Sähköinen liikenne nyt ja tulevaisuudessa (Sähköpäivä 2014)
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Sähköinen liikenne nyt ja tulevaisuudessa (Sähköpäivä 2014)

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Esitelmäni Sähköpäivänä Tallinnan teknillisellä yliopistolla.

Esitelmäni Sähköpäivänä Tallinnan teknillisellä yliopistolla.

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Sähköinen liikenne nyt ja tulevaisuudessa (Sähköpäivä 2014) Sähköinen liikenne nyt ja tulevaisuudessa (Sähköpäivä 2014) Presentation Transcript

  • Suomen sähköinen liikenne nyt ja tulevaisuudessa ! Electric Traffic in Finland: the Present and the Future Vesa Linja-aho Senior Lecturer in Automotive Electronics Metropolia UAS
  • Challenges • ”Finland will never be the world number one country in electric traffic” • Cold climate • Long distances / low population density • Warm, densely populated and/or countries with small area are the optimal environments for electric traffic
  • Bad arguments (= common myths) against electric traffic • The grid can not cope with charging • The vehicles can be charged overnight, when the load is low • 0.5 million electric cars charging @ 2 kW = 1 GW = no problem • http://www.fingrid.fi/fi/sahkomarkkinat/kulutus-ja-tuotanto/Sivut/ default.aspx • Electric vehicles are spreading gradually, the grid can be improved in time • Finnish distribution grid is already very modern and highly automatized • What about the long distances in Finland?
  • Long distances? ! • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0e/ Population_map_of_Finland.svg • Question: how long we can afford the sparse population? • People are moving from rural areas to cities • According to Yle News, many single family houses outside growth centers might be worthless soon.* • The population will concentrate in cities • Long distance driving will diminish • The battery technology advances * http://yle.fi/uutiset/moni_vanha_omakotitalo_saattaa_osoittautua_arvottomaksi__henkilokohtaisia_tragedioita_edessa/7233659
  • Helsinki region • Helsinki region = Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen • Population density: 950 persons / km2 • For comparison: in Stockholm region: 3597 persons / km2 • Population now: 1.1 million • Population estimate (2035): 1.5 million • +400000 inhabitants require massive mass traffic arrangements • Passenger car based traffic would be a disaster, were they electric or fossil fuel ones.
  • Long distances? • Most of the trips with passenger cars are very short. Typical trip from and back to work is couple of tens of kilometers -> very well suitable for even the current electric cars. • Longer trips are usually to visit relatives and the summer cabin. • Solution: 15 minutes fast charge while drinking coffee and visiting the restroom • Many families already have two cars - the other can very well be electric
  • Good arguments against electric traffic (or issues to be handled) • Low number of production = electric vehicles are expensive. • Old electric installations in parking lots • In Finland there are 1.5 million parking lot sockets for engine & interior heater • According to Aalto university report, the main obstacles for electric traffic are tax issues and arctic conditions.
  • Significant pros • Minimal service cost • Zero local emissions • Fighting oil dependency -> human rights issues • Better total efficiency • Overall performance (full torque from 0 km/h)
  • Concerns for individuals • The electric power is mildly taxed - for now • Charging at your workplace is a tax-free benefit • As the electric vehicles become more common -> tax revenue falls -> the electric vehicles will be targeted • The planned satellite surveillance system
  • Passenger cars in Finland • 2.4 million cars • 0.1 million cars sold every year • The average car is 13.1 years old • The fuel consumption of new cars reduces about 3 % / year http://www.taloussanomat.fi/autot/2014/03/21/tulevaisuuden-auto-ei-niin-hauska-ajettava/20143951/304
  • Hybrid electric vehicles in Finland 0 2250 4500 6750 9000 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 of which 5200 are Toyota Prius or Auris http://www.trafi.fi/filebank/a/1391172324/816fe7cba124187b38635396c8b40123/14125-Hybridiautot_2013_kanta.pdf
  • Full electric vehicles in Finland • In the end of 2013, there were 439 electric vehicles (BEV + PHEV) in Finland and 260 public charging stations. • The electric companies have founded a company http:// virta.fi/ to make the charging points more common. The number of public charging stations is doubling in summer 2014. • Price examples: • Nissan Leaf: 36 k€, 200 km, 24 kWh, 8 h / 30 min ( 80 % @ 50 kW) • Opel Ampera: 43 k€, 80 km*, 16 kWh, 4 h * With gasoline: 500 km
  • Operating costs • Electric vehicles have typically low maintenance cost (< 50 % of gas vehicle). The main benefit is the higher efficiency of the power system (> 80 % vs. < 30 %). The distribution losses in electricity distribution are < 5 %. • Electric power costs typically about 0.12 €/kWh. • Gasoline costs typically about 1.60 €/l (fuel tax 0.67 €) and Diesel fuel 1.50 €/l (fuel tax 0.49 €). • 100 km with • 20 kWh = 2.40 € • 6 l of gasoline = 9.60 € • 5.5 l of diesel = 8.25 € • The fuel economy depends on driving style and vehicle. • The difference is smaller if the fuel tax is taken into account. Without fuel tax: • 6 l of gasoline = 5.58 € • 5.5 l of diesel = 5.56 € • If and when electric vehicles become more common, it is very likely that government wants to tax them also.
  • How about the battery? • With regular hybrid vehicles with NiMH batteries: usually no problems in 10 years / 160 000 km. • For electric vehicles: we don’t know the reality. • Does the range drop 20 % from the new car’s range after 100, 120, 150 or 200 thousand km? • The more common the electric vehicles are, the cheaper are the batteries.
  • Taxation of vehicles • The prices of new passenger cars (electric or not) have relatively high vehicle tax in them. Couple of examples: • Škoda Octavia 1.4 TSI Active 19370 € + tax 4485 = 23855 € • Nissan Leaf 31767 € + tax 4213 € = 35980 € • The average age of passenger cars is high: 13.1 years. • Additionally, a yearly tax is paid
  • Yearly tax for having a vehicle • Depends on the power source(s), total weight and CO2 emissions. • Examples: • Nissan Leaf: 153 € / year • Škoda Octavia 1.4 TSI Active 101 € / year • For diesel vehicles the tax is typically 400-500 €/year
  • Handled issues • Training of rescue staff • Updating the electric safety standard(s) and legislation
  • Electric work safety • Finland’s electric work safety legislation is pretty bureaucratic. • When working with electric vehicles with > 120 VDC battery voltage, we have to follow legislation designed for electric installations in buildings. • Own electric safety examination + vocational degree in vehicle technology + 1 year of work experience = qualification for head of electric work in repair shop
  • Safety of rescue staff Photo: Mikko Saastamoinen
  • Electric bus traffic • Goal in the Helsinki region traffic: 100 electric buses in 2018 (of total ≈ 1000), 400 @ 2025
  • The Future • Robotization • Small electric vehicles • Electric bus traffic • All the major railways are already electrified • Electric tram traffic and commuter train traffic
  • Thinking outside the box • The battery and range issue can be dealt also by changing the paradigm: ditch the 1500 kg metal box and move only the person: • Electric-aided bicycles • Electric mopeds and motorcycles • Segway and all kind of new vehicles
  • Conclusion • Electric traffic is more than just the vehicles: • services (vehicle as service) • infrastructure • city planning • Finland can be a good environment for electric traffic, the high level of know-how and modern grid are the key strengths of the country. • http://www.raceabout.fi/era/
  • Sources and additional reading • http://www.teknologiainfo.net/fi/content/s %C3%A4hk%C3%B6isen-liikenteen- toimenpideohjelma-kohti-p%C3%A4%C3%A4st %C3%B6t%C3%B6nt%C3%A4-liikennett %C3%A4-0 • The easy way to follow the advances in electric traffic in Finland: http://electrictraffic.fi/