HMS Gloucester (British Type 42 Destroyer) 1991 Gulf War
What’s on the sky? American A-6 Intruder Bomber Silkworm missile (wings are folded in image) They surely look different in a radar, right?
Timeline, 5secs 5 secs later: “ I have 1 minute left to live ” radar event around 5:00AM
Timeline, 45secs 5 secs later: “ I have 1 minute left to live ” 40secs information gathering Firing of counter-missiles radar event around 5:00AM
Timeline, 1:30secs 5 secs later: “ I have 1 minute left to live ” radar event around 5AM 40secs information gathering Firing of counter-missiles Counter-missiles destroy object “ Whose Bird was that?” “ it was ours, sir”
Timeline, 4:01:30secs 5 secs recognition: “ I have 1 minute left to live ” radar event 40secs information gathering Firing of counter-missiles Counter-missiles destroy object “ Whose Bird was that?” “ it was ours, sir” 4 Hours of analysis, trying to find out whether a friend was shot down
Timeline, 4:01:30secs 5 secs recognition: “ I have 1 minute left to live ” radar event 40secs information gathering Firing of counter-missiles Counter-missiles destroy object “ Whose Bird was that?” “ it was ours, sir” 4 Hours of analysis, trying to find out whether a friend was shot down 45 seconds This is what interests us: the button-pressing; the decision-making, the intuition behind it, the thoughts, and the thoughts we never saw.
Mystery #1 How did the officer know in 5 seconds that it was a hostile missile? Be the mind!
In infirmaries, nurses are able to immediately spot infected microbabies (less than 1kg), so that doctors can start treatment right away. If they waited for test results, the babies would not survive the infection.
When the time comes for egg-laying, the wasp Sphex builds a burrow for the purpose and seeks out a cricket which she stings in such a way as to paralyze but not kill it. She drags the cricket into the burrow, lays her eggs alongside, closes the burrow, then flies away, never to return. In due course, the eggs hatch and the wasp grubs feed off the paralyzed cricket, which has not decayed, having been kept in the wasp equivalent of a deepfreeze. To the human mind, such an elaborately organized and seemingly purposeful routine conveys a convincing flavor of logic and thoughtfulness – until more details are examined. For example, the wasp’s routine is to bring the paralyzed cricket to the burrow, leave it on the threshold, go inside to see that all is well, emerge, and then drag the cricket in. If the cricket is moved a few inches away while the wasp is inside making the preliminary inspection, the wasp, on emerging from the burrow, will bring the cricket back to the threshold, but not inside, and will then repeat the preparatory procedure of entering the burrow to see that everything is all right. If again the cricket is removed a few inches while the wasp is inside, once again she will move the cricket up to the threshold and reenter the burrow for a final check. The wasp never thinks of pulling the cricket straight in. On one occasion, this procedure was repeated forty times, with the same result.
the desired response was a tiny thumb-twitch so small as to be subliminal, that is, the subjects could control it but only unconsciously (it was referred to as an ‘invisible thumb-twitch’ since the subjects had no knowledge of their controlling of it).
The response was recorded by electrodes placed on the palmar base of the left thumb and on the medial edge of the left hand.
Subjects heard music through headphones, and there was an aversive noise that would be mute for 15 seconds whenever the response was obtained, or, in case of it already being mute at the time of response, being then postponed for more 15 seconds.
Group 2. Recording electrodes PLUS some dummy electrodes, so they could not know where to attempt to respond to the noise. All subjects developed the response.
Group 1. Recording and dummy electrodes. They were not informed that had any control on the disturbing sound. Instead, they were told that the study was about “body tension of noise superimposed on music”. Thus, they were simply told to “listen through earphones, and, otherwise, do nothing”.
One might be led to believe that group 1 was a control group, since subjects lacked any knowledge whatsoever of the required task, but this is far from the truth. Group 1 gradually developed the desired response, as their brains were constantly scanning the senses for associations, and, in less than an hour, they were fully conditioned to stop the noise. The immense subtlety involved in perceiving a causal connection between an ‘invisible’ thumb-twitch and the annoying sound cannot be overstated, especially when we consider the massive sensorial information constantly bombarding the subjects. After the experiments were finished, subjects in group 1 were shocked to know they had been in control of the noise all along, as they still believed to have had been passive listeners throughout the whole experiment.
Jedi Conclusion Most of our learning is unconscious, impulsive, and automatic. You must trust the force!
Hofstadter (1979, p.677-678) especulates that a computer program to model human calculation processes in a psichologically plausible way would be as slow as humans:
“ [The program] will represent the number 2 not just by the two bits “10”, but as the full-fledged concept the way we do, replete with associations such as homonyms “too” and “to”, the words “couple” and “deuce”, a host of mental images such as dots on dominos, the shape of the numeral “2”, the notions of alternation, evenness, oddness, and on and on…”
2 two too couple pair even prime “ , also” very
Jedi Conclusion A concept will prime related concepts, and these primed, active, concepts, will guide subsequent behavior
Lying is universal--we all do it. Therefore, the wise thing is for us diligently to train ourselves to lie thoughtfully, judiciously; to lie with a good object, and not an evil one; to lie for others' advantage, and not our own; to lie healingly, charitably, humanely, not cruelly, hurtfully, maliciously; to lie gracefully and graciously, not awkwardly and clumsily; to lie firmly, frankly, squarely, with head erect, not haltingly, tortuously, with pusillanimous mien, as being ashamed of our high calling.
Then shall we be rid of the rank and pestilent truth that is rotting the land; then shall we be great and good and beautiful, and worthy dwellers in a world where even benign Nature habitually lies, except when she promises execrable weather. Then--But am I but a new and feeble student in this gracious art; I cannot instruct this club.
Patient could pick out the spoon with their left hand when asked
Roger Sperry (who won the Nobel prize in 1981) and Michael Gazzaniga
Split brain experiment, (ii) The LEFT hemisphere has language capabilities. In subjects with lesions separating the hemispheres, it is possible to present them requests to the RIGHT hemisphere, which the left hemisphere has no way of obtaining the information. After the subjects executed the requests, they were asked why they were doing what they were doing. What was their response?
Mystery #2 What do split-brain patients respond, since they have no way of knowing the answers? Be the mind!
Jedi conclusion Humans will easily, automatically, unconsciously discard inconsistencies, lack of information, and contradictions, so as not to feel bad about themselves
You arrive early on a game show with three doors, and one is open with a goat inside. Suddenly the janitor rushes and closes that open door. In the remaining doors, there is one car behind one, and a goat on the other. You get to keep whatever is behind the door you choose.
You arrive on your new job, taking care of dogs. You were advised to “beware of bloody Igor, which is very dangerous, and never submits to anyone”. Though many dogs won’t submit at many times, Igor never does.
As you arrive into the building, you find yourself immersed in an enormous fight between dogs. There is blood everywhere, and something like 20 dogs are fighting. You have a single muzzle, and you put it in the first dog you can. After a display of power, all the remaining dogs submit to you -- except one, which continues growling. It could be Igor, or Igor could be the one with the muzzle.
Now, concerning the muzzle, should you stay with your original choice or should you switch?
Mystery #4 Why do we have blind driving? Be the mind!
Mystery #5 Can there be a scientific explanation for the “life flashing through the eyes”phenomenon ? Be the mind!