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- 1. Communications Systems Dr. Muhammad Saleem AwanDr. Muhammad Saleem Awan
- 2. Goals in Communication System Design • To maximize transmission rate, R • To maximize system utilization, U • To minimize bit error rate, Pe • To minimize required systems bandwidth, W • To minimize system complexity, Cx • To minimize required power, Eb/No
- 3. Noise FigureNoise Figure • Noise FactorNoise Factor is a figure of merit that indicates how much a component, or a stage degrades the SNR of a system: F = (S/N)i / (S/N)o where (S/N)i= input SNR (not in dB) and (S/N)o = output SNR (not in dB) • Noise FigureNoise Figure is the Noise Factor in dB: NF(dB)=10 log F = (S/N)i(dB) - (S/N)o (dB)
- 4. External NoiseExternal Noise • Equipment / Man-made Noise is generated by any equipment that operates with electricity • Atmospheric Noise is often caused by lightning • Space or Extraterrestrial Noise is strongest from the sun and, at a much lesser degree, from other stars
- 5. Internal NoiseInternal Noise • Thermal NoiseThermal Noise is produced by the random motion of electrons in a conductor due to heat. Noise power, PN= kTB where T = absolute temperature in K k = Boltzmann’s constant, 1.38x10-23 J/K B = noise power bandwidth in Hz Noise voltage kTBR4VN = Noise density N0 = Noise per Hertz = kT Uniformly distributed across the frequency spectrum It cannot be eliminated Upper bound on capacity⇒
- 6. Analog signals of bandwidth W can be represented by 2W samples/s Channels of bandwidth W support transmission of 2W symbols/s
- 7. • The maximum rate at which data can be transmitted over a given communication channel, under given conditions, is referred to as the channel capacitychannel capacity. • Data rateData rate – The rate in bits per second (bps) at which data can be communicated • BandwidthBandwidth – In cycles per second, or Hertz – Constrained by transmitter and the nature of the medium • Error rateError rate – The rate at which errors occur, where an error is the reception of a 1 when a 0 was transmitted or the reception of a 0 when a 1 was transmitted. • We would like to make as efficient use as possible of a given bandwidth, i.e., we would like to get as high a data rate as possible at a particular limit of error rate for a given bandwidth. Channel CapacityChannel Capacity
- 8. Data Rate and BandwidthData Rate and Bandwidth • Effective bandwidth is the band within which most of the signal energy is concentrated. Here, “most” is somewhat arbitrary. • Although a given waveform may contain frequencies over a very broad range, as a practical matter, any transmission system will be able to accommodate only a limited band of frequencies. – because of the limitation of transmitter & medium & receiver – This limits the data rate that can be carried on the transmission system.
- 9. Effective BandwidthEffective Bandwidth • Effective bandwidth is one property of transmission system. • If the effective bandwidth of the input signal is larger than the bandwidth of transmission system, the output signal will be distorted a lot! • The signal’s bandwidth should match the bandwidth supported by the transmission system. Transmission System Input signal Output signal
- 10. If a periodic signal is decomposed into five sine waves with frequencies of 100, 300, 500, 700, and 900 Hz, what is its bandwidth? Draw the spectrum, assuming all components have a maximum amplitude of 10 V. Solution Let fh be the highest frequency, fl the lowest frequency, and B the bandwidth. Then Example The spectrum has only five spikes, at 100, 300, 500, 700, and 900 Hz (see next Figure).
- 11. Figure The bandwidth for Example
- 12. A periodic signal has a bandwidth of 20 Hz. The highest frequency is 60 Hz. What is the lowest frequency? Draw the spectrum if the signal contains all frequencies of the same amplitude. Solution Let fh be the highest frequency, fl the lowest frequency, and B the bandwidth. Then Example The spectrum contains all integer frequencies. We show this by a series of spikes (see next Figure).
- 13. Figure The bandwidth for Example
- 14. A nonperiodic composite signal has a bandwidth of 200 kHz, with a middle frequency of 140 kHz and peak amplitude of 20 V. The two extreme frequencies have an amplitude of 0. Draw the frequency domain of the signal. Example Solution The lowest frequency must be at 40 kHz and the highest at 240 kHz. Next Figure shows the frequency domain and the bandwidth.
- 15. Two FormulasTwo Formulas • Problem: given a bandwidth, what data rate can we achieve? • Nyquist Formula – Assume noise free • Shannon Capacity Formula – Assume white noise
- 16. NyquistNyquist FormulaFormula • Assume a channel is noise free. • Nyquist formulation:Nyquist formulation: if the rate of signal transmission is 2B, then a signal with frequencies no greater than B is sufficient to carry the signal rate. – Given bandwidth B, highest signal rate is 2B. • Why is there such a limitation? – due to intersymbol interference, such as is produced by delay distortion. • Given binary signal (two voltage levels), the maximum data rate supported by B Hz is 2B bps. – One signal represents one bit
- 17. NyquistNyquist FormulaFormula • Signals with more than two levels can be used, i.e., each signal element can represent more than one bit. – E.g., if a signal has 4 different levels, then a signal can be used to represents two bits: 00, 01, 10, 11 • With multilevel signalling, the Nyquist formula becomes: – C = 2B log2M – M is the number of discrete signal levels, B is the given bandwidth, C is the channel capacity in bps. – How large can M be? • The receiver must distinguish one of M possible signal elements. • Noise and other impairments on the transmission line will limit the practical value of M. • Nyquist’s formula indicates that, if all other things are equal, doubling the bandwidth doubles the data rate.
- 18. Shannon Capacity FormulaShannon Capacity Formula • Now consider the relationship among data rate, noise, and error rate. • Faster data rate shortens each bit, so burst of noise affects more bits – At given noise level, higher data rate results in higher error rate • All of these concepts can be tied together neatly in a formula developed by Claude Shannon. – For a given level of noise, we would expect that a greater signal strength would improve the ability to receive data correctly. – The key parameter is the SNR: Signal-to-Noise Ratio, which is the ratio of the power in a signal to the power contained in the noise. – Typically, SNR is measured at receiver, because it is the receiver that processes the signal and recovers the data. • For convenience, this ratio is often reported in decibels – SNR = signal power / noise power – SNRdb = 10 log10(SNR) in dB
- 19. Shannon Capacity FormulaShannon Capacity Formula • Shannon Capacity Formula: – C = B log2(1+SNR) in bps - maximum data rate – Only white noise is assumed. Therefore it represents the theoretical maximum that can be achieved. • This is referred to as error-free capacity. • Some remarks: – Given a level of noise, the data rate could be increased by increasing either signal strength or bandwidth. – As the signal strength increases, so do the effects of nonlinearities in the system which leads to an increase in intermodulation noise. – Because noise is assumed to be white, the wider the bandwidth, the more noise is admitted to the system. Thus, as B increases, SNR decreases.
- 20. • Consider an example that relates the Nyquist and Shannon formulations. Suppose the spectrum of a channel is between 3 MHz and 4 MHz, and SNRdB = 24dB. So, B = 4 MHz – 3 MHz = 1 MHz SNRdB = 24 dB = 10 log10(SNR) SNR = 251 • Using Shannon’s formula, the capacity limit C is: C = 106 x 1og2(1+251) ≈ 8 Mbps. • If we want to achieve this limit, how many signaling levels are required at least? By Nyquist’s formula: C = 2Blog2M We have 8 x 106 = 2 x 106 x log2M M = 16. ExampleExample
- 21. Transmission ImpairmentsTransmission Impairments • With any communications system, the signal that is received may differ from the signal that is transmitted, due to various transmission impairments. • Consequences: – For analog signals: degradation of signal quality – For digital signals: bit errors • The most significant impairments include – Attenuation and attenuation distortion – Delay distortion – Noise
- 22. AttenuationAttenuation • Attenuation: signal strength falls off with distance. • Depends on medium – For guided media, the attenuation is generally exponential and thus is typically expressed as a constant number of decibels per unit distance. – For unguided media, attenuation is a more complex function of distance and the makeup of the atmosphere. • Three considerations for the transmission engineer: 1. A received signal must have sufficient strength so that the electronic circuitry in the receiver can detect the signal. 2. The signal must maintain a level sufficiently higher than noise to be received without error. These two problems are dealt with by the use of amplifiers or repeaters.
- 23. Attenuation DistortionAttenuation Distortion (Following the previous slide) Attenuation is often an increasing function of frequency. This leads to attenuation distortion: • some frequency components are attenuated more than other frequency components. Attenuation distortion is particularly noticeable for analog signals: the attenuation varies as a function of frequency, therefore the received signal is distorted, reducing intelligibility.
- 24. Delay DistortionDelay Distortion • Delay distortion occurs because the velocity of propagation of a signal through a guided medium varies with frequency. • Various frequency components of a signal will arrive at the receiver at different times, resulting in phase shifts between the different frequencies. • Delay distortion is particularly critical for digital data – Some of the signal components of one bit position will spill over into other bit positions, causing intersymbol interference, which is a major limitation to maximum bit rate over a transmission channel.
- 25. Noise (1)Noise (1) • For any data transmission event, the received signal will consist of the transmitted signal, modified by the various distortions imposed by the transmission system, plus additional unwanted signals that are inserted somewhere between transmission and reception. • The undesired signals are referred to as noise, which is the major limiting factor in communications system performance. • Four categories of noise: – Thermal noise – Intermodulation noise – Crosstalk – Impulse noise
- 26. Noise (2)Noise (2) • Thermal noise (or white noise)Thermal noise (or white noise) – Due to thermal agitation of electrons – It is present in all electronic devices and transmission media, and is a function of temperature. – Cannot be eliminated, and therefore places an upper bound on communications system performance. • Intermodulation noiseIntermodulation noise – When signals at different frequencies share the same transmission medium, the result may be intermodulation noise. – Signals at a frequency that is the sum or difference of original frequencies or multiples of those frequencies will be produced. – E.g., the mixing of signals at f1 and f2 might produce energy at frequency f1 + f2. This derived signal could interfere with an intended signal at the frequency f1 + f2.
- 27. Noise (3)Noise (3) • CrosstalkCrosstalk – It is an unwanted coupling between signal paths. It can occur by electrical coupling between nearby twisted pairs. – Typically, crosstalk is of the same order of magnitude as, or less than, thermal noise. • Impulse noiseImpulse noise – Impulse noise is non-continuous, consisting of irregular pulses or noise spikes of short duration and of relatively high amplitude. – It is generated from a variety of cause, e.g., external electromagnetic disturbances such as lightning. – It is generally only a minor annoyance for analog data. – But it is the primary source of error in digital data communication.
- 28. twisted-pair cable twisted-pair wire
- 29. plastic outer coating woven or braided metal insulating material copper wire
- 30. protective coating glass cladding optical fiber core Optical FiberOptical Fiber An optical fiber is a thin (2 to 125µm), flexible medium capable of guiding an optical ray. Preferable because of, • Greater capacity • Smaller size and lighter weight • Lesser attenuation • Greater repeater spacing • Electromagnetic isolation
- 31. Optical FiberOptical Fiber Five basic categories of application have become important for optical fiber: • Long-haul trunks • Metropolitan trunks • Rural exchange trunks • Subscriber loops • Local area networks
- 32. Fiber Optic TypesFiber Optic Types • Step-index multimode fiberStep-index multimode fiber – the reflective walls of the fiber move the light pulses to the receiver • Graded-index multimode fiberGraded-index multimode fiber – acts to refract the light toward the center of the fiber by variations in the density • Single mode fiberSingle mode fiber – the light is guided down the center of an extremely narrow core
- 33. Optical Fiber Transmission CharacteristicsOptical Fiber Transmission Characteristics Optical Fiber Transmission Modes

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