Introduction to Human A&P
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Introduction to Human A&P






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Introduction to Human A&P Introduction to Human A&P Presentation Transcript

  • Introduction to Human Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 1: Introduction to Human A&P Unit 1: Levels of Organization
  • Anatomy & Physiology
    • The functional knowledge of anatomy and physiology can be used to solve problems concerning the healthy or diseased body.
      • Anatomy : the branch of science that deals with the structure (morphology) of body parts
        • Their forms and how they are organized
      • Physiology : concerns that functions of body parts
        • What they do and how they do it
  • Anatomy Continued
    • Coined by Aristotle about 2300 years ago.
    • Derived from the Greek words meaning to cut ( tomy ) apart ( ana )
  • Anatomy’s Sub-Division
    • Gross Anatomy : Study of structure and the interrelation of the parts of the body by dissection
    • Microscopic Anatomy/Histology : Study of the tissues of the body under the microscope
    • Regional/Topographical Anatomy : Study of the body, region by region
    • Neuroanatomy : Study of the structure and organization of the nervous system
    • Surface Anatomy : Study of projections of the arrangement of internal structures on the surface of the body
    • Radiography Anatomy : Study of structure and function of the body using radiographic techniques
    • Embryology/Developmental Anatomy : Study of growth and development inside the uterus
    • Sectional Anatomy : Study of relationship of structure as visible in sections cut in different planes
  • Histology Testicle Adrenal Gland
  • Surface Anatomy
  • Sectional Anatomy
  • Gross Anatomy
  • What’s the Difference b/n Anatomy & Physiology
    • A&P are difficult to separate because the structures of body parts are so closely associated with their function.
      • A particular body part’s function depends on the way the part is constructed
        • Example : Organization of parts in the human hand with its long, jointed fingers makes it easy to grasp objects; hollow chambers of the heart are adapted to pump blood through tubular blood vessels; Mouth? Teeth?
  • What’s the Difference b/n Anatomy & Physiology
    • Form begets function.
      • This is another way of saying the same thing.
      • A body part’s function (physiology) is a direct result of its form (morphology/anatomy)
      • This is a major theme in organismal study
  • A&P: An Ongoing Ancient Field
    • Researchers frequently discover new information about physiology on the molecular level.
      • Human genome (biochemical instructions that run the human body): discovering the activities of out 35,000 genes is revealing new details of physiology
    • Although unusual, new parts of human anatomy are being discovered.
      • A small piece of connective tissue between the upper part of the spinal cord and a muscle at the back of the head was recently discovered.
  • Characteristics of Life Review
    • Movement
    • Responsiveness
    • Growth
    • Reproduction
    • Respiration
    • Digestion
    • Absorption
    • Circulation
    • Assimilation
    • Excretion
  • How are the Characteristics of Life Related to Metabolism?
    • Metabolism - The acquisition of food and utilization of its energy, plus excretion, constitute metabolism.
      • All the chemical reactions that occur in your cells constitute metabolism.
      • Your Homework: Tell me how each of the 10 char. of life relate to metabolism!
  • Maintenance of Life
    • The structures and functions of almost all body parts help maintain the life of the organism.
      • Exception: an organism’s reproductive structures which only ensure that its species will continue into the future
  • Requirements of Organisms/Life
    • Water, Foods, Oxygen, Heat, and Pressure.
      • Although organisms require all 5 of these factors, they alone are not enough to ensure survival.
      • Both the quantities and the qualities of such factors are also very important
  • Regulation for Survival
    • Body parts function only when the concentrations of water, nutrients, and oxygen and the conditions of heat and ambient pressure remain within certain narrow limits.
      • This condition of a stable internal environment is called Homeostasis .
  • Homeostasis
    • This internal stability of the body is best described as a dynamic equilibrium or a balanced change in which there is a certain set point or an average value for a given variable, and conditions fluctuate slightly around this point.
  • Homeostasis Continued
    • The functions of each body system aid in maintaining homeostasis or internal stability.
      • Much of your physiology takes place in order to maintain homeostasis.
  • Homeostatic Mechanisms Maintain Homeostasis
    • The body maintains homeostasis through a number of self-regulatory control systems or Homeostatic Mechanisms
    • Each homeostatic mechanism monitors an aspect of the internal environment and corrects any changes.
  • Components of Homeostatic Mechanisms
    • 1. Receptors : which provide information about specific conditions (stimuli) in the internal environment
    • 2. Set-Point : tells what a particular value should be (i.e. body temperature)
    • 3. Effectors : respond to altered conditions in the internal environment, attempting to correct them
  • How Does it Work?
    • If the receptors detect deviation from the set point , effectors are activated that can return conditions toward normal
    • As conditions return toward normal, the deviation form the set point progressively lessens, and the effectors are gradually shut down
  • Negative Feedback
    • Deviation from the set point is corrected
      • Moves in the opposite or negative direction
    • The correction reduces the action of the effectors
      • This prevents a correction from going too far
  • Biological Examples
    • Example 1 :
      • Regulation of body temperature
    • Example 2 :
      • Regulation of blood sugar levels
  • Blood sugar homeostasis
    • The Pancreas acts as the receptor
      • Detects blood sugar levels
      • Initiates mechanisms that control levels
    • The set point is 90mg/100mL
      • Low blood sugar is called hypoglycemia
      • High blood sugar is called hyperglycemia
  • Blood sugar homeostasis
    • Hyperglycemia
      • Pancreas detects high blood glucose
      • Produces a hormone called insulin , which circulates in the blood
      • High levels of insulin make the liver absorb glucose and store it as glycogen
      • Hyperglycemia subsides
  • Blood sugar homeostasis
    • Hypoglycemia
      • Pancreas detects low blood glucose
      • Produces a hormone called glucagon
      • High levels of glucagon make the liver convert stored glycogen back into glucose & release it into the blood
      • Hypoglycemia is corrected
  • Positive Feedback
    • Deviation from a set point is amplified
      • Exponential growth
      • Rare in the human body
      • Ex: Blood clotting, childbirth, milk production
  • Important Note!
    • Homeostatic mechanisms maintain a relatively constant internal environment, yet physiological values may vary slightly in a person from time to time or form one individual to the next.
      • Both normal values for an individual and the normal range for the general population are clinically important.
  • Typical Homeostatic Values
    • Body Temperature: 98.6 o F (37 o C)
    • Blood glucose: 90mg/100mL
    • Blood pressure: 120mmHg/80mmHg
    • Heart rate: 70-80bpm