Satellite Communications
Communication System
Dr. Muhammad Saleem Awan
Satellites
 Satellites are man-made objects or vehicles
intended to orbit the Earth, the moon, or
another celestial body....
Overview
 Basics of Satellites
 Types of Satellites
 Capacity Allocation
Basics: How do Satellites Work
 Two Stations on Earth want to communicate through
radio broadcast but are too far away to...
Basics: Advantages of Satellites
 The advantages of satellite communication
over terrestrial communication are:
 The cov...
Basics: Disadvantages of Satellites
 The disadvantages of satellite communication:
 Launching satellites into orbit is c...
Basics: Factors in satellite
communication
 Elevation Angle: The angle of the horizontal of the
earth surface to the cent...
Basics: Factors in satellite
communication (cont.)
 Coverage Angle: A measure of the portion of
the earth surface visible...
Satellites & Probes
Satellites and probes can be classified into
three groups, as follows:
 1. those that observe the Ear...
Types of Satellites
 Communications satellite - provides fast
radio, telephone and TV communications
 Weather satellite ...
 mapping satellite - takes pictures of the Earth
and make exact maps (in the absence of
clouds)
 surveillance satellite ...
Basics: Factors in satellite
communication (cont.)
 Other impairments to satellite communication:
 The distance between ...
Basics: How Satellites are used
 Service Types
 Fixed Service Satellites (FSS)
• Example: Point to Point Communication
...
Types of Satellites
 Satellite Orbits
 GEO
 LEO
 MEO
 Molniya Orbit
 HAPs
 Frequency Bands
Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO)
 These satellites are in orbit 35,863 km above
the earth’s surface along the equator.
 O...
GEO (cont.)
 Advantages
 A GEO satellite’s distance from earth gives it a
large coverage area, almost a fourth of the ea...
GEO (cont.)
 Disadvantages
 A GEO satellite’s distance also cause it to have
both a comparatively weak signal and a time...
Low Earth Orbit (LEO)
 LEO satellites are much closer to the earth than GEO
satellites, ranging from 500 to 1,500 km abov...
LEO (cont.)
 Advantages
 A LEO satellite’s proximity to earth compared to a
GEO satellite gives it a better signal stren...
LEO (cont.)
 Disadvantages
 A network of LEO satellites is needed, which can
be costly
 LEO satellites have to compensa...
Medium Earth Orbit (MEO)
 A MEO satellite is in orbit somewhere between 8,000
km and 18,000 km above the earth’s surface....
MEO (cont.)
 Advantage
 A MEO satellite’s longer duration of visibility and
wider footprint means fewer satellites are n...
Other Orbits
 Molniya Orbit Satellites
 Used by Russia for decades.
 Molniya Orbit is an elliptical orbit. The satellit...
Other Orbits (cont.)
 High Altitude Platform (HAP)
 One of the newest ideas in satellite
communication.
 A blimp or pla...
COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
APPLICATIONS
 COMPONENTS
– USER/TRANSMITTER SEGMENT
– TRANSMISSION MEDIUM
– USER/RECEIVER SEGMENT
 ...
COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
LINKS
POINT A
POINT A
POINT A
POINT B
POINT B
POINT B
SIMPLEX
(one way only)
HALF DUPLEX
(one way or ...
GEO-SYNCHRONOUS ORBIT
THREE SATELLITES IN NEAR-EQUATORIAL ORBITS CAN PROVIDE
CONTINUOUS GLOBAL COVERAGE...
...EXCEPT FOR T...
HIGHLY INCLINED, ELLIPTICAL ORBIT
...DO NOT PROVIDE CONTINUOUS
GLOBAL COVERAGE
HIGHLY INCLINED,
ELLIPTICAL ORBITS
COVER TH...
NEAR-EARTH ORBIT
NEAR-EARTH SATCOM SYSTEMS USE
MANY SMALL, CHEAP SATELLITES TO
PROVIDE WIDE AREA COVERAGE
NEAR-EARTH ORBITS
SATCOM VS TERRESTRIAL COMM.
GENERAL ADVANTAGES
 LINE OF SIGHT NOT REQUIRED BETWEEN USERS
 COMMUNICATION COST & QUALITY L...
COMSAT ADVANTAGES
TERRESTRIAL COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS
Frequency Bands
 Different kinds of satellites use different frequency
bands.
 L–Band: 1 to 2 GHz, used by MSS
 S-Band:...
Satellite Frequency Bands and
Antennas (Dishes)
 The size of Satellite Dishes (antennas) are
related to the transmission ...
Satellite Frequency Bands and
Antennas (Dishes)
C-Band Ku-Band
 Most commonly used bands: C-bandC-band (4 to 8 GHz) , Ku-...
Capacity Allocation
 FDMA
 FAMA-FDMA
 DAMA-FDMA
 TDMA
 Advantages over FDMA
FDMA
 Satellite frequency is already broken into
bands, and is broken in to smaller channels in
Frequency Division Multip...
FDMA (cont.)
 The number of sub-channels is limited by
three factors:
 Thermal noise (too weak a signal will be effected...
FDMA (cont.)
 FDMA can be performed in two ways:
 Fixed-assignment multiple access (FAMA):
The sub-channel assignments a...
TDMA
 TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)
breaks a transmission into multiple time
slots, each one dedicated to a differ...
TDMA (cont.)
 Advantages of TDMA over FDMA.
 Digital equipment used in time division
multiplexing is increasingly becomi...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Sat com

1,385

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,385
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
103
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • The Text Book makes an odd choice in calling DBS BSS (BSS is actually the abbreviation used for Boeing Satellite Service). These distinctions aren’t set in stone. For example, FSS satellites used to be used for broadcasting.
  • 4 BASIC APPLICATION OF ANY COMMUNICATION SYSTEM IS THE TRANSFER OF INFORMATION. THIS INFORMATION MAY BE TEXT, SUCH AS A DOCUMENT FILE, VOICE INFORMATION, VIDEO OR STRICTLY RAW DATA SUCH AS POSITION INFORMATION FROM A GPS SATELLITE
  • 5 WHEN DISCUSSING A BASIC COMMUNICATION SYSTEM, IT IS IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND BASIC CAPABILITIES INHERENT TO COMMUNICATION LINKS THE FIRST TYPE OF LINK IS CALLED SIMPLEX. PUT SIMPLY, IT IS ONE WAY COMMUNICATION FROM POINT A TO POINT B. POINT B IS NOT ABLE TO SEND ANY SIGNALS TO POINT A EXAMPLES ARE RADIO, TV, OR A GPS RECEIVER THE SECOND TYPE OF LINK IS CALLED HALF DUPLEX. THIS SYSTEM ALLOWS 2-WAY COMMUNICATION ON A LIMITED BASIS. THE LIMITATION HERE IS THAT ONLY ONE POINT CAN TRANSMIT WHILE THE OTHER POINT IS RECEIVING. EXAMPLES ARE HAND-HELD RADIOS (WALKIE-TALKIES), TELEGRAPH THE FINAL METHOD IS DUPLEX, WHICH ENABLES TO USERS TO SEND AND RECEIVE SIGNALS SIMULTANEOUSLY. EXAMPLES ARE TELECOMMUNICATIONS
  • 6 3 SATELLITES IN GEOSYNCRONOUS ORBITS SPACED EQUALLY APART, ARE ABLE TO PROVIDE CONTINUOUS COVERAGE ON THE EARTH’S SURFACE, WITH THE EXCEPTION OF THE POLES
  • 7
  • 8
  • 9 9
  • 9
  • Sat com

    1. 1. Satellite Communications Communication System Dr. Muhammad Saleem Awan
    2. 2. Satellites  Satellites are man-made objects or vehicles intended to orbit the Earth, the moon, or another celestial body.  Probes are satellites that move outward and skim by other worlds, sometimes actually landing on them.  Since the Soviet Union launched Sputnik in 1957, hundreds of artificial satellites have been sent into orbit.
    3. 3. Overview  Basics of Satellites  Types of Satellites  Capacity Allocation
    4. 4. Basics: How do Satellites Work  Two Stations on Earth want to communicate through radio broadcast but are too far away to use conventional means.  The two stations can use a satellite as a relay station for their communication  One Earth Station sends a transmission to the satellite. This is called a Uplink.  The satellite Transponder converts the signal and sends it down to the second earth station. This is called a Downlink.
    5. 5. Basics: Advantages of Satellites  The advantages of satellite communication over terrestrial communication are:  The coverage area of a satellite greatly exceeds that of a terrestrial system.  Transmission cost of a satellite is independent of the distance from the center of the coverage area.  Satellite to Satellite communication is very precise.  Higher Bandwidths are available for use.
    6. 6. Basics: Disadvantages of Satellites  The disadvantages of satellite communication:  Launching satellites into orbit is costly.  Satellite bandwidth is gradually becoming used up.  There is a larger propagation delay in satellite communication than in terrestrial communication.
    7. 7. Basics: Factors in satellite communication  Elevation Angle: The angle of the horizontal of the earth surface to the center line of the satellite transmission beam.  This effects the satellites coverage area. Ideally, you want an elevation angle of 0 degrees, so the transmission beam reaches the horizon visible to the satellite in all directions.  However, because of environmental factors like objects blocking the transmission, atmospheric attenuation, and the earth electrical background noise, there is a minimum elevation angle of earth stations.
    8. 8. Basics: Factors in satellite communication (cont.)  Coverage Angle: A measure of the portion of the earth surface visible to a satellite taking the minimum elevation angle into account.  R/(R+h) = sin(π/2 - β - θ)/sin(θ + π/2) = cos(β + θ)/cos(θ) R = 6370 km (earth’s radius) h = satellite orbit height β = coverage angle θ = minimum elevation angle
    9. 9. Satellites & Probes Satellites and probes can be classified into three groups, as follows:  1. those that observe the Earth  2. those that peer into space  3. the spacecraft that travel to other planets
    10. 10. Types of Satellites  Communications satellite - provides fast radio, telephone and TV communications  Weather satellite - takes photographs of Earth, sending them down in the form of  Radio waves; forecasters show satellite pictures on nightly weather reports  Remote sensing satellite - studies the Earth’s surface and send back vital data about global environments
    11. 11.  mapping satellite - takes pictures of the Earth and make exact maps (in the absence of clouds)  surveillance satellite - takes pictures of the Earth from 100 miles and higher (22,300 miles); recorders and cameras can listen in on walkie-talkie radio conversations, make out peoples faces and buildings, and even figure out the building composition Types of Satellites
    12. 12. Basics: Factors in satellite communication (cont.)  Other impairments to satellite communication:  The distance between an earth station and a satellite (free space loss).  Satellite Footprint: The satellite transmission’s strength is strongest in the center of the transmission, and decreases farther from the center as free space loss increases.  Atmospheric Attenuation: caused by air and water can impair the transmission. It is particularly bad during rain and fog.
    13. 13. Basics: How Satellites are used  Service Types  Fixed Service Satellites (FSS) • Example: Point to Point Communication  Broadcast Service Satellites (BSS) • Example: Satellite Television/Radio • Also called Direct Broadcast Service (DBS).  Mobile Service Satellites (MSS) • Example: Satellite Phones
    14. 14. Types of Satellites  Satellite Orbits  GEO  LEO  MEO  Molniya Orbit  HAPs  Frequency Bands
    15. 15. Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO)  These satellites are in orbit 35,863 km above the earth’s surface along the equator.  Objects in Geostationary orbit revolve around the earth at the same speed as the earth rotates. This means GEO satellites remain in the same position relative to the surface of earth.
    16. 16. GEO (cont.)  Advantages  A GEO satellite’s distance from earth gives it a large coverage area, almost a fourth of the earth’s surface.  GEO satellites have a 24 hour view of a particular area.  These factors make it ideal for satellite broadcast and other multipoint applications.
    17. 17. GEO (cont.)  Disadvantages  A GEO satellite’s distance also cause it to have both a comparatively weak signal and a time delay in the signal, which is bad for point to point communication.  GEO satellites, centered above the equator, have difficulty broadcasting signals to near polar regions
    18. 18. Low Earth Orbit (LEO)  LEO satellites are much closer to the earth than GEO satellites, ranging from 500 to 1,500 km above the surface.  Because they orbit so close to the Earth, they must travel very fast (17,000 mph) so the gravity can’t pull them back into the Earth’s atmosphere.  LEO satellites don’t stay in fixed position relative to the surface, and are only visible for 15 to 20 minutes each pass.  A network of LEO satellites is necessary for LEO satellites to be useful
    19. 19. LEO (cont.)  Advantages  A LEO satellite’s proximity to earth compared to a GEO satellite gives it a better signal strength and less of a time delay, which makes it better for point to point communication.  A LEO satellite’s smaller area of coverage is less of a waste of bandwidth.
    20. 20. LEO (cont.)  Disadvantages  A network of LEO satellites is needed, which can be costly  LEO satellites have to compensate for Doppler shifts cause by their relative movement.  Atmospheric drag effects LEO satellites, causing gradual orbital deterioration.
    21. 21. Medium Earth Orbit (MEO)  A MEO satellite is in orbit somewhere between 8,000 km and 18,000 km above the earth’s surface.  MEO satellites are similar to LEO satellites in functionality.  MEO satellites are visible for much longer periods of time than LEO satellites, usually between 2 to 8 hours.  MEO satellites have a larger coverage area than LEO satellites.
    22. 22. MEO (cont.)  Advantage  A MEO satellite’s longer duration of visibility and wider footprint means fewer satellites are needed in a MEO network than a LEO network.  Disadvantage  A MEO satellite’s distance gives it a longer time delay and weaker signal than a LEO satellite, though not as bad as a GEO satellite.
    23. 23. Other Orbits  Molniya Orbit Satellites  Used by Russia for decades.  Molniya Orbit is an elliptical orbit. The satellite remains in a nearly fixed position relative to earth for eight hours.  A series of three Molniya satellites can act like a GEO satellite.  Useful in near polar regions.
    24. 24. Other Orbits (cont.)  High Altitude Platform (HAP)  One of the newest ideas in satellite communication.  A blimp or plane around 20 km above the earth’s surface is used as a satellite.  HAPs would have very small coverage area, but would have a comparatively strong signal.  Cheaper to put in position, but would require a lot of them in a network.
    25. 25. COMMUNICATION SYSTEM APPLICATIONS  COMPONENTS – USER/TRANSMITTER SEGMENT – TRANSMISSION MEDIUM – USER/RECEIVER SEGMENT  RELAY OR TRANSMISSION OF INFORMATION – TEXT – VOICE – VIDEO – DATA
    26. 26. COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LINKS POINT A POINT A POINT A POINT B POINT B POINT B SIMPLEX (one way only) HALF DUPLEX (one way or the other) FULL DUPLEX (both ways simultaneously)
    27. 27. GEO-SYNCHRONOUS ORBIT THREE SATELLITES IN NEAR-EQUATORIAL ORBITS CAN PROVIDE CONTINUOUS GLOBAL COVERAGE... ...EXCEPT FOR THE POLES GEO-SYNCHRONOUS SATCOM
    28. 28. HIGHLY INCLINED, ELLIPTICAL ORBIT ...DO NOT PROVIDE CONTINUOUS GLOBAL COVERAGE HIGHLY INCLINED, ELLIPTICAL ORBITS COVER THE POLES, BUT... HIGHLY ELLIPTICAL ORBITS
    29. 29. NEAR-EARTH ORBIT NEAR-EARTH SATCOM SYSTEMS USE MANY SMALL, CHEAP SATELLITES TO PROVIDE WIDE AREA COVERAGE NEAR-EARTH ORBITS
    30. 30. SATCOM VS TERRESTRIAL COMM. GENERAL ADVANTAGES  LINE OF SIGHT NOT REQUIRED BETWEEN USERS  COMMUNICATION COST & QUALITY LESS SENSITIVE TO DISTANCE AND TERRAIN EFFECTS  MOBILE COMM LINKS BEYOND LINE OF SIGHT  DIRECT COMMUNICATIONS TO REMOTE AREAS, NO NEED FOR INTERMEDIATE GROUND RELAYS  WIDE AREA OR FOCUSED BROADCAST OPTIONS  LARGE CAPACITY FOR MESSAGE TRAFFIC  MINIMUM RESTRAINT ON USERS
    31. 31. COMSAT ADVANTAGES TERRESTRIAL COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS
    32. 32. Frequency Bands  Different kinds of satellites use different frequency bands.  L–Band: 1 to 2 GHz, used by MSS  S-Band: 2 to 4 GHz, used by MSS, NASA, deep space research  C-Band: 4 to 8 GHz, used by FSS  X-Band: 8 to 12.5 GHz, used by FSS and in terrestrial imaging, ex: military and meteorological satellites  Ku-Band: 12.5 to 18 GHz: used by FSS and BSS (DBS)  K-Band: 18 to 26.5 GHz: used by FSS and BSS  Ka-Band: 26.5 to 40 GHz: used by FSS
    33. 33. Satellite Frequency Bands and Antennas (Dishes)  The size of Satellite Dishes (antennas) are related to the transmission frequency.  There is a inverse relationshipinverse relationship between frequency and wavelength.  As wavelength increases (and frequency decreases), larger antennas (satellite dishes) are necessary to gather the signal.
    34. 34. Satellite Frequency Bands and Antennas (Dishes) C-Band Ku-Band  Most commonly used bands: C-bandC-band (4 to 8 GHz) , Ku-, Ku- bandband (11 to 17 GHz) , and Ka-band (20 to 30 GHz ).
    35. 35. Capacity Allocation  FDMA  FAMA-FDMA  DAMA-FDMA  TDMA  Advantages over FDMA
    36. 36. FDMA  Satellite frequency is already broken into bands, and is broken in to smaller channels in Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA).  Overall bandwidth within a frequency band is increased due to frequency reuse (a frequency is used by two carriers with orthogonal polarization).
    37. 37. FDMA (cont.)  The number of sub-channels is limited by three factors:  Thermal noise (too weak a signal will be effected by background noise).  Intermodulation noise (too strong a signal will cause noise).  Crosstalk (cause by excessive frequency reusing).
    38. 38. FDMA (cont.)  FDMA can be performed in two ways:  Fixed-assignment multiple access (FAMA): The sub-channel assignments are of a fixed allotment. Ideal for broadcast satellite communication.  Demand-assignment multiple access (DAMA): The sub-channel allotment changes based on demand. Ideal for point to point communication.
    39. 39. TDMA  TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) breaks a transmission into multiple time slots, each one dedicated to a different transmitter.  TDMA is increasingly becoming more widespread in satellite communication.  TDMA uses the same techniques (FAMA and DAMA) as FDMA does.
    40. 40. TDMA (cont.)  Advantages of TDMA over FDMA.  Digital equipment used in time division multiplexing is increasingly becoming cheaper.  There are advantages in digital transmission techniques. Ex: error correction.  Lack of intermodulation noise means increased efficiency.
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

    ×