Main Principles of Communicative Teaching Interactive Suitable Meaningful material Mistakes / Communicative Enjoyable Natural Teaching Use of target Language Involving Positive reinforcement
Answer the 4 questions. Discuss your answers with your peer. Report to the group• Why is lesson planning important?• How is lesson planning important for the teacher? For the learners?• What do you take into account when you design a lesson plan?• What constant components are there in your lesson plan?
Why is lesson planning important?• Being clear on what you want to teach.• Being ready to cope with whatever happens.• Give your teaching a framework, an overall shape.• A reminder for the teacher when they get distracted.• It suggests a level of professionalism and real commitment.
How is lesson planning important for the teacher and the learners?For the teacher For the learnerThey don’t have to They realize that the think on their feet. teacher cares for theirThey don’t lose face in learning. front of their learners. They attend aThey are clear on the structured lesson: easier procedure to follow. to assimilateThey build on previous They appreciate their teaching and prepare teacher’s work as a for coming lessons model of well-organized work to imitate.
What do you take into account when you design a lesson plan?Five guiding principles:• Variety Coherence Balance• Coherence• Balance Challenge Flexibility• Flexibility• Challenge Variety
Variety Why vary?• a- to meet different learning styles: theorist – Activist – Pragmatic – Reflector• b- to consider different intelligence types.• c- to keep them interested and avoid monotony. What to vary?• Contents – Activities – Interaction modes – Materials – Aids … How to vary?• VAK Approach
Ways of Varying these different components1. Tempo/Pace : Activities may be brisk and fast- moving, such as guessing games; or slow and reflective, such as reading or responding in writing.2. Organization : The learners may work on their own at individualized tasks, or in pairs or groups, or as a full class in interaction with the teacher.3. Mode and Skill : Activities may be based on the written or the spoken language; and within these, they may vary as to whether the learners are asked to produce (speak/ write) or receive (listen / read ).
4. Difficulty : Activities may be seen as easy and non demanding; or difficult , requiring concentration and effort.5. Mood : Activities vary also in mood: light and fun -based versus serious and profound; happy versus sad; tense versus relaxed.6. Stir - Settle : Some activities enliven and excite learners ( such as controversial discussions for advanced levels), or activities which involve physical movement (such as the race dictation) for the lower levels. Others, like dictation, have the effect of calming them down7. Active - Passive : Learners may be activated in a way that encourages their own initiative ; or they may only be required to do as they are told
Coherence• Observe a logical pattern to the lesson: there has to be connection between the different activities in the lesson.• Smooth transition is one of the pillars that ensures success of the lesson plan during implementation in the classroom.• An activity in a lesson builds on a previous one and prepares for the next.
Challenge Learners are intelligent human beings and come to class with knowledge previously acquired. The new lesson should add to that knowledge without excess. The lesson that does not challenge is a lesson that does not motivate. No learning happens if the lesson doesn’t present new items beyond students’ prior knowledge.
Flexibility• Two dimensions: a- ability to use a number of different techniques and not be a slave to one methodology – Principled eclecticism.b- ability to change the plan if it shows inappropriacy to the classroom real situation for one reason or the other.
BalanceThe lesson is a mixture of a number of ingredients: techniques, activities, contents …. The successful teacher is the one who is able to observe the right dosage and makes the learners enjoy a savoury lesson.
What do you take into account when you design a lesson plan?• Objectives set out to be achieved.• Prior knowledge of learners.• Materials and didactic auxiliaries to be used.• Tasks and activities to select and stts’grouping patterns.• Interaction modes.• Timing and time management
COMPONENTS OF A LESSON PLAN• 1- Information about the learners: Who? How old? How many? Students Cooperative? Quiet/ Agitated?
COMPONENTS OF A LESSON PLAN• 2- OBJECTIVES: Official« Enable learners to… » Program Students’ Objectives Module needs map Textbook
COMPONENTS OF A LESSON PLAN• 3- Procedure What to do? Logical sequencing How to do? Procedure How Who does much what? time?
COMPONENTS OF A LESSON PLAN• 4- Aids Textbook + Worksheets Board Realia Wall paper Aids Maps OHP Audio-visual Lap top aids Data show
Anticipated difficulties and reserve tasks What might go wrong? How to deal with it?
HINTS FOR LESSON MANAGEMENTI. Prepare more than you need : It is advisable to have an easily presented, light “reserve” activity ready in case of extra time .II. Similarly , note in advance which component(s) of the lesson you will sacrifice if you find yourself with too little time to do everything you have planned.III. Keep an eye on your time, make sure you are aware during the lesson how time is going relative to your plan. Include timing in the plan itself. It is difficult to judge intuitively how time is going when you are busy, and the smooth running of your lesson depends to some extent on proper timing .
IV. Do not leave the giving of homework to the last minute!At the end of the lesson learners attention is at a low ebb, and you may run out of time before you finish explaining .V. If you are doing group work, give instructions and make sure these are understood before dividing the class into groups and even, if practicable, before handing out materials. If you do it the other way around , people will be looking at each other and at the materials you have given them, and they are less likely to attend to what you have to say
Suggested format of a lesson planA. Goals: A unifying theme, an overall general purpose to accomplish by the end of the lesson period. e.g. Students will increase their familiarity with the conventions of telephone conversationsB. Objectives : Explicitly state what you want students to gain from the lesson. What students will do:a. Be sure you know what it is you want to accomplishb. Preserve the unity of your lessonc. Predetermine whether or not you are trying to accomplish too muchd. Evaluate students success at the end of, or after,
OBJECTIVES: Final learning outcomes that you will need to measure and evaluate• e.g. [ 1 ] Students will develop inner expectancy rules that enable them to predict and anticipate what someone else will say on the telephone.• [ 2 ] Students will solicit and receive information by requesting it over the phone
C.Materials & Equipment : Tape / tape recorder / poster / map / handouts / OHPD.Procedures : There is so much variation here that it is hard to give any "set recipes", but make sure your plan includes : a. An Oral Test b. An opening statement or activity as warm-up for the lesson itself c. A set of activities and techniques in which you have considered appropriate proportions of time for : -- Whole class work -- Group and / or pair work -- Teacher Talk -- Student Talk -- Teacher / student Talk d. Closure e. Homework f. Evaluation