Materials: Week 5 - Metals


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Materials: Week 5 - Metals

  1. 1. Interior + Environmental Design MATERIALS Metals
  2. 2. METALS > OVERVIEW- versatile building material - can be used forstructure, external elements, xings, etc- wide range of metals available with differentproperties meaning they can be shaped,processed and jointed in different ways- can be recycled and returned to productionprocess without impairing the quality of thesubsequent product- many nishing techniques can be applied –highly polished, powder coated, etc
  3. 3. METALS > THROUGH THE AGES > THE ROMANSThe extent of Roman dominions meant that they had access to a variety of metals which were usedaccording to their characteristics. Metal was an expensive material and this is why there are fewbronze artefacts of that age in existence today - few were made and most were plundered and molten. Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius Pantheon, Rome, Italy, AD 125 Capitoline Museum, Rome Unknown Architect
  4. 4. METALS > THROUGH THE AGES > CRYSTAL PALACE, LONDONIn 1851, Joseph Paxtons Crystal Palace marked a de ning moment in the history of metal andarchitecture. Employing 3300 columns and 2220 girders prefabricated from moulded cast iron, it setthe tone for iron buildings for the next 50 years. Crystal Palace, London, 1851 : Joseph Paxton
  5. 5. METALS > THROUGH THE AGES > EIFFEL TOWER, PARISThe Industrial Revolution brought about a new trend: the use of something called metallurgy inconstruction. Built in 1889, the Eiffel Tower features metal lattice-work, formed with very purestructural iron, which makes the tower extremely light and able to withstand tremendous wind forces. Eiffel Tower, Paris, France, 1889 : Gustave Eiffel
  6. 6. METALS > THROUGH THE AGES > SECESSION BUILDING, AUSTRIAAt the start of the 20th century, the easy mouldability of metals was used to great effect by theproponents of Art Nouveau. One example of this is the Secesssion Building in Vienna where a delicateand very intricate frieze of golden foliage, grows over the entrance archway. Golden Roof, Secession Building, Vienna, Austria, 1897 : Joseph Maria
  7. 7. METALS > WHERE DOES IT COME FROM?Most metals are found in the ground as ore. Metal ores are dug out of the ground through mining,the rocks containing the ore are ground into small pieces, and are then placed in a furnace . Insidethe furnace the ore turns to pure metal, and is then poured out into moulds.
  8. 8. METALS > COMMONLY USED IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY Source : Architect’s Pocket Book by Charlotte Baden-Powell
  9. 9. METALS > FERROUS & NON-FERROUSThere are two groups of metals; ferrous and non-ferrous. Ferrous metals contain iron, for examplecarbon steel, stainless steel. Ferrous metals are often magnetic, but not exclusively. Non-ferrousmetals dont contain iron, for example aluminium, brass, copper. Source : Architect’s Pocket Book by Charlotte Baden-Powell
  10. 10. METALS > CORROSIONThe corrosion resistance of metals and alloys is related to the ease with which these materials reactwith their environment. Corrosion is a natural process that seeks to reduce the binding energy inmetals. In other words, corrosion is the wearing away of metals due to a chemical reaction. Galvanising Corrosion Powder Coating
  11. 11. METAL > DECORATIVE CORROSIONLocated in the Jewish Museum in Berlin, ‘Fallen Leaves’ is piece of installation art whereby the ooris covered by over 10,000 circular iron plates each with an open-mouth face symbolising a personwho died through prejudice and inhumanity. Inflatable Steel Soft Seat : Full Blown Metals
  12. 12. METALS > PERFORATED COPPER > SARPHATISTRAAT OFFICESCopper normally has a shiny red colour but under normal urban conditions a green patina builds upover a several years. This effect can be seen at the Sarphatistraat Offices where Steven Holl envisioneda ‘rectangular sponge’ of perforated patinated copper meeting the existing brick building. Sarphatistraat Offices, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1996-2000 : Steven Holl
  13. 13. METALS > SHAPING & PROCESSINGThere are two types of ways of working with metal - hot-working processes and cold-workingprocesses, and the choice is really dependant on the metal. For example, forging can either becarried out manually or by a machine using a hammer and anvil or with pressing moulds, and castingis a process which permits any shape at all to be formed. Forging Cast Metal
  14. 14. METALS > SHAPING & PROCESSINGSee the Architect’s Pocket Book for further information on metal shaping and processing. Welding Extrusions
  15. 15. METAL > FOLDED SHEET METAL > STAIRS > PRAGUE HOUSEThe concept of a delicate rippling ribbon was chosen because of the exposed position of thisstaircase and to achieve this the staircase was constructed from folded 10mm thick sheet metal. Apartment, Liben, Prague : HSH Architects
  16. 16. METALS > STEEL SHEET > FURNITURE > WELL TEMPERED CHAIRThe Well Tempered Chair is a seat based on four voluminous sheet-steel loops. Sheet steel was foldedand screwed together to form an armchair. The Bad Tempered Chair is more or less identical, butinstead of the no-longer available special sheet metal, a newly-developed type of plastic is used. Bad Tempered Chair : Ron Arad Well Tempered Chair, 1985 : Ron Arad
  17. 17. METALS > SUSTAINABILITYMetals such as copper, aluminium, zinc and stainless steel are all all non-renewable, butthey do have some bene ts.Although they have a higher energy cost than granite or marble because of themanufacturing process of the nal product, and they can not self generate, they areextremely hard wearing and can be continually recycled and reused in the future.
  18. 18. METAL > COMMERCIAL STEEL > HOMESTEAD HOUSESteel buildings can come across as harsh and uninhabitable – often t only for farming, but anarchitect has taken this form, and transformed it into a modern minimalist living space. The use ofstandardized and recycled commercial steel makes this a sustainable and affordable option. Homestead House (Conceptual House) : Michael Jantzen
  19. 19. METALS > SCAFFOLDING > CHIN CHIN ICE CREAM PARLOUR, LONDONIce cream is frozen with liquid nitrogen in front of customers at this ice cream parlour. Scaffoldinglinks together the colour-coded boxes forming storage and work surfaces. The stations connecttogether across the space to form a 3D schematic diagram of a nitrogen ice-cream making machine. Chin Chin Laboratorists, Camden, London : Shai Akram and Andrew Haythornthwaite
  20. 20. METALS > ALUMINIUM > SELFRIDGES, BIRMINGHAMThe uidity of shape of the Selfridges building recalls the fall of fabric or the soft lines of a body,The skin is made up of thousands of aluminium discs, creating a ne, lustrous grain like thescales of a snake or the sequins of a dress. Selfridges, Birmingham : Future Systems
  21. 21. METALS > STEEL > FUTURE FLOWER, CHESHIREThis wind-powered metal ower beside the River Mersey in England is 14 metre-high and haspetals of perforated galvanised steel. The inspiration for the Future Flower was drawn from themeeting of industry and nature. Future Flower, Widnes, Cheshire : Tonkin Liu
  22. 22. METAL > PRE-FINISHED STEEL > ‘HEAT’ URINAL‘Heat’ urinal is made from pre-coated sheet stainless steel with an antibacterial coating over avariety of graphic images. Thermocromic ink is used which changes its colour with the relativelywarm temperature of urine.‘Heat’ Urinal : George Walker, Daniel Liden & Yasuyuki Sakurai at the Doh Partnership Concept Project for Corus
  23. 23. METALS > TITANIUM > GUGGENHEIM, SPAINThe Guggenhiem in Bilbao is one of the most admired works of contemporary architecture. Itsbrilliantly re ective titanium panels resemble sh scales, echoing the other organic life forms thatrecur commonly in Gehrys designs, as well as the river upon which the museum sits. Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain : Frank Gehry
  24. 24. METAL > INFLATABLE STEEL > ‘FULL BLOWN METALS’Metals can offer unexpected shapes that you might normally expect of another material. These pillowshapes are in stark contrast to the tough quality of the steel they are made from. The process involvesin ating the stainless steel and each piece responds in a different way, resulting in a unique design. Inflatable Steel Soft Seat : Full Blown Metals @
  25. 25. METALS > STEEL FABRIC > MAISON FOILE, FRANCEMaison Foile is a new urban art centre in France. It was renovated from an old textile factory.Uniquely designed and re ective of the textiles produced within, the billowing exible facade ofmetal fabric is a really eye-catching piece of structure. See ‘Escale’ Steel Fabric at Maison Folie, Lille, France : Lars Spuybroek of NOX
  26. 26. METAL > IRON > INSTALLATION ART > ‘FALLEN LEAVES’Located in the Jewish Museum in Berlin, ‘Fallen Leaves’ is piece of installation art whereby the ooris covered by over 10,000 circular iron plates each with an open-mouth face symbolising a personwho died through prejudice and inhumanity. Fallen Leaves (Located in the Jewish Museum, Berlin) : Menashe Kadishman
  27. 27. METAL > MEMORY METALResearchers have designed a ‘shape memory’ metal alloy which can be stretched greatly, and it isthought it could be used as a construction material for buildings in earthquake zones. As the tremorshit, buildings could rock with the earth’s movements, and then return to their original structures. Google ‘memory metal’ for more information on the material.
  28. 28. METAL > STEEL FOIL > ABERYSTWYTH ARTS CENTREThis special cladding system on these buildings at Aberystwyth Arts Centre was installed on-site byforming foil-thin steel into structural shapes and then coating the inside with spray foam insulation.The polished and crinkled steel creates an fragmented re ections of sky, forest and grass. Aberystwyth Arts Centre, Wales : Heatherwick Studio
  29. 29. METAL > RUSTED STEEL > PREFABRICATED METAL HOMEIn this prefabricated metal house a rusted steel exterior is surrounded by an aged and crumbling brickwall, which has been converted into a kind of cozy blanket, wrapping around the new house. Thearchitects hoped that the naturally-rusting corten would blend in with the surrounding rural town. Prefabricated Metal Home, UK : Haworth Tompkins
  30. 30. METAL > STAINLESS STEEL ROOF > MAGGIE’S CENTRE, DUNDEEFor Maggies Dundee Gehry was inspired by the design of historic simple Highland dwellings knownas Brochs, which are Iron Age drystone hollow-walled structures found only in Scotland. Maggie s Centre, Dundee : Frank Gehry
  31. 31. METALS > STAINLESS STEEL ROOF > MAGGIE’S CENTRE, DUNDEE Externally, the roof is enveloped in folded metal; the inspiration of the folds of a Dutch hat worn by a girl in a Vermeer painting. Maggie s Centre, Dundee : Frank Gehry
  32. 32. Questions……..?