Introduction to the_cardiovascular_system
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Introduction to the_cardiovascular_system






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Introduction to the_cardiovascular_system Introduction to the_cardiovascular_system Presentation Transcript

  • Introduction to the Cardiovascular System Chapter 13 Unit 4: Transport
  • Introduction
    • Primary function of the cardiovascular system is to pump blood throughout the body
      • Recall that blood is a transport medium for oxygen, nutrients, and wastes
    • CV System is a closed circuit
      • Blood is contained in blood vessels
  • Introduction
    • There are two main components to the CV system
      • Cardio - refers to the presence of the heart, which is the major pump for the body
        • Transporting 7,000 liters of blood every day.
        • Beats 2.5 billion times in a lifetime
      • Vascular - refers to the vessels that contain blood
        • Blood is forced from the heart into arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins in that order
        • Each blood cell circulates through the body’s CV system in about a minute
  • Circuits of the Cardiovascular System
    • The cardiovascular system can be divided into two circuits:
      • Pulmonary Circuit
        • Sends deoxygenated blood to lungs to pick up oxygen and unload carbon dioxide
        • Involves the right side of the heart
      • Systemic Circuit
        • Sends oxygenated blood and nutrients to all body cells and removes wastes
        • Involves the left side of the heart
  • Paths of Circulation
    • Pulmonary Circuit:
      • Blood in the right side of the heart is O 2 -poor
      • Right side of heart pumps blood into the pulmonary trunk/arteries that transport blood to the lungs
      • Once blood becomes rich in O 2 it returns to the left side of the heart through the pulmonary veins
  • Paths of Circulation
    • Systemic Circuit:
      • Blood returning to the heart from the lungs enters the left side of the heart
      • Heart pumps blood into the aorta , which branches into smaller and smaller arteries throughout the body
      • Blood returns to the right side of the heart via the superior and inferior vena cavae after unloading its supply of O 2 in the body’s cells
  • Paths of Circulation
    • Heart Animation
  • What would happen without circulation in the body?
  • Structural Characteristics of the Heart
    • The heart is:
      • Hollow
      • Cone-shaped
      • Muscular
      • Found inside the thoracic cavity
      • Rests on the diaphragm
  • Size and Location of the Heart
    • Varies in size and shape, but the average adult heart is about 14 cm long and 9 cm wide.
      • About the size of your fist.
    • Rests in an opening called the mediastinum
      • Bordered laterally by the lungs, posteriorly by the vertebral column, and anteriorly by the sternum
  • Coverings of the Heart
    • The heart is enclosed in a fibrous sack called the Pericardium (3 layers).
      • Consists of an outer bag…
        • Two layers
          • Fibrous Pericardium - outermost layer
          • Parietal Pericardium - deep to the fibrous p.
      • … and an inner bag
        • Visceral Pericardium - deepest layer, continuous with the outermost layer of the heart.
  • Coverings Continued
    • The fibrous pericardium serves as a point of attachment to:
      • Diaphragm, sternum, vertebral column, and large blood vessels emerging from the heart
    • The space between the parietal and visceral pericardia is called the pericardial cavity
      • Contains serous fluid secreted by the visceral pericardium
      • Fluid serves to reduce friction between the membranes as the heart moves within them
  • Walls of the Heart
    • The walls of the heart are composed of three distinct layers of tissue:
      • Epicardium
      • Myocardium
      • Endocardium
  • Epicardium
    • The Epicardium is the outermost layer of the heart muscle.
      • Continuous with the visceral pericardium and protects the heart by reducing friction
      • Composed of serous membranes (connective tissue), epithelium, and deeper adipose tissue
        • Adipose tissue is found predominantly along the paths of coronary arteries and cardiac veins that carry blood to the heart muscle itself
  • Myocardium
    • The myocardium is the thick middle layer of heart muscle.
      • Composed primarily of cardiac muscle tissue .
      • Used to pump blood out of the heart chambers
      • Myocardial muscle works continuously… needs a good supply of oxygen and sugar
  • Myocardium
    • These muscles are supplied by the coronary arteries , NOT THE BLOOD THAT IS IN THE CHAMBERS OF THE HEART!!!!!
      • Coronary arteries branch off the aorta immediately after leaving the heart
      • This is the #1 site for plaque build-up, causing myocardial infarction (heart attack)
  • Myocardium
  • Endocardium
    • The endocardium is the innermost layer of the heart muscle.
      • Consists of epithelium and connective tissue that contains many elastic and collagenous fibers (helps it stretch)
      • Contains Purkinje Fibers (aid in transmission of muscle impulses in heart)
      • Continuous with the inner linings of the blood vessels attached to the heart
  • Heart Chambers
    • The heart is divided into 4 hollow chambers-two on the right and two on the left:
      • The upper chambers are called Atria
        • Have thin walls and receive blood returning to the heart
      • The lower chambers are called Ventricles
        • Receive blood from the atria.
        • Thick walls that contract to force blood out of the heart into the arteries
          • The right and left chambers are separated from one another by a solid, wall-like Septum
  • Heart Chambers
    • The right side of the heart is part of the pulmonary circuit
      • Only deoxygenated blood passes through the right side
    • The left side of the heart is part of the systemic circuit
      • Only oxygenated blood passes through the left side
    • *O 2 -rich and O 2 -poor blood do not mix in healthy individuals
  • Valves of the Heart
    • Valves are flap-like tissue that prevents backflow of blood
      • Keeps blood going in one direction only
    • Four valves found in heart
      • Tricuspid valve - b/w R. atrium and R. vent.
      • Pulmonary valve - at exit of R. vent.
      • Mitral (bicuspid) valve - b/w L. atrium and L vent.
      • Aortic valve - at exit of L. vent.
  • Path of Blood Through the Heart
    • Blood that is low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide enters the right side of the heart and is pumped into the pulmonary circulation.
    • After blood is oxygenated in the lungs and some carbon dioxide is removed, it returns to the left side of the heart.
  • Greater Detail
    • Deoxygenated blood FROM body enters the right atrium through the vena cavae.
    • Blood passes through the tricuspid valve and enters the right ventricle
    • Blood moves through the pulmonary valve and into the pulmonary trunk and the pulmonary arteries
    • Blood enters the capillaries (aveoli) of the lungs
  • More Detail
    • Blood returns to the heart via the pulmonary veins into the left atrium
    • Passes through the mitral valve into the left ventricle
    • Blood moves through the aortic valve into the aorta and to the body