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Introduction to Human Anatomy

Introduction to Human Anatomy

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Introduction to Human Anatomy Presentation Transcript

  • 1. INTRODUCTION TO
    Anatomy & physiology
    by: adamlinoby
    Human Body
    Week 1
    V 1.0
  • 2. introduction
    Anatomy
    Studies of the body parts
    and their relationships.
    Study of large body structure.
    (e.g: heart, lungs, kidneys… etc.)
    • can be further divided into:
    1. Regional Anatomy
    - all structures in one particular region.
    Macroscopic (Gross) Anatomy
  • 3. Cont..
    2. Systemic Anatomy
    - system by system
    3. Surface Anatomy
    - study of internal body structures
    Microscopic Anatomy
    Very small structures that cannot be
    seen with naked eyes.
    1. Cytology
    - Study of body cells
    2. Histology
    - Study of body tissues
  • 4. Cont..
    Developmental Anatomy
    Structural changes to the body
    throughout lifespan.
    1. Embryology
    - Development which occur before birth
  • 5. introduction
    Physiology
    Study of the body function
    • System Physiology
    - study of body system’s function
    • Comparative Physiology
    - study of various characteristics
    of living organisms
    • Medical Physiology
    - study of physiological dysfunction
    and diseases
  • 6. STRUCTURAL LEVEL OF A BODY
    Chemical
    Combination of atoms to form molecules
    Cell
    Basic living units; have common characteristics,
    differ in structure and function
    Tissue
    A group of cells with similar structure and function:
    epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
    Organ
    Two or more tissues work together perform one or
    more common function: eye, skin, stomach, heart.
    Organ System
    A group of organs of a common function:
    Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Endocrine,
    Cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive.
  • 7. SYSTEM OF THE BODY
    Integumentary System
    - External cover of the body (skin)
    - Protects deeper tissues from injury
    - Site of cutaneous, receptors, sweat
    and oil glands.
    Skeletal System
    - Bones
    - Protects and supports body organs
  • 8. Cont..
    SYSTEM OF THE BODY
    Muscular System
    - muscles
    - produce body movement
    Nervous System
    - consist of brain, sensory receptor,
    nerves, spinal cord
    - control homeostasis by stimulating
    particular muscles contraction
    and glands secretion
  • 9. Cont..
    SYSTEM OF THE BODY
    Endocrine System
    - Hormones secretion to
    regulate body processes.
    Cardiovascular System
    - Transport blood to the body
    Lymphatic/Immune System
    - Protect the body by attacking
    foreign substances entering
    body system
  • 10. Cont..
    SYSTEM OF THE BODY
    Respiratory System
    - supply blood with oxygen
    and removing carbon dioxide.
    Digestive System
    - break down the food for absorption
    - indigestible food will be
    removed as feces
  • 11. Cont..
    SYSTEM OF THE BODY
    Urinary System
    - regulation of water, electrolytes
    and acid-base balance in the body.
    Reproductive System
    - production of babies
  • 12. HOMEOSTASIS
    Body’s ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions although the external environment keep changing…
    3 components:-
    1
    2
    3
    Response
    (Output)
    Feedback
  • 13. Cont..
    HOMEOSTASIS
    Negative Feedback Mechanisms
    - Restoring back the body to its
    original state.
    - Cut-off the original stimulus and
    reduce the intensity
    - Make up most of the homeostasis
    control mechanisms
    - Avoid sudden and harmful
    changes to our body
    - e.g: Insulin will be secreted if the
    glucose level in blood is too high.
    - ve
  • 14. Cont..
    HOMEOSTASIS
    Positive Feedback Mechanisms
    - Triggering an enhance action
    from the original stimulus.
    - Commonly for activity that
    do not need further adjustment.
    - e.g: Blood clotting where platelets
    will pile up and clot at the injured side.
    +ve
  • 15. ANATOMICAL POSITION
    Standing position with the body erect facing forward, feet slightly apart, arms hanging and palms also facing forward.
  • 16. DIRECTIONAL TERMS
    Explain and locate precisely where the body structure and it’s relation to another.
  • 17. DIRECTIONAL TERMS
  • 18. REGIONAL TERMS
    Axial Region
    - axis of our body
    - comprise of three parts:
    head, neck and trunk
    Perpendicular Region
    - limbs, or appendages
    - body parts that attached to the axis.
  • 19. BODY PLANES AND SECTIONS
    Sagittalplane
    - Vertical plane divide body into right and left
    - Sagittal plane that exactly cut in the middle
    called midsagittal or median plane.
    - Sagittalplane that offset from
    median line called
    parasagittalplane.
    Midsagittal Plane (Exact middle)
    Parasagittal Plane (Offset)
  • 20. BODY PLANES AND SECTIONS
    Frontal Plane
    - vertical line that divide the body to anterior
    and posterior parts.
    Frontal Plane
  • 21. BODY PLANES AND SECTIONS
    Transverse Plane
    - horizontal plane which divide body into
    superior and inferior.
    Transverse Plane
  • 22. Terms of motion
  • 23. BODY cavity
    Dorsal Cavity – protects nervous system
    - two subdivisions:-
    1. Cranial Cavity – brain
    2. Spinal Cavity – spinal cord
    Ventral Cavity – houses visceral organs
    - two subdivisions:-
    1. Thoracic Cavity – pleural (lungs),
    mediastinum(heart, esophagus,
    trachea, etc…)
    2. Abdominopelviccavity – abdominal (stomach,
    intestines, spleen, liver, etc…), pelvic (bladder,
    reproductive system, rectum)