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Human organization
Human organization
Human organization
Human organization
Human organization
Human organization
Human organization
Human organization
Human organization
Human organization
Human organization
Human organization
Human organization
Human organization
Human organization
Human organization
Human organization
Human organization
Human organization
Human organization
Human organization
Human organization
Human organization
Human organization
Human organization
Human organization
Human organization
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Human organization

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  • 1. Human Organization Chapter 1: Introduction to Human A&P Unit 1: Levels of Organization
  • 2. Human Organization
    • The body can be considered conceptually at nine structural levels:
      • Chemical (atom, molecule, macromolecule)
        • -Organelle
          • -Cell
            • -Tissue
            • -Organ
      • -Organ System
      • -Complete Organism
  • 3.  
  • 4. “The Break Down”
    • Chemicals consists of invisible particles called atoms , which join to form molecules .
      • Small molecules can combine to form larger molecules called macromolecules .
        • Carbohydrates
        • Lipids
        • Proteins
        • Nucleic Acids
  • 5. “The Break Down” Cont.
    • The basic unit of structure and function is a cell (composed of various macromolecules)
      • Human cells contain organelles that carry out specific activities
    • When cells are organized into layers or masses that have a common function they become tissues .
  • 6. “The Break Down” Cont.
    • Groups of different tissues that interact form Organs
      • Groups of organs that function closely together comprise Organ Systems .
        • Organ systems make up an Organism.
  • 7.  
  • 8. Important Note!
    • Body parts can be thought of as having different levels of organization:
      • i.e. atomic level, molecular level, cellular level, etc…
    • Body parts vary in complexity from one level to the next:
      • i.e. atoms are less complex than molecules, molecules are less complex than organelles, tissues are less complex than organs, and so forth
  • 9. Anatomical Positioning and Directional Terms
    • Directional terms always refer to the body in the anatomic position, which is a person standing erect with the feet facing forward, arms hanging to the sides, and palms facing forward with the thumbs to the outside
  • 10.  
  • 11.  
  • 12. Body Planes
    • Medical professionals often refer to sections of the body in terms of anatomical planes (flat surfaces)
      • These planes are imaginary lines-vertical or horizontal-drawn through the upright body. Think of them as cutting the body into sections.
        • The terms are used to describe a specific body part.
  • 13.  
  • 14. Sagittal Section
  • 15. Coronal Section
  • 16. Transverse Section
  • 17. Organization of the Human Body
    • A human body is composed of parts within parts, which vary in complexity.
      • Its major features include several body cavities, layers of membranes within these cavities, and a variety of organ systems.
  • 18. Body Divisions
    • Human organization can be divided into 2 portions:
      • 1. Appendicular Portion : upper &
      • lower limbs
      • 2. Axial Portion : head, neck & trunk
      • -Can be divided into 2 main body
      • cavities:
      • - Dorsal Cavity
      • - Ventral Cavity
  • 19.  
  • 20. Dorsal Body Cavity
    • Has 2 main divisions:
      • Cranial Cavity : the space inside the bony skull
      • 2. Spinal Cavity : extends from the cranial cavity nearly to the end of the vertebral column
  • 21. Ventral Cavity
    • The cavity is much larger than the dorsal cavity, and contains all the structures within the chest and abdomen.
      • 2 subdivisions:
        • 1. Thoracic Cavity
        • 2. Abdominopelvic Cavity
  • 22. Thoracic Cavity
    • A superior cavity separated from the rest of the ventral cavity by a dome-shaped muscle called the Diaphragm .
      • The lungs, heart, trachea, esophagus, and thymus gland are found in this cavity.
  • 23. Abdominopelvic Cavity
    • Inferior to the diaphragm.
      • Some anatomists separate this cavity into the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity
        • Abdominal Cavity : contains the stomach, liver, intestines, colon and other organs.
        • Pelvic Cavity : contains the reproductive organs, bladder, and rectum
  • 24.  
  • 25. Abdominal Cavity
    • The abdomen can be divided into four quadrants or nine regions.
      • These division are useful for locating internal organs or describing the location of a pain or tumor.
  • 26.  
  • 27.  

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