Materials: Week 3 - Concrete


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Materials: Week 3 - Concrete

  1. 1. Interior + Environmental Design MATERIALS Concrete
  2. 2. CONCRETE > OVERVIEW- used in building and construction sinceRoman times-  composition mixed from sand, cement andstone- can be solid or uid in form- used to be considered an industrial material- now more versatile and dynamic
  3. 3. CONCRETE > THROUGH THE AGES > PATHEON, ROMEBuilt around 2000 years ago Rome’s Pantheon is one of the earliest and most celebrated examples of a concretebuilding. Its crowning dome, which is the largest unreinforced solid concrete dome in the world is constructedfrom stepping rings of concrete that sit on masonry walls. Pantheon, Rome, Italy, AD 125 : Unknown Architect
  4. 4. CONCRETE > THROUGH THE AGES > INGALLS BUILDING, USAThe Ingalls Building was the world’s rst concrete skyscraper. The building was constructed without the use ofsteel reinforcement. Construction went ahead despite the fact that detractors feared a concrete building wouldnot be able to withstand wind and concrete shrinkage. Ingalls Building, Cincinnati USA, 1903 : Elzner & Anderson
  5. 5. CONCRETE > THROUGH THE AGES > PENGUIN POOL, LONDON ZOOThe Penguin Poll manages to successfully combine the engineering and sculptural potentials of concrete inarchitectural design. Concrete, which is a characteristically ‘heavy’ material, appears to be ‘light’ in the design,creating a clever and carefully engineered creation. Penguin Pool, London Zoo, 1934 : Berthold Lubetkin
  6. 6. CONCRETE > THROUGH THE AGES > CHAPEL NOTRE DAME, FRANCEThe architect Le Corbusier exploited the exibility of concrete to create new forms and shapes. His Chapel NotreDame in France uses concrete to create a dramatic and sculptural form on both the exterior and interior spaces. Chapel Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp, France, 1954 : Le Corbusier
  7. 7. CONCRETE > THROUGH THE AGES > BRUTALISMBrutalist architecture is a style of architecture which ourished from the 1950s to the mid 1970s. He term comesfrom the French béton brut, or "raw concrete“. Brutalist buildings usually are formed with striking repetitiveangular geometries, often revealing the texture of the wooden forms used for the in-situ concrete casting.Towers from Brutalist Movement Royal National Theatre, London
  8. 8. CONCRETE > THROUGH THE AGES > JEWISH MUSEUM, BERLINThe Jewish Museum houses the bare concrete Holocaust Tower which is 24m high and neither heated norinsulated. It is lit only by a high single narrow slit. This contributes to the feeling of claustrophobia anddisorientation. The architect wished it to be difficult for viewers to feel at home – rather like the plight of the Jews. Jewish Museum, Berlin, Germany, 1998-2001 : Daniel Liebskind
  10. 10. CONCRETE > CULTURAL & MATERIAL CONTEXT > LA CUIDAD DE LAS ARTES…..Unlike other construction materials, which may strongly connect with the place of their origin, concrete is madefrom ingredients that can now be mixed anywhere. However, the user of concrete in architecture can still beinformed by local ideas of construction, form function and other aspects of context. La Cuidad de las Artes y las Ciences de Valencia, Spain, 1998 Santiago Calatrava
  11. 11. CONCRETE > CONSTRUCTION APPLICATION > PRE-CAST / IN SITU Pre-Cast Concrete Concrete Reinforcements In Situ Concrete
  12. 12. CONCRETE > APPLICATION > FOUNDATIONS Most buildings will have foundations that are made of concrete to provide a stable base for either a building’s frame or walls.
  13. 13. CONCRETE > APPLICATION > FRAMEWORKConcrete is also very good in compression, which means it can be used effectively to create stable structure.
  14. 14. CONCRETE > APPLICATION > WALLS & SURFACES Private Dwelling, Sydney, Australia : Tony Owen Partners Various Concrete Concrete walls can be constructed using formwork to create dynamic Textures & Finishes shapes, and concrete can also be used as cladding to cover existing wall surfaces. This home has contemporary curved concrete walls that mimic a ship’s sails in the wind, to give the house airy, in-motion effect.
  15. 15. CONCRETE > APPLICATION > FLOORS Many oors are made by casting a complete concrete slab at ground level, which stabilises the building and provides a at, clear surface. Intermediate oors can also be cast on site by pouring concrete into formwork. Concrete can also provide many interesting oor nishes. Polished Concrete Floor in ProgressDetailed Polished Concrete : Transparent House Camelion Floor Tiles : IVANKA
  16. 16. CONCRETE > APPLICATION > ROOFS Flat roofs can be made and nished using concrete. A Public Toilets, Gravesend : Plastic Architects pitched roof can be made from pre-cast beams and covered with a waterproof surface or concrete slabs.Additionally dynamic shapes and forms can be achieved by casting concrete shapes for roof pieces on site. Ribbon House, Perth, Australia : Hartree & Associates
  17. 17. CONCRETE > SUSTAINABILITY ISSUESIS CONCRETE SUSTAINABLE?In its raw state concrete powder is environmentally friendly, as it is of the environmentitself, hewn from rock and the earth, and then ground into a ne powder. Here it isknown as cement, before it is mixed with other raw components including water,hardens and then becomes like stone. But it is in the industrial extraction of thematerials, the mixing, and of course the application of concrete that is ceases to beboth biodegradable and environmentally friendly. Smog Eating Concrete Roof Tile Concrete Blocks Recycled Concrete Sink by Gore Design by MonierLifetile
  18. 18. CONCRETE > ALTERNATIVES > LIMECRETE & HEMPCRETE Limecrete and hempcrete are more environmentally friendly alternatives to concrete. For further information on both materials see : Hempcrete Limecrete Floor Being Laid Hempcrete Wall
  19. 19. CONCRETE > INNOVATIONS > GRANCRETEGrancrete is a tough new ceramic material that is almost twice as strong as concrete. It is re-resistant and can withstand both tropical and sub-freezing temperatures. Nautilus House, Mexico City : Javier Senosiain
  20. 20. CONCRETE > INNOVATIONS > GRAPHIC CONCRETEIt is possible to apply patterns to different concrete pieces. In addition to being patterned, theconcrete surface can also have a smooth or a completely exposed ne-aggregate nish. The cementcan also be pigmented, which provides colour to the concrete. Fachhochschule Eberswaldes Library, 1998 : Herzog de Meuron
  21. 21. CONCRETE > INNOVATIONS > TRANSLUCENT LIGHT EMITTING CONCRETELight transmitting concrete has been developed in recent years which becomes translucent byusing high-quality optical bres. Lucem Light Emitting Concrete
  22. 22. CONCRETE > INNOVATIONS > CONCRETE CLOTHConcrete Cloth uses a concrete/fabric hybrid that, when activated with water, can be mouldedinto a desirable shape before it hardens. Concrete Cloth : Concrete Canvas
  23. 23. CONCRETE > INNOVATIONS > NATURAL FOOTPRINT CONCRETENatural Footprint is composed of intricate patterns of laser-cut wood embossed into concretewhich begin to peel off and decompose due to pollution and weathering, creating shadowyeffects, until they nally fall off, leaving a permanent trace in the concrete surface. Natural Footprint Concrete : Alessia Giardino
  24. 24. CONCRETE > INNOVATIONS > COLOURED CONCRETEThe Soccer City Stadium’s outerskin has been constructed using glass bre concrete. It’s referred toas the ‘African Pot’ due to its shape which represents a traditional African drinking vessel. The theshades and textures of the concrete have been selected to symbolise the pots appearance. Soccer City Stadium, Johannesburg : Boogertman Urban Edge + Partners
  25. 25. CONCRETE > THE CHURCH OF THE LIGHT, JAPANA cruciform has been cut in the concrete wall of The Church of the Light that extends the fullwidth and height of the building, aligning perfectly with the joints in the concrete. It s a simpledevice, but an effective de nition of space. The Church of the Light, Osaka, Japan, 1988 : Tadao Ando
  26. 26. CONCRETE > BEACH RESCUE TOWER, GERMANYThis beach rescue tower on the German island of Rugen wasdesigned by an architect called UlrichMuther who was famous for his use of thin concrete shells. Its enormous windows and curved podgive it an otherworldly feel, rather like a UFO. Beach Resuce Tower, Rugen, Germany, 1968 : Ulrich Muther
  27. 27. CONCRETE > HAIR SALON, PORTUGALThis hair salon in Portugal aims to keep sight of the initial construction elements such as exposedconcrete. The dialogue between the raw concrete with the soft owing fabric, ensures a visualbalance of a relaxing, comfortable and informal environment. Hair Salon, Braga, Portuga : Nuno Capa    
  28. 28. CONCRETE > FURNITUREConcrete Chesterfield Sofa : Gray Concrete Mold Pendant Light : Michel Charlot Tetris Modular Shelf : Fries & Zumbühl Mold Pendant Light : Michel Charlot
  29. 29. CONCRETE > PRE-FAB CONCRETE BLOCK HOMEConcrete is often seen as a harsh utilitarian material but it is almost delicate here as it is applied withrhythmic openings between structural units to allow light and air to pass through. The slots in themodular blocks can also accommodate additional interior functions. Pre-Fab Concrete Block Home : JMS
  30. 30. CONCRETE > ZILVERPARKKADE, NETHERLANDSIn contemporary architecture, concrete isnt just used as an exposed material, its also increasinglya signi cant façade covering. The pre-fabricated branch-like structure creates a scheme, thatspans the entire building. Zilverparkkade, Netherlands René van Zuuk
  31. 31. CONCRETE > BAUMSCHULENWEG CREMATORIUM, BERLIN The Baumschulenweg Crematorium is both simpleand complex. It provides an experience that uses the materials of concrete and light to suggest a calm,contemplative space in which to re ect and consider. Baumschulenweg Crematorium, Berlin, Germany, 1998 : Axel Schultes & Charlotte Frank
  32. 32. CONCRETE > BAUMSCHULENWEG CREMATORIUM, BERLIN Baumschulenweg Crematorium, Berlin, Germany, 1998 : Axel Schultes & Charlotte Frank
  33. 33. Questions……..?