Project Management References
1. Robert T Futrell, Donald F Shafer and Linda I
Shafer (2002); Quality Software Project
Management, Software Quality Institute Series,
Pearson Education Inc. – Ch-15 Scheduling the
work pp 477-504
2. Steve M Erickson (1981); Management Tools for
Everyone: Twenty Analytical Techniques that are
easy to learn and valuable to know; Petrocelli
Books Inc. New York; Ch-3 and Ch-4 pp 31-66
3. Pankaj Jalote (2005); An Integrated Approach to
SE, 3rd Edi, Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi;
Ch-5 Planning a Software Project pp:179-214
4. NIIT (2007); System Analysis and Design for
Software Engineers, Eastern Economy Edition,
Prentice-Hall of India, Ney Delhi
• Project – An activity with fixed duration
and a deliverable product
• Project Management – The activity of
project execution should be so
managed that desired product is
availed with minimal resources, best
quality and within time constraints
The 4 P’s of Project Management
• People — the most important element
of a successful project
• Product — the software to be built
• Process — the set of activities or
framework i.e. the software engineering
tasks to be performed to get the job
• Project — all work required to make the
product a reality
• WBS – Work Breakdown Structure, describing all
possible activities, their durations and
• CPM – Critical Path Method, to determine how the
activities to be executed to complete project in
• Gantt Chart – A graphical representation, showing
activities, milestones and their dependencies
• PERT – Program Evaluation and Review
Technique, a graphical technique to plot activities
• Precedence Diagram or Activity Network Diagram
All activities represented in the form of a network,
nodes representing the activities
• Critical Activities are those whose delay will
delay the project
• Non-Critical Activities are those which are not
critical or those activities that have a non-zero
• Slack Time is the time for which an activity can
be delayed. It is the difference of Earliest Start
(ES) and Latest Start (LS) or Earliest Finish
(EF) and Latest Finish (LF) times.
• Float Time is the time in which the activity can
be completed without delaying the project. It is
the difference between Latest Finish and
Earliest Start times for respective activity
• Critical Path is the path from Start to Finish of
the project of comprising of all Critical Activities
– Two techniques are used to plot activities,
– AON – Activity on Node, where all data is
presented on the nodes
– AOA – Activity on the Arrow, where all
data is presented on arrows
An Example (from Ericson81)
• Organization of a symposium
Activity # Description Duration Dependency
A 10 -
B 20 -
C 30 A, B
D 10 C
E 30 B
F 20 D, E
For these activities using AON, draw Activity Network, and
then find Critical Path Among these Activities.
Risks are usually described in a risk table.
Such a table contains all risks, their
probability, possible impact and
An example of a risk table:
Measuring Processes and Products
The primary project goal is to deliver the project on time, within budget and
with the required quality.
The project manager must ensure that planned effort and time are not
exceeded and that the product is complete and reliable.
A metric is a quantitative measure.
Process metrics measure the performance of the development process.
Effort: amount of resources used and left.
Time: actual duration of activities, delay of activities (actual start minus planned
Progress: number of workpackages completed, number of problems solved.
Product metrics measure the product. Examples:
Amount: lines of code, modules coded and tested, pages of documentation
written (actual versus target), number of Use Cases implemented etc
Reliability: test coverage, complexity, number of software problems reported,
number of changes made after first release.
Metric data are used for project reporting, planning future projects and
improving the development process.
The Software Project Management Plan
The SR, AD, DD and TR sections of the
Software Project Management Plan
(SPMP) are separate documents:
Each section describes the project
management activities for a specific phase
(SR, AD, DD or TR).
All sections have the same structure.
In the next Slide is the contents of an
SPMP/SR, SPMP/AD, SPMP/DD or