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Human organization

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  • 1. Human Organization Chapter 1: Introduction to Human A&P Unit 1: Levels of Organization
  • 2. Human Organization
    • The body can be considered conceptually at nine structural levels:
      • Chemical (atom, molecule, macromolecule)
        • -Organelle
          • -Cell
            • -Tissue
            • -Organ
      • -Organ System
      • -Complete Organism
  • 3.  
  • 4. “The Break Down”
    • Chemicals consists of invisible particles called atoms , which join to form molecules .
      • Small molecules can combine to form larger molecules called macromolecules .
        • Carbohydrates
        • Lipids
        • Proteins
        • Nucleic Acids
  • 5. “The Break Down” Cont.
    • The basic unit of structure and function is a cell (composed of various macromolecules)
      • Human cells contain organelles that carry out specific activities
    • When cells are organized into layers or masses that have a common function they become tissues .
  • 6. “The Break Down” Cont.
    • Groups of different tissues that interact form Organs
      • Groups of organs that function closely together comprise Organ Systems .
        • Organ systems make up an Organism.
  • 7.  
  • 8. Important Note!
    • Body parts can be thought of as having different levels of organization:
      • i.e. atomic level, molecular level, cellular level, etc…
    • Body parts vary in complexity from one level to the next:
      • i.e. atoms are less complex than molecules, molecules are less complex than organelles, tissues are less complex than organs, and so forth
  • 9. Anatomical Positioning and Directional Terms
    • Directional terms always refer to the body in the anatomic position, which is a person standing erect with the feet facing forward, arms hanging to the sides, and palms facing forward with the thumbs to the outside
  • 10.  
  • 11.  
  • 12. Body Planes
    • Medical professionals often refer to sections of the body in terms of anatomical planes (flat surfaces)
      • These planes are imaginary lines-vertical or horizontal-drawn through the upright body. Think of them as cutting the body into sections.
        • The terms are used to describe a specific body part.
  • 13.  
  • 14. Sagittal Section
  • 15. Coronal Section
  • 16. Transverse Section
  • 17. Organization of the Human Body
    • A human body is composed of parts within parts, which vary in complexity.
      • Its major features include several body cavities, layers of membranes within these cavities, and a variety of organ systems.
  • 18. Body Divisions
    • Human organization can be divided into 2 portions:
      • 1. Appendicular Portion : upper &
      • lower limbs
      • 2. Axial Portion : head, neck & trunk
      • -Can be divided into 2 main body
      • cavities:
      • - Dorsal Cavity
      • - Ventral Cavity
  • 19.  
  • 20. Dorsal Body Cavity
    • Has 2 main divisions:
      • Cranial Cavity : the space inside the bony skull
      • 2. Spinal Cavity : extends from the cranial cavity nearly to the end of the vertebral column
  • 21. Ventral Cavity
    • The cavity is much larger than the dorsal cavity, and contains all the structures within the chest and abdomen.
      • 2 subdivisions:
        • 1. Thoracic Cavity
        • 2. Abdominopelvic Cavity
  • 22. Thoracic Cavity
    • A superior cavity separated from the rest of the ventral cavity by a dome-shaped muscle called the Diaphragm .
      • The lungs, heart, trachea, esophagus, and thymus gland are found in this cavity.
  • 23. Abdominopelvic Cavity
    • Inferior to the diaphragm.
      • Some anatomists separate this cavity into the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity
        • Abdominal Cavity : contains the stomach, liver, intestines, colon and other organs.
        • Pelvic Cavity : contains the reproductive organs, bladder, and rectum
  • 24.  
  • 25. Abdominal Cavity
    • The abdomen can be divided into four quadrants or nine regions.
      • These division are useful for locating internal organs or describing the location of a pain or tumor.
  • 26.  
  • 27.