Odysseus and the Sirens  (1891) John William Waterhouse
<ul><li>Odysseus was curious as to what the Sirens sounded like, so he had all his sailors plug their ears with beeswax an...
<ul><li>When he heard their beautiful song, he ordered the sailors to untie him but they either stuck to their orders, or ...
This is our story #1 Let’s keep it for a minute
Story #2
VIDEO 1 Embedded below http://www.capyblanca.com
Story #3
<ul><li>In Feb, 14, 1989,  Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini  issued a Fatwa against Salman Rushdie, for the publication of Sata...
<ul><li>The Roman Catholic church's reaction to Khomeini's threat was especially remarkable, as it discovered its spiritua...
<ul><li>In its mouthpiece,  L'Osservatore Romano , the Vatican condemned  The Satanic Verses  as blasphemous. Rushdie had ...
<ul><li>Not only Rome, but other high dignitaries of the church elsewhere got a word in: Cardinal Decourtray, head of the ...
<ul><li>New York's Cardinal O'Connor stated it would be stupid to read Rushdie's book and that it was important to &quot; ...
<ul><li>The church had mapped their own situation with the ‘last temptation’ to the fatwa and ‘satanic verses’… </li></ul>
Emergence, Priming, and Understanding Hofstadter’s Cognitive Architecture, part (i) Alexandre Linhares http://www.capyblan...
<ul><li>Emergence </li></ul>
Chicagoland skydiving
Thomas Schelling’s work <ul><li>Our  Jekyll and Hyde-ness  nature </li></ul><ul><li>The case of the  would-be cigarette qu...
<ul><li>When &quot;you&quot; are halfway awake and halfway asleep, if &quot;you&quot; open your eyes for a brief instant, ...
<ul><li>&quot;You&quot; are &quot;both&quot; , in the sense that what you do, think, and desire, is a fruit of the fight o...
<ul><li>At the same time,  &quot;you&quot; are &quot;neither&quot;  of those individual processes--as neither your behavio...
Who are “you”? <ul><li>This is, in my opinion, the first groundbreaking proposal from Hofstadter:  </li></ul><ul><li>the m...
What is emergence like? <ul><li>Ants foraging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If an ant finds food, it deposits pheromones on the wa...
ScreenCast 1 Embedded below http://www.capyblanca.com
ScreenCast 2 Embedded below http://www.capyblanca.com
Emergence <ul><li>The Mind is the product of numerous different processes operating in parallel. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometim...
How can we implement emergent computational cognitive architectures? <ul><li>Codelets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are like the a...
Priming
VIDEO 2 Embedded below http://www.capyblanca.com
VIDEO 3 Embedded below http://www.capyblanca.com
VIDEO 4 Embedded below http://www.capyblanca.com
Priming, #1 <ul><li>Two Dutch researchers asked subjects to either (A) think and write down what it would be like to be a ...
Automatic effects on Behavior (Dijksterhuis & Van Knippenberg, 1998) percent correct percent correct
Priming #2 <ul><li>John Bargh’s experiments with scrambled phrases: </li></ul><ul><li>great is elders Florida a outlet for...
Brown’s statement <ul><li>“ Our tendency to think that we’re not predictable is probably one of our most predictable trait...
<ul><li>How can priming be implemented on a computational model?  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slipnet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Active concepts <ul><li>&quot;a machine that can pass the Turing test may well add as slowly as you or I do, and for simil...
Active concepts <ul><li>“ It will represent the number 2 not just by the two bits &quot;10&quot;, but as a full-fledged  c...
Active concepts <ul><li>“ with all this extra baggage to carry around, an intelligent program will become quite slothful i...
<ul><li>So how can priming be implemented on a computational model?  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slipnet: a network of concepts ...
Activation spreading 2 two too couple pair even prime “ , also” very Hofstadter’s Slipnet
Active concepts <ul><li>Drive the system’s processing, triggering codelets to handle what’s going on </li></ul><ul><li>Cre...
<ul><li>“ A bat and a ball cost $1.10.  The bat costs $1.00 more than the ball.  How much does the ball cost?” </li></ul>
<ul><li>“ A bat and a ball cost 1.10.  The bat costs 1.00 more than the ball.  How much does the ball cost?” </li></ul><ul...
Summary <ul><li>The mind is the emergent fruit of subcognitive processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Myopic; selfish;  </li></ul...
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(Slideshare Version) 2. Emergence, Priming, And Understanding

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(Slideshare Version) 2. Emergence, Priming, And Understanding

  1. Odysseus and the Sirens (1891) John William Waterhouse
  2. <ul><li>Odysseus was curious as to what the Sirens sounded like, so he had all his sailors plug their ears with beeswax and tie him to the mast. He ordered his men to leave him tied to the mast, no matter how much he would beg. </li></ul>
  3. <ul><li>When he heard their beautiful song, he ordered the sailors to untie him but they either stuck to their orders, or they couldn't hear him. </li></ul>
  4. This is our story #1 Let’s keep it for a minute
  5. Story #2
  6. VIDEO 1 Embedded below http://www.capyblanca.com
  7. Story #3
  8. <ul><li>In Feb, 14, 1989, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini issued a Fatwa against Salman Rushdie, for the publication of Satanic Verses. </li></ul><ul><li>A fatwa is a death sentence. Since “ though shall not kill ” is a sacred commandment from the Roman Catholic Church, they had condemned the fatwa. </li></ul><ul><li>Or did they? </li></ul>
  9. <ul><li>The Roman Catholic church's reaction to Khomeini's threat was especially remarkable, as it discovered its spiritual kinship with the Imam and was visibly fascinated by the success of the Iranian god's reign. After all, what Khomeini had done was something the Roman Catholic church had not been able to accomplish in its agitation against Martin Scorsese's film &quot;The Last Temptation of Christ.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>(from “ Blasphemy is enlightment ”) </li></ul>
  10. <ul><li>In its mouthpiece, L'Osservatore Romano , the Vatican condemned The Satanic Verses as blasphemous. Rushdie had hurt the &quot;religious feelings&quot; of hundreds of millions of the Moslem faithful. </li></ul><ul><li>Affiliation with the Roman Catholic church demanded rebuke of the blasphemous statements in the book, said the paper. Pope John Paul II saw fit to call Khomeini (after his overdue death) one of the world's greatest religious leaders . </li></ul>
  11. <ul><li>Not only Rome, but other high dignitaries of the church elsewhere got a word in: Cardinal Decourtray, head of the French episcopal congregation, spoke of an &quot;insult to God&quot;; </li></ul>
  12. <ul><li>New York's Cardinal O'Connor stated it would be stupid to read Rushdie's book and that it was important to &quot; let Moslems know we disapprove of attacks on their religion .&quot; </li></ul>
  13. <ul><li>The church had mapped their own situation with the ‘last temptation’ to the fatwa and ‘satanic verses’… </li></ul>
  14. Emergence, Priming, and Understanding Hofstadter’s Cognitive Architecture, part (i) Alexandre Linhares http://www.capyblanca.com
  15. <ul><li>Emergence </li></ul>
  16. Chicagoland skydiving
  17. Thomas Schelling’s work <ul><li>Our Jekyll and Hyde-ness nature </li></ul><ul><li>The case of the would-be cigarette quitter </li></ul><ul><li>“ Don’t let me ask for dessert” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Don’t let me have the first drink” </li></ul><ul><li>People that leave the alarm clock far from the bed </li></ul>
  18. <ul><li>When &quot;you&quot; are halfway awake and halfway asleep, if &quot;you&quot; open your eyes for a brief instant, to close them for &quot;just a little minute&quot;, only to wake up hours after &quot;you&quot; had originally desired, let me ask: who are the real you? The one that &quot;briefly, but consciously&quot; had closed the eyes, or are you the one that woke up only to regret those lost hours? The answer, strange as it may seem, is: you are &quot;both&quot;, and you are &quot;neither&quot;. </li></ul>
  19. <ul><li>&quot;You&quot; are &quot;both&quot; , in the sense that what you do, think, and desire, is a fruit of the fight of all of these subcognitive processes--the competition between those that say &quot;awake now&quot; and those saying &quot;just a sec&quot;. </li></ul>
  20. <ul><li>At the same time, &quot;you&quot; are &quot;neither&quot; of those individual processes--as neither your behavior nor your thoughts can be traced to any single one of them. </li></ul><ul><li>Like the strange case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, &quot;you&quot; are not one nor the other, &quot;you&quot; are the emergent product of many . </li></ul>
  21. Who are “you”? <ul><li>This is, in my opinion, the first groundbreaking proposal from Hofstadter: </li></ul><ul><li>the mind is the emergent product of a number of subcognitive processes. </li></ul>
  22. What is emergence like? <ul><li>Ants foraging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If an ant finds food, it deposits pheromones on the way back home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each ant moves on randomly, with a slighter chance of following a pheromone trail </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No centralized command: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergence & self-organized phenomena </li></ul></ul>
  23. ScreenCast 1 Embedded below http://www.capyblanca.com
  24. ScreenCast 2 Embedded below http://www.capyblanca.com
  25. Emergence <ul><li>The Mind is the product of numerous different processes operating in parallel. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes these processes cooperate, sometimes they bump into each other, creating “confusion” in one’s mind. </li></ul>
  26. How can we implement emergent computational cognitive architectures? <ul><li>Codelets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are like the ants: subcognitive processes working in parallel, sometimes creating order, sometimes creating confusion; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are myopic and selfish; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They communicate by virtue of changing a representation; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no central commander. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coderack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is where the codelets wait before being triggered. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a measure of “confusion”. </li></ul></ul>
  27. Priming
  28. VIDEO 2 Embedded below http://www.capyblanca.com
  29. VIDEO 3 Embedded below http://www.capyblanca.com
  30. VIDEO 4 Embedded below http://www.capyblanca.com
  31. Priming, #1 <ul><li>Two Dutch researchers asked subjects to either (A) think and write down what it would be like to be a Ph.D. professor ; or (B) think and write down what it would be like to be a soccer hooligan . </li></ul><ul><li>Afterwards, subjects had to respond to hard questions from “Trivial Pursuit” [e.g., “Who painted La Guernica ?” a) Dali, b) Miro, c) Picasso, d) Velasquez]: </li></ul><ul><li>(A) PhDs got 55.6% right, while </li></ul><ul><li>(B) Hooligans had only 42.6% right </li></ul><ul><li>This just might be the difference between success and failure. </li></ul><ul><li>Gladwell, Blink, p.56 </li></ul>
  32. Automatic effects on Behavior (Dijksterhuis & Van Knippenberg, 1998) percent correct percent correct
  33. Priming #2 <ul><li>John Bargh’s experiments with scrambled phrases: </li></ul><ul><li>great is elders Florida a outlet for retired </li></ul><ul><li>… how many seconds do people use when leaving? </li></ul>
  34. Brown’s statement <ul><li>“ Our tendency to think that we’re not predictable is probably one of our most predictable traits” </li></ul>
  35. <ul><li>How can priming be implemented on a computational model? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slipnet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active symbols assuming control </li></ul></ul>
  36. Active concepts <ul><li>&quot;a machine that can pass the Turing test may well add as slowly as you or I do, and for similar reasons. </li></ul>
  37. Active concepts <ul><li>“ It will represent the number 2 not just by the two bits &quot;10&quot;, but as a full-fledged concept the way we do, replete with associations such as its homonyms 'too' and 'to', to the words &quot;couple&quot; and &quot;deuce&quot;, a host of mental images such as dots on dominos, the shape of the numeral '2', the notions of alternations, evenness, oddness, and on and on... </li></ul>
  38. Active concepts <ul><li>“ with all this extra baggage to carry around, an intelligent program will become quite slothful in its adding.&quot; </li></ul>
  39. <ul><li>So how can priming be implemented on a computational model? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slipnet: a network of concepts and their associations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active concepts assume control of the system, triggering codelets to handle those expectations </li></ul></ul>
  40. Activation spreading 2 two too couple pair even prime “ , also” very Hofstadter’s Slipnet
  41. Active concepts <ul><li>Drive the system’s processing, triggering codelets to handle what’s going on </li></ul><ul><li>Create expectations of what’s about to happen </li></ul><ul><li>They are NOT binary, on-off, but have varying degrees in intensity </li></ul>
  42. <ul><li>“ A bat and a ball cost $1.10. The bat costs $1.00 more than the ball. How much does the ball cost?” </li></ul>
  43. <ul><li>“ A bat and a ball cost 1.10. The bat costs 1.00 more than the ball. How much does the ball cost?” </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of Economic Perspectives? </li></ul><ul><li>American Economic Review? </li></ul><ul><li>American Psychologist? </li></ul><ul><li>Nobel lecture? </li></ul>
  44. Summary <ul><li>The mind is the emergent fruit of subcognitive processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Myopic; selfish; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Codelets are like ants; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A concept that is activated, however subtle, exerts great pressure on one’s thoughts and behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Slipnet: a network of concepts and their associations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each concept has an activation level and spreads activation to neighboring concepts </li></ul></ul>
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