuresvision but allows light to pass through. Pilkington Pro lit can be used in interior or exteriorapplications. The "U-shaped" channels can be installed either vertically or horizontally. Translucent Linear Channel Glass System : Pilkington Profilit
  • 28. GLASS & STEEL > WATER/GLASS HOUSE, JAPANSituated on a hill, this spectacular ocean view villa has a striking oval dinning room that appears to beon an island surrounded by water. Designed by architect Kengo Kuma, this glass house in which wateris also a key component has the effect of a structure oating on water. Water/ Glass House, Atami Villa, Japan, 1995 : Kengo Kuma & Associates
  • 29. GLASS & STEEL > WATER/GLASS HOUSE, JAPAN Water/ Glass House, Atami Villa, Japan, 1995 : Kengo Kuma & Associates
  • 30. GLASS & STEEL > BUNDESTAG DOME, REICHSTAG, BERLINThe Reichstag dome is glass dome constructed on top of the rebuilt Reichstag building in Berlin. Itwas built to symbolize the reuni cation of Germany. It allows a 360 degree view of the surroundingBerlin cityscape. The debating chamber of the Bundestag, the German parliament, can be seen below. Bundestag Dome, Reichstag, Berlin, Germany, 1999 : Foster + Partners
  • 31. GLASS & STEEL > BUNDESTAG DOME, REICHSTAG, BERLIN Bundestag Dome, Reichstag, Berlin, Germany, 1999 : Foster + Partners
  • 32. Questions……..?Twitter: @linseymcintosh