Head–On Positioning: A strategy that presents one brand is an alternative equal to or better than another brand (e.g. Apple or Pepsi Challenge).
Brand Leadership Positioning: A strategy that states a product is successful, a market leader, and highly acceptable to a majority of users (e.g. Visa and Coca-Cola). Coke has used phrases such as “Enjoy”, "Always Coca–Cola", and “Coke is It” to communicate its dominant position. A leader has the resources available to be aggressive in terms of marketing.
Product Differentiation Positioning: A strategy that focuses on the unique attributes or benefits of a product (e.g. Zest Hydrating Effects soap “hydrates” the skin and Head and Shoulders targets you hair and scalp needs).
Technical Innovation Positioning: A strategy that dwells on technical leadership in product development. For example, Apple offers easy to use yet technologically-advanced communications devices—a positioning strategy in stark contrast to its competitors.
Lifestyle Positioning: Communications based on the lifestyle of a target market. The product "fits" the lifestyle of the user (e.g. GAP, Budweiser, Calvin Klein, Guess jeans) and advertising appeals such as love, fear, status and adventure are used to attract attention. What brand is this????
In groups – roll the dice. Create a slogan / campaign idea that uses positioning for Loyalist.
Creating the Message: Chap 14 Message Appeal Techniques:
Humor: The message is presented in a light-hearted manner.
Comparison: Important attributes of competing products are compared (one brand is shown as preferable). Comparisons can be direct or indirect.
Emotion: A mood is created to arouse feelings in the audience.
Lifestyle: A brand is associated with the lifestyle of a certain target audience (e.g. messages promoting beer and alcohol often depict a certain style of living).
Sex: Sexual appeals have become increasingly popular to sell a variety of products (e.g. candy bars and gum to personal care products and perfume). If sex is used, it should fit with the product and lifestyle of the target audience.
Celebrity Endorsement: A celebrity presents the key benefits of the product (the advertiser tries to capitalize on the star status of the presenter). Advertisers must remember that stars can fade quickly or incur negative publicity.
Testimonial: A typical user of the product presents the benefits. Often, a third party enhances the credibility of a message (e.g. Canadian Dental Association).
Product Demonstrations: Ads that stress product performance (the key benefit). The product is shown at work, or the product is presented as a hero that resolves an ugly problem.