Communicative approach Techniques& activities for communicative language teaching
- I’m surprised because the sun was shining ten minutes ago.
- I’m upset because we were going to have a picnic.
- The clues are NOT necessarily the verbal ones
Grammatical competence & Communicative competence
- I want the door to be opened by you.
- The opening of the door is what I request.
- To opening the door for me.
- Would you mind opening the door?
- “The ability not only to apply the grammatical rules of a language to form grammatically correct sentences, but also to know when and where to use these sentences and to whom.”
- “ Although our vocal organs are enough for the mere production of speech sounds, it is hardly an exaggeration to say that we need our entire bodies when we converse.” (John Abercombie)
- Verbal and non-verbal aspects of communication should interrelate in a teaching programme
Attitudes conveyed by
Communicative competence includes knowing
- The rules of conversation (address forma, taking turns, etc.
- The vocabulary and grammar of the language
- Howe to use and respond to SPEECH ACTS- language functions: apologize, request, thank, invite, etc.
Noam Chomsky’s distinction
- Teachers must do more than just supply learners with a number of language structures to manipulate
- “Foreign language cripples with all the necessary muscles… but unable to walk alone.” (Rivers, 1972)
- Skill getting & Skill using (Rivers)
CLT means both
Functions of the language
- Instrumental function- to get things
- Regulatory function- to control others’ behaviour
- Personal function- to express feelings…
- Heuristic function- to learn and discover
Functions of the language
- Imaginative function- to create a world of imagination
- Representational function- to communicate information
4 dimensions of communicational competence
- Discourse- meaning between the lines
Theory of learning Focus on…
- activities that involve real communication- these promote learning
- activities which are used to carry out meaningful tasks
- language that is meaningful to he learner
Activities should be selected if..
- …they engage the learners in meaningful and authentic language use
The syllabus should concentrate on
- Notions an adult might use
- Functions an adult might need
- Situations an adult might face when using the foreign language
- Skill based syllabus ( the 4 skills)- integrated skills!
- Notional syllabus (that you need, ESP)
Activities are OK as long as they…
- Reach the communicative objectives
- Engage learners in communication
- Require the use of communicative processes
Learner centred activities& materials
Accuracy vs. Fluency
- Teaching communicative competence means a reassessment of our attitude towards error
- Allowing mistakes? To what extent? Of what kind?
- …is a necessary part of a learner’s progress towards mastery of the language
Roles of teacher
- Facilitator, enabler, involver
- Organizer, source of resources
How to correct?
Which of the following statements characterize CLT?
- People learn language best when using it do things rather than studying how language works
- Grammar is no longer important in language teaching
- People learn a language through communicating in it
- Errors are not important in speaking a language
- CLT is only concerned with teaching speaking
- Classroom activities should be meaningful and involve real communication
- Dialogues are not used in CLT
- Both accuracy and fluency are important goals
The principles of CLT
- Make real communication the focus of language teaching
- Provide opportunities to experiment and try out
- Be tolerant to learners’ errors
- Develop both fluency and accuracy
- Link the different skills
- Let students discover grammar rules
Communicative language teaching is associated with Task- based teaching