Human organization


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Human organization

  1. 1. Human Organization Chapter 1: Introduction to Human A&P Unit 1: Levels of Organization
  2. 2. Human Organization <ul><li>The body can be considered conceptually at nine structural levels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical (atom, molecule, macromolecule) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Organelle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Cell </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Tissue </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Organ </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Organ System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Complete Organism </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. “The Break Down” <ul><li>Chemicals consists of invisible particles called atoms , which join to form molecules . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small molecules can combine to form larger molecules called macromolecules . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lipids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleic Acids </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 5. “The Break Down” Cont. <ul><li>The basic unit of structure and function is a cell (composed of various macromolecules) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human cells contain organelles that carry out specific activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When cells are organized into layers or masses that have a common function they become tissues . </li></ul>
  5. 6. “The Break Down” Cont. <ul><li>Groups of different tissues that interact form Organs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups of organs that function closely together comprise Organ Systems . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organ systems make up an Organism. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 8. Important Note! <ul><li>Body parts can be thought of as having different levels of organization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. atomic level, molecular level, cellular level, etc… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Body parts vary in complexity from one level to the next: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. atoms are less complex than molecules, molecules are less complex than organelles, tissues are less complex than organs, and so forth </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. Anatomical Positioning and Directional Terms <ul><li>Directional terms always refer to the body in the anatomic position, which is a person standing erect with the feet facing forward, arms hanging to the sides, and palms facing forward with the thumbs to the outside </li></ul>
  8. 12. Body Planes <ul><li>Medical professionals often refer to sections of the body in terms of anatomical planes (flat surfaces) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These planes are imaginary lines-vertical or horizontal-drawn through the upright body. Think of them as cutting the body into sections. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The terms are used to describe a specific body part. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 14. Sagittal Section
  10. 15. Coronal Section
  11. 16. Transverse Section
  12. 17. Organization of the Human Body <ul><li>A human body is composed of parts within parts, which vary in complexity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Its major features include several body cavities, layers of membranes within these cavities, and a variety of organ systems. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 18. Body Divisions <ul><li>Human organization can be divided into 2 portions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Appendicular Portion : upper & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> lower limbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Axial Portion : head, neck & trunk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Can be divided into 2 main body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> cavities: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Dorsal Cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Ventral Cavity </li></ul></ul>
  14. 20. Dorsal Body Cavity <ul><li>Has 2 main divisions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cranial Cavity : the space inside the bony skull </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Spinal Cavity : extends from the cranial cavity nearly to the end of the vertebral column </li></ul></ul>
  15. 21. Ventral Cavity <ul><li>The cavity is much larger than the dorsal cavity, and contains all the structures within the chest and abdomen. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 subdivisions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Thoracic Cavity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Abdominopelvic Cavity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 22. Thoracic Cavity <ul><li>A superior cavity separated from the rest of the ventral cavity by a dome-shaped muscle called the Diaphragm . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The lungs, heart, trachea, esophagus, and thymus gland are found in this cavity. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 23. Abdominopelvic Cavity <ul><li>Inferior to the diaphragm. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some anatomists separate this cavity into the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abdominal Cavity : contains the stomach, liver, intestines, colon and other organs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pelvic Cavity : contains the reproductive organs, bladder, and rectum </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 25. Abdominal Cavity <ul><li>The abdomen can be divided into four quadrants or nine regions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These division are useful for locating internal organs or describing the location of a pain or tumor. </li></ul></ul>