Blood

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Blood

  1. 1. Blood Chapter 12
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Essential for transport of substances between body cells and external environment </li></ul><ul><li>More than just a liquid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipids </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Blood <ul><li>General facts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult males have 6 qts of blood (1.5 gal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult females have closer to 3.5 qts (.8 gal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps maintain homeostasis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ion and water transport throughout the body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat distribution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Movement of food </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Parts of Blood <ul><li>Plasma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approx. 55% by volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also find proteins, carbs, hormones, vitamins, and cellular waste here </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Parts of Blood <ul><li>Formed elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AKA: Hematocrit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The other 45% of blood volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cellular parts of blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Red Blood Cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>White Blood Cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Platelets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*All three are formed in red bone marrow </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Blood Cells <ul><li>Red Blood Cells </li></ul>
  7. 7. Blood Cells <ul><li>Red Blood Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AKA: Erythrocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shape = biconcave discs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increases surface area for better O 2 uptake </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helps RBCs squeeze through small vessels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When mature, RBCs lack a nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Live about 120 days </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Blood Cells <ul><li>Red Blood Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why Red??? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contain hemoglobin protein </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin has iron in it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin has a high affinity for oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When iron and oxygen combine you get a red color </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Blood Cells <ul><li>The color of blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Healthy individuals = pink </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals with breathing problem = blue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When you don’t get enough O 2 to your tissues = hypoxia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypo - below </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ox - oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The blue color is called cyanotic </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Blood Cells <ul><li>Red Blood Cell Count </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of RBCs in a mm 3 of blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary function of RBCs = carrying oxygen from the lungs to the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red blood cell count is tied closely with blood’s oxygen-carrying capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too few RBCs or too little iron for the hemoglobin in RBCs = anemia </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Blood Cells <ul><li>Red Blood Cell Production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Happens in the red bone marrow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled through a Negative feedback mechanism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receptor = Liver sensing a lack of oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effector = Liver producing hormone erythropoietin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effect = Bone marrow responds by producing more RBCs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Blood Cells <ul><li>Red Blood Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sickle-Cell Anemia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic disorder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin is misshapen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RBCs are stiff and don’t pass through vessels easily. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Blood Cells <ul><li>White Blood Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AKA: Leukocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major part of immune system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two major groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Granulocytes - have granules in cytoplasm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neutrophils - eat bacteria </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eosinophils - kill parasites </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basophils - control blood flow to infected area </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agranulocytes - no grains in cytoplasm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monocytes - eat bacteria </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphocytes - produce antibodies (proteins) that attach to and destroy foreign bodies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Granulocyte
  14. 15. Blood Cells <ul><li>Platelets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AKA: Thrombocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not complete cells; fragments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life span of about 10 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major component of blood clotting </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Blood Cells <ul><li>Leukemia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cancer affecting leukocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive number of WBCs are produced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WBCs are immature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t fight infection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra WBCs crowd out platelets and RBCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leukemia patients often bruise easily </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some suffer from anemia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatments include chemotherapy, radiation, or even bone marrow transplant </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Plasma <ul><li>92% water </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma Proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Globulins - help transport lipids and fat-soluble vitamins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibrinogen - used in clot formation (discussed later) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Albumins - help hold water in the vessels </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Plasma <ul><li>Carries Nutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absorbed by intestines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transported to cells for energy… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>… or to liver for storage as glycogen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remember homeostatic mechanism from Ch1 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taken to liver for storage or breakdown into energy-rendering molecules </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Plasma <ul><li>Carries Nutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent source of energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrophobic (problem???) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must combine with globulins to be transported </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Form a complex called a lipoprotein </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Plasma <ul><li>Carries Nutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cholesterol levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dieticians recognize different types of lipids in the blood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low-density lipids (LDL) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily cholesterol with little protein </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Bad” cholesterol </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High-density lipids (HDL) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Little cholesterol with large protein molecule </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Good” cholesterol </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Plasma <ul><li>Carries Nutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urea (primary component of urine) and carbon dioxide dissolve in plasma </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrolytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A term that refers to any salt (ion) dissolved in plasma </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes sodium, calcium, phosphate, potassium, etc… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 22. When you get cut <ul><li>Hemostasis is the stoppage of bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Three steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood vessel spasms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Platelet plug formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coagulation </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Hemostasis <ul><li>Blood vessel spasm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small vessels contract when damaged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Platelets release serotonin , contracting smooth muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short term fix. Waiting for a platelet plug to form… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Platelet Plug </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Platelets stick to rough surface at break </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All that is needed in small cuts </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Hemostasis <ul><li>Coagulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End result = a full blood clot (scab) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clotting factors in blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some promote coagulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Others inhibit it (these dominate when no cut) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two factors you need to know (and their function) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fibrinogen / Fibrin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prothrombin / Thrombin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood Clot Flow Chart (pg 316) </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Hemostasis <ul><li>Coagulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normally, blood doesn’t clot in healthy vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moving to fast to form clot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An abnormal blood clot in a healthy vessel is called a thrombus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a thrombus dislodges and moves through vessels = embolus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hemophilia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic condition in which one or more of the clotting agents are damaged. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Blood Types <ul><li>There are four different blood groups in the human population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type B </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type AB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type O </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different based on antigens found on RBCs. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Blood Types <ul><li>Type A blood = A antigens on RBCs </li></ul><ul><li>Type B blood = B antigens on RBCs </li></ul><ul><li>AB = ? </li></ul><ul><li>O = ? </li></ul>
  27. 28. Agglutination <ul><li>Agglutination is the clumping of RBCs following an improper blood transfusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results in major complications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be fatal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Caused by response by immune system </li></ul>
  28. 29. Agglutination <ul><li>When you are born, lymphocytes produce antibodies that recognize foreign invaders </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals with Type A blood have antibodies that recognize (and clot) Tyep B blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anit-B antibodies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Type B blood have anti-A antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>Lock and Key recognition </li></ul>
  29. 30. Blood Types
  30. 31. Rh Types <ul><li>Named after the rhesus monkey, in which it was discovered </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are either Rh+ or Rh- </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals who are Rh+ have antigens on their RBCs. </li></ul><ul><li>You DO NOT make antibodies for this antigen at birth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be exposed to the antigen…then make the antibody </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Rh Type & Pregnancy

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