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Rise of Democracy

Rise of Democracy

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  • 1. The Rise of Democracy2000 B.C. Athens Rome Middle Ages Renaissance Reformation Enlightenment American Revolution A.D. 1800
  • 2. The Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome
  • 3. THE GREEKS Athens, Greece (2000 B.C. - 500 B.C.) powerful city-state citizens* had rights and responsibilities *Citizenship denied to women, slaves and foreign residents. Direct Democracy - citizens make laws directly Pericles (led Athens 461 B.C. - 429 B.C.)
  • 4. The Greek PhilosophersNatural Laws - all things in the natural world follow predictable patterns Reason & Logic - respect for human intelligence
  • 5. The Greek PhilosophersSocrates (469 B.C. - 399 B.C.) Socratic Method - question/answer Plato (428 B.C. - 348 B.C.) The Republic ideal form of government: Philosopher Kings The intelligent should rule. feared mob rule Aristotle (384 B.C. - 322 B.C.) Wrote Politics ideal form of government: properly educated middle class Philosopher Kings give advice but remain independent S P A
  • 6. The Romans Roman Contributions (509 B.C.) Republic - A form of government in which power rests with citizens who elect leaders to make decisions. Written Legal Code – applied equally to all citizens
  • 7. Roman Law Rome brought conquered lands into the Roman Empire and tried to rule with laws based on reason and justice. 4 Principles of Roman Law All citizens had the right to equal treatment under the law A person was considered innocent until proven guilty The burden of proof rests with the accuser, not the accused. Any law that seems unreasonable, may be set aside.
  • 8. Greeks vs. Romans Quick WriteQuick Write List the similarities and differences between theList the similarities and differences between the Greeks’ and RomansGreeks’ and Romans’’ view of government.view of government. Who had a bigger influence on our society today?Who had a bigger influence on our society today? Provide evidence.Provide evidence.
  • 9. Possible Thoughts Similarities – Both set lasting standards in government, philosophy, and thought. Believed that an individual is a citizen in a state rather than the subject of a ruler. Differences – Greece is a direct democracy while Rome is a republic. Greece developed democracy, the Romans added representative government. Influences Today – We elect representatives to make decisions on our behalf, but we have great influence from Athenian Democracy. For example, political power for all citizens, three branches of government (executive, legislative, and judicial). Plato’s Philosopher Kings can be seen in the Enlightenment through Enlightened Despots.
  • 10. Judeo-Christian Tradition
  • 11. Judeo-Christian Tradition Greeks & Romans Hebrews You have dignity because of your ability to think (REASON) You have dignity because you’re a child of God Scripture teaches us we are created in His image
  • 12. Judeo-Christian Tradition Legacy of Judeo-Christian Religions Written legal code (Ten Commandments) Duty of the individual within the community Worth of the individual Equality of people before God Evangelical - Christians spread their beliefs across the Roman Empire
  • 13. Think-Pair-ShareThink-Pair-Share How did the Judeo-ChristianHow did the Judeo-Christian tradition and the legacy of Greektradition and the legacy of Greek and Rome impact democraticand Rome impact democratic thinking?thinking?
  • 14. Possible Thoughts The right and worth of the individual Philosophical and ethical values that shape the types of governments and expressions of democracy that develop The need for justice and equality Representation and citizen participation are important features of democracies around the world
  • 15. The Middle Ages Feudalism & The Magna Carta
  • 16. The Middle Ages Feudal Social Pyramid King Powerful Lords Lesser Lords Knights Serfs Fiefs (land grants) Nobles (worked for king in return from protection and land) ystem of rigid class distinctions and a static or unchanging way of
  • 17. The King Loses Power King John War with France ($ & land) Raised taxes King John forced to sign the Magna Carta King vs. Nobles
  • 18. The King Loses Power Magna Carta (1215) Limited Monarchy Permission from Parliament necessary to raise taxes King must respect the law Why is this document important?
  • 19. Democracy Develops in England Mary II & William III of Orange
  • 20. Democracy Develops in England The Glorious Revolution King James II - Catholic Parliament supported his Protestant daughter Mary 1689 Mary and William of Orange crowned co-rulers of England Constitutional Monarchy Power of the ruler is restricted by the constitution English Bill of Rights Limited power of the monarchy Liberties essential to the people
  • 21. The Renaissance
  • 22. The Renaissance The Middle Ages War/Plague Fewer laborers Higher wages Fewer business opportunities More art ex. Medici family http://www.history.com/videos/humanism-triggers-the-renaissance#humanism- triggers-the-renaissance
  • 23. The Renaissance Renaissance...(1300-1600) Rejected the Medieval view that life on earth was merely preparation for life after death – Religion replaced with a humanistic view of life (Worldly/Secular) – Focus on the individual http://www.history.com/topics/italian-renaissance/videos#the-renaissance
  • 24. The Ideal Renaissance Man/Woman A young man should be well educated in Greek and Latin classics. He should be charming, polite, and witty. He should be able to dance, write poetry, sing, and play music. In addition, he should be physically graceful and strong; a skilled rider, wrestler, and swordsman, Upper class women of the Renaissance were as well educated as the men. Women too were expected to know the classics, to write well, to paint, to make music, to dance, and be charming. Yet they were not expected to seek fame as men did. They were expected to inspire poetry and art but rarely create it.
  • 25. ...the ideal Renaissance man and woman...
  • 26. Medieval Art vs. Renaissance Art
  • 27. The Reformation
  • 28. The Reformation: Causes • Renaissance emphasis on the individual • Corruption in the Catholic Church • Gutenberg’s Printing Press
  • 29. Martin Luther • Martin Luther – Believed that faith alone was the key to salvation • Catholic Church – Selling Indulgences (pardons) ing an indulgence was like purchasing your ticket to hea
  • 30. The Reformation • Martin Luther reacts...(October 1517) – 95 Theses • Salvation only by faith and good works • Teachings based only on the bible • People of faith are equal and do not need priests to interpret the bible http://www.history.com/videos/martin-luther-sparks-a-revolution#martin-luther-sparks-a-revolution
  • 31. The Reformation • (1520) Martin Luther is excommunicated • Luther and his followers become “Lutherans” – Many northern German princes supported Lutheranism and signed a protest against others who stayed loyal to the Church (1529) – Protestant: non-Catholic Christians Reformation Rap: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dt5AJr0wls0&feature=related
  • 32. England Becomes Protestant • King Henry VIII – Devout Catholic, but the Pope would not annul his marriage (1527) – Reformation Parliament (1529) • Ended the Pope’s power in England and Replaced it with the King’s – Anglican Church English Reformation: http://www.history.com/videos/protestand-reformation-english-reformation#protestand- reformation-english-reformation
  • 33. Henry’s Wives Catherine of Aragon Anne Boleyn Jane Seymour Anne of Cleves Catherine Howard Catherine Parr
  • 34. Why it matters... The Renaissance and Reformation’s questioning of ideas and authority laid the groundwork for the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment!
  • 35. The Scientific Revolution
  • 36. The Scientific Revolution Renaissance Reformation Rebirth of learning: People questioned old ways of thinking Religious Movement: Forced people to challenge their views on God and salvation Scholars began challenging old ideas Exploring Africa, Asia, Americas New inventions spread ideas
  • 37. The Scientific Revolution • New ways of thinking... – The Scientific Method • Observation • Question • Hypothesis • Experimentation • Conclusion
  • 38. The Scientific Revolution Heliocentric (Copernicus) - sun is the center of the universe Geocentric (The Medieval View ) - earth is the center of the universe
  • 39. The Scientific Revolution • Galileo Galilei – Telescope – Starry Messenger (1610) • Supported the laws of Copernicus • Against the teachings of the church – “Psalm 93:1 “the world is firmly established and cannot be moved” – Ecclesiastes 1:5 “And the sun rises and sets and returns to its place” – Galileo stands trial for heresy(1632)
  • 40. Galileo vs. The Catholic Church “With sincere heart and unpretended faith I abjure, curse, and detest the aforesaid errors and heresies and also every other error...contrary to the Holy Church, and I swear that in the future I will never again saw or assert...anything that might cause a similar suspicion towards me.”
  • 41. The Scientific Revolution • Isaac Newton – Gravity - earth has power to draw objects to it • The same force ruled motion of the planets and all matter on earth and in space http://www.history.com/videos/isaac-newton-and-a-scientific-revolution# isaac-newton-and-a-scientific-revolution
  • 42. The Scientific Revolution • The Scientific Revolution spreads... – Microscope (1590) – Mercery Barometer (1634) – Thermometer (1714) – “On the Structure of the Human Body” (1543) – Smallpox Vaccine (Late 1700s)
  • 43. The Scientific Revolution Ideas from the Renaissance, Reformation and Scientific Revolution brought... • A Secular outlook of life • Critical look at society in an effort to improve it • Everything tested by the standard of reason
  • 44. The Enlightenment in Europe Chapter 6 Section 2 & 3
  • 45. Enlightenment in Europe • Enlightenment (mid 1700s)- An intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of the individual to solve problems. “The Age of Reason”
  • 46. Enlightenment in Europe • Thomas Hobbes – “Leviathan” (1651) • Basic nature of man is bad • Social Contract - People agree to give up rights to a strong ruler in order for security. • Absolute ruler is best
  • 47. Enlightenment in Europe • John Locke – Basic nature of man is good – All men have natural rights • Life, Liberty, Property – Government must protect these rights – Government must have consent of the governed
  • 48. Thomas Hobbes John Locke basic nature of man is bad basic nature of man is good people enter a social contract where they give up freedom in exchange for security all men have natural rights (life, liberty, property) best government is one where the ruler is absolute government is responsible for protecting rights - limited gov. once entered, a contract can’t be broken, even if the ruler is a tyrant government must have the consent of the governed
  • 49. Enlightenment in Europe • Mary Wollstonecraft – “A Vindication of the Rights of Women” (1792) – Education for women – Women in medicine and politics • Salons - Women of Paris held social gatherings with philosophers, writers, artists, and scientists
  • 50. Enlightenment in Europe • Philosophs (France)- Thinkers who believe reason should be applied to all aspects of life – Just like Newton applied reason to discover physical laws in the field of science, reason should be used to discover the natural laws that govern society.
  • 51. Enlightenment in Europe • Voltaire (Francois Marie Arouet) – Tolerance - freedom of religion – Satire against clergy, aristocracy and government – Freedom of speech... “I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it.”
  • 52. Enlightenment in Europe • Baron de Montesquieu – Separation of powers • English example: – Executive - enforce law – Legislative - make law – Judicial - interpret law “Power should be a check to power.”
  • 53. Enlightenment in Europe • Jean Jacques Rousseau – In a state of nature... • Man is good • Man has natural rights • All men are equal – Society corrupts us • To preserve man’s freedom a government must have consent of the governed & direct democracy “Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains.”
  • 54. Enlightenment in Europe • Denis Diderot – Encyclopedia (1751) • Helped to spread enlightenment ideas – Banned by the Catholic Church
  • 55. Enlightenment in Europe • Adam Smith – Laissez Faire - allowing business to run free of government control – Invisible Hand - self interest & competition can lead to economic prosperity
  • 56. Enlightenment in Europe • Enlightened Despots (Absolute rulers used their power to bring social and political change) – Catherine The Great (Russia 1762-1796) • absolute rule w/limited reforms
  • 57. Enlightenment in Europe • Lives of the majority... – Peasants – Serfdom • Not until the 1800s would the lives of the majority change.
  • 58. Why it matters... Enlightenment thinkers challenged divine right of monarchs, the union of church and state, and the existence of social classes... Their theories inspired American and French revolutionary movements
  • 59. The American Revolution Chapter 6 Section 4
  • 60. Britain & Its American Colonies Colonies distinct but all shared a sense of independence from Britain
  • 61. Britain & Its American Colonies • Navigation Acts (1651) • French and Indian War (1754) • The Stamp Act (1765) – Taxation w/o representation • The Boston Massacre (1770) • The Boston Tea Party (1773)
  • 62. The American Revolution • July 1776 Second Continental Congress – The Declaration of Independence • Thomas Jefferson Which enlightenment philosophers influenced Jefferson?
  • 63. The Deceleration of Independence “When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinion of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
  • 64. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, and that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or abolish it, and to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness...”
  • 65. The American Revolution • Britain vs. The Colonists – Stronger army vs. Motivation & French alliance Treaty of Paris (1781)- Americans win their independence!
  • 66. Constitution of the United States “We the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution of the United States of America.” James Madison “Father of the Constitution”
  • 67. Constitution of the United States • Constitutional Convention (1787) – Representative Government – Federal System • Power divided between national and state governments – Three Branches of Government • Legislative, Executive, Judicial – Bill of Rights Romans, Locke, Rousseau, Hobbes Montesquieu Voltaire, Locke, Rousseau, English Bill of Rights, Magna Carta