Information efficiency <ul><li>Google </li></ul><ul><li>eBay </li></ul><ul><li>Apple’s iPod </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia </...
Information efficiency <ul><li>“ People will pay extra money not to have to think ”.  </li></ul>
<ul><li>Information efficiency and  </li></ul><ul><li>The Nature of “Understanding” </li></ul>
<ul><li>The memory-prediction framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding is about “generating expectations”  </li></ul>...
Any ambiguity here?
 
<ul><li>Psychology: Expectations drive perception </li></ul><ul><li>Neuroscience: more links going towards the input than ...
<ul><li>In Feb, 14, 1989,  Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini  issued a Fatwa against Salman Rushdie, for the publication of Sata...
<ul><li>The Roman Catholic church's reaction to Khomeini's threat was especially remarkable, as it discovered its spiritua...
<ul><li>In its mouthpiece,  L'Osservatore Romano , the Vatican condemned  The Satanic Verses  as blasphemous. Rushdie had ...
<ul><li>Not only Rome, but other high dignitaries of the church elsewhere got a word in: Cardinal Decourtray, head of the ...
<ul><li>New York's Cardinal O'Connor stated it would be stupid to read Rushdie's book and that it was important to &quot; ...
<ul><li>The church had mapped their own situation with the ‘last temptation’ to the fatwa and ‘satanic verses’… </li></ul>...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Any inconsistency there?
Understanding <ul><li>Analogies and roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Fattah and a pope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The light-c...
<ul><li>What is perception? </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to analogies & abstract roles </li></ul>
What is perception? <ul><li>For example, what is an  A ? </li></ul><ul><li>3 line segments is a specific arrangement, perh...
hei ~ black in Chinese
 
 
<ul><li>Make an analogy that fits your case </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quebec will become a lifeboat! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Letter string analogies <ul><li>abc  abd  </li></ul><ul><li>ijk    ? </li></ul>
Letter string analogies <ul><li>abc  abd  </li></ul><ul><li>ijjkkk    ? </li></ul><ul><li>abc  abd  </li></ul><ul><li>x...
<ul><li>aabc  aabd – change the last letter to its successor </li></ul><ul><li>ijkk    ? </li></ul><ul><li>ijkl? - chang...
<ul><li>aabc  aabd – change the last letter to its successor </li></ul><ul><li>ijkk    ? </li></ul><ul><li>ijkl? - chang...
<ul><li>aabc  aabd – change the last letter to its successor </li></ul><ul><li>ijkk    ? </li></ul><ul><li>ijkl? - chang...
<ul><li>aabc  aabd – change the last letter to its successor </li></ul><ul><li>ijkk    ? </li></ul><ul><li>ijkl? - chang...
<ul><li>aabc  aabd – change the last letter to its successor </li></ul><ul><li>ijkk    ? </li></ul><ul><li>ijkl? - chang...
<ul><li>aabc  aabd – change the last letter to its successor </li></ul><ul><li>ijkk    ? </li></ul><ul><li>ijkl? - chang...
<ul><li>We have to find out what fits in the same “abstract roles”.  </li></ul><ul><li>Could a machine do it? </li></ul><u...
 
slipnet
WORKSPACE CONCEPT  NETWORK
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<ul><li>ABC  ABD : IJK   ? </li></ul>
Screencast #1 http://www.capyblanca.com
<ul><li>ABC  ABD : IIIJJJKKK   ? </li></ul>
Screencast #2 http://www.capyblanca.com
<ul><li>ABC  ABD : XYZ   ? </li></ul>
Screencast #3 http://www.capyblanca.com
 
MORE IMPORTANT THAN <ul><li>What something usually is, or is usually called, is the relation to other objects, and the abs...
What’s this guy’s role?
 
Current theory of Simon and Gobet Brum’s theory
The Capyblanca Project Screencast #4 http://www.capyblanca.com
Summary <ul><li>Expectations drive perception </li></ul><ul><li>Perception and high-level cognition interact intensively <...
Information Efficiency <ul><li>Google search and Apple’s iPod successes are due to it.  “ People will pay extra money not ...
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(Slideshare Version) 3. The Nature Of Understanding

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(Slideshare Version) 3. The Nature Of Understanding

  1. 1. Information efficiency <ul><li>Google </li></ul><ul><li>eBay </li></ul><ul><li>Apple’s iPod </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia </li></ul>
  2. 2. Information efficiency <ul><li>“ People will pay extra money not to have to think ”. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Information efficiency and </li></ul><ul><li>The Nature of “Understanding” </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The memory-prediction framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding is about “generating expectations” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capyblanca </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ a state of meaningful anticipation” </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Any ambiguity here?
  6. 7. <ul><li>Psychology: Expectations drive perception </li></ul><ul><li>Neuroscience: more links going towards the input than otherwise </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>In Feb, 14, 1989, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini issued a Fatwa against Salman Rushdie, for the publication of Satanic Verses. </li></ul><ul><li>A fatwa is a death sentence. Since “ though shall not kill ” is a sacred commandment from the Roman Catholic Church, they had condemned the fatwa. </li></ul><ul><li>Or did they? </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>The Roman Catholic church's reaction to Khomeini's threat was especially remarkable, as it discovered its spiritual kinship with the Imam and was visibly fascinated by the success of the Iranian god's reign. After all, what Khomeini had done was something the Roman Catholic church had not been able to accomplish in its agitation against Martin Scorsese's film &quot;The Last Temptation of Christ.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>(from “ Blasphemy is enlightment ”) </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>In its mouthpiece, L'Osservatore Romano , the Vatican condemned The Satanic Verses as blasphemous. Rushdie had hurt the &quot;religious feelings&quot; of hundreds of millions of the Moslem faithful. </li></ul><ul><li>Affiliation with the Roman Catholic church demanded rebuke of the blasphemous statements in the book, said the paper. Pope John Paul II saw fit to call Khomeini (after his overdue death) one of the world's greatest religious leaders . </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Not only Rome, but other high dignitaries of the church elsewhere got a word in: Cardinal Decourtray, head of the French episcopal congregation, spoke of an &quot;insult to God&quot;; </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>New York's Cardinal O'Connor stated it would be stupid to read Rushdie's book and that it was important to &quot; let Moslems know we disapprove of attacks on their religion .&quot; </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>The church had mapped their own situation with the ‘last temptation’ to the fatwa and ‘satanic verses’… </li></ul><ul><li>How could the church be so inconsistent ? </li></ul>
  13. 22. Any inconsistency there?
  14. 23. Understanding <ul><li>Analogies and roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Fattah and a pope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The light-cone / relevance cone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A sense of meaningful anticipation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How can that be implemented? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top-down pressures creating expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situations and Roles </li></ul></ul>
  15. 24. <ul><li>What is perception? </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to analogies & abstract roles </li></ul>
  16. 25. What is perception? <ul><li>For example, what is an A ? </li></ul><ul><li>3 line segments is a specific arrangement, perhaps with some decorations? (Donald Knuth’s metafont?) </li></ul>
  17. 26. hei ~ black in Chinese
  18. 29. <ul><li>Make an analogy that fits your case </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quebec will become a lifeboat! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a new Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is Germany all over again </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And what are analogies made of? </li></ul>
  19. 30. Letter string analogies <ul><li>abc  abd </li></ul><ul><li>ijk  ? </li></ul>
  20. 31. Letter string analogies <ul><li>abc  abd </li></ul><ul><li>ijjkkk  ? </li></ul><ul><li>abc  abd </li></ul><ul><li>xyz  ? </li></ul>
  21. 32. <ul><li>aabc  aabd – change the last letter to its successor </li></ul><ul><li>ijkk  ? </li></ul><ul><li>ijkl? - change the last letter to its successor </li></ul>
  22. 33. <ul><li>aabc  aabd – change the last letter to its successor </li></ul><ul><li>ijkk  ? </li></ul><ul><li>ijkl? - change the last letter to its successor </li></ul><ul><li>ijll? – change the last group of letters to its successor </li></ul>
  23. 34. <ul><li>aabc  aabd – change the last letter to its successor </li></ul><ul><li>ijkk  ? </li></ul><ul><li>ijkl? - change the last letter to its successor </li></ul><ul><li>ijll? – change the last group of letters to its successor </li></ul><ul><li>jjkk? – change the first letter to its successor </li></ul>
  24. 35. <ul><li>aabc  aabd – change the last letter to its successor </li></ul><ul><li>ijkk  ? </li></ul><ul><li>ijkl? - change the last letter to its successor </li></ul><ul><li>ijll? – change the last group of letters to its successor </li></ul><ul><li>jjkk? – change the first letter to its successor </li></ul><ul><li>hjkk? - change the first letter to its predecessor </li></ul>
  25. 36. <ul><li>aabc  aabd – change the last letter to its successor </li></ul><ul><li>ijkk  ? </li></ul><ul><li>ijkl? - change the last letter to its successor </li></ul><ul><li>ijll? – change the last group of letters to its successor </li></ul><ul><li>jjkk? – change the first letter to its successor </li></ul><ul><li>hjkk? - change the first letter to its predecessor </li></ul><ul><li>ijlk? – change the last letter of the increasing sequence to its successor </li></ul>
  26. 37. <ul><li>aabc  aabd – change the last letter to its successor </li></ul><ul><li>ijkk  ? </li></ul><ul><li>ijkl? - change the last letter to its successor </li></ul><ul><li>ijll? – change the last group of letters to its successor </li></ul><ul><li>jjkk? – change the first letter to its successor </li></ul><ul><li>hjkk? - change the first letter to its predecessor </li></ul><ul><li>ijlk? – change the last letter of the increasing sequence to its successor </li></ul><ul><li>… There are many interpretations of the rule </li></ul>
  27. 38. <ul><li>We have to find out what fits in the same “abstract roles”. </li></ul><ul><li>Could a machine do it? </li></ul><ul><li>Could a machine do it like people do it? </li></ul>
  28. 40. slipnet
  29. 41. WORKSPACE CONCEPT NETWORK
  30. 53. <ul><li>ABC  ABD : IJK  ? </li></ul>
  31. 54. Screencast #1 http://www.capyblanca.com
  32. 55. <ul><li>ABC  ABD : IIIJJJKKK  ? </li></ul>
  33. 56. Screencast #2 http://www.capyblanca.com
  34. 57. <ul><li>ABC  ABD : XYZ  ? </li></ul>
  35. 58. Screencast #3 http://www.capyblanca.com
  36. 60. MORE IMPORTANT THAN <ul><li>What something usually is, or is usually called, is the relation to other objects, and the abstract role that it plays in a larger context. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Quebec will become a lifeboat!” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The lawyer is arriving, but before the vampire says anything…” </li></ul>
  37. 61. What’s this guy’s role?
  38. 63. Current theory of Simon and Gobet Brum’s theory
  39. 64. The Capyblanca Project Screencast #4 http://www.capyblanca.com
  40. 65. Summary <ul><li>Expectations drive perception </li></ul><ul><li>Perception and high-level cognition interact intensively </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom-up, data driven processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Top-down, hypothesis-driven processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The right level of description maximizes information efficiency </li></ul>
  41. 66. Information Efficiency <ul><li>Google search and Apple’s iPod successes are due to it. “ People will pay extra money not to have to think ”. </li></ul><ul><li>The mind only understands something when information efficiency is achieved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ABC:ABD-> IIIJJJKKK:? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The only way out of a double check is to escape with the King” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information efficiency arises at the level of abstract roles </li></ul>

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